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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Les L,D‐transpeptidases, cibles des carbapénèmes chez Mycobacterium tuberculosis / The L,D-transpeptidases, the targets of carbapenems in Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Cordillot, Mathilde 20 November 2013 (has links)
Mycobacterium tuberculosis est responsable de 8,7 millions de nouveaux cas de tuberculose et de 1,4 millions de décès en 2011. L’émergence de souches résistantes aux deux antituberculeux majeurs, isoniazide et rifampicine, (MDR) et aux antibiotiques de seconde ligne (XDR), ainsi que la difficulté d’éradiquer les formes « dormantes » du bacille nécessitent la recherche de nouveaux antibiotiques. Les β-lactamines n’ont jamais été utilisées en thérapeutique car M. tuberculosis produit une β-lactamase à large spectre, BlaC. Cependant, l’association d’une β-lactamine appartenant à la classe des carbapénèmes, le méropénème, et d’un inhibiteur de β-lactamase, l’acide clavulanique, est active sur M. tuberculosis incluant des souches XDR. Notre objectif a été de caractériser les cibles des carbapénèmes qui sont atypiques chez M. tuberculosis, parce que le peptidoglycane de cette bactérie contient majoritairement (80%) des ponts interpeptidiques formés par une classe particulière de transpeptidases, les L,D-transpeptidases. Nous avons comparé les cinq L,D-transpeptidases de M. tuberculosis au niveau de leur activité in vitro dans la formation des ponts interpeptidiques du peptidoglycane et dans la réaction d’inactivation par les carbapénèmes. Nous avons ainsi pu montrer que les cinq L,D-transpeptidases sont fonctionnelles in vitro. LdtMt1, LdtMt2, LdtMt4 et LdtMt5 sont capables de former des ponts interpeptidiques du peptidoglycane reliant l’acide aminé en position 3 d’un substrat tétrapeptidique donneur à l’acide aminé en position 3 d’un substrat tétrapeptidique accepteur. Ces mêmes enzymes peuvent également utiliser la D-méthionine comme accepteur dans une réaction d’échange de la D-Ala4 du substrat tétrapeptidique. LdtMt1, LdtMt2, LdtMt3 et LdtMt4 forment un complexe covalent avec les carbapénèmes. La réaction d’inactivation des L,D-transpeptidases par les carbapénèmes se déroulent en deux étapes. Dans un premier temps, un intermédiaire covalent réversible est formé (constante catalytique k1) puis la deuxième étape aboutit à la formation de l’acylenzyme (constante catalytique k2). La détermination des constantes catalytiques d’inactivation k1 et k2 a révélé d’importantes différences entre les carbapénèmes. Excepté pour LdtMt1, l’imipénème inactive plus rapidement les L,D-transpeptidases que les autres carbapénèmes suggérant que des modifications de la chaine latérale pourraient être envisagées pour optimiser l’activité « anti-mycobactérienne » de cette classe de β-lactamines. Nous avons en parallèle initié l’étude de la régulation des L,D-transpeptidases dans différentes conditions de culture ce qui permettra à terme d’identifier les L,D-transpeptidases essentielles pour la croissance et la persistance de M. tuberculosis. Ce travail pourrait déboucher sur l’identification de cibles essentielles permettant l’éradication des formes dormantes de M. tuberculosis qui sont très difficile à traiter. / Mycobacterium tuberculosis is responsible for 8.7 million of new cases of tuberculosis (TB) and 1.4 million of deaths in 2011. The emergence of strains resistant to the two first-line anti-TB drugs, isoniazid and rifampicin, (MDR), to second line-drugs (XDR) and the difficult to kill dormant forms of the bacilli require the discovery of new anti-TB antibiotics. β-lactams are usually not considered for tuberculosis treatment since M. tuberculosis produces a broad-spectrum β-lactamase, BlaC. However, the combination of β-lactam belonging to the carbapenem class, meropenem, with β-lactamase inhibitor, clavulanate, is notably active on XDR strains. Our aim was to characterize the carbapenem targets, atypical in M. tuberculosis, since peptidoglycan of this bacteria contains a majority (80%) of cross-links formed by a special transpeptidase family, the L,D-transpeptidases. We have compared the five L,D-transpeptidases of M. tuberculosis for their in vitro activities with respect to peptidoglycan dimers formation and for inactivation reaction by carbapenems. Thus, we have showed that the five L,D-transpeptidases were functional in vitro. LdtMt1, LdtMt2, LdtMt4 et LdtMt5 were able to form peptidoglycan cross-links binding the third amino acid of a donor tetrapeptide substrate with the third amino acid of an acceptor tetrapeptide substrate. These enzymes were also able to use D-methionine as an acceptor in exchange reaction of D-Ala4 of the donor tetrapeptide substrate. LdtMt1, LdtMt2, LdtMt3 et LdtMt4 formed a covalent adduct with carbapenems. The inactivation reaction of L,D-transpeptidases by carbapenems proceed through two steps. In first, a reversible covalent adduct is formed (catalytic constant k1), followed by a second step leading to acylenzyme formation (catalytic constant k2). The determination of kinetic constants of inactivation k1 et k2 revealed important differences between carbapenems. Except for LdtMt1, Imipenem inactivates L,D-transpeptidases more rapidly than other carbapenems indicating that modification of the carbapenem side chain could be used to optimize their anti-mycobacterial activity. In parallel, we have started the study of the L,D-transpeptidases regulation in various culture conditions will allow identifying the L,D-transpeptidases essential for growth and persistence of M. tuberculosis. This work might lead to identification of essential targets allowing eradication of M. tuberculosis dormant forms, which are difficult to treat with conventional anti-TB drugs.
2

Altération métabolique et déficit synaptique dans la maladie d'Alzheimer : rôle de la PHGDH astrocytaire. / Astrocytic 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase links energy metabolism and LTP deficits in a mouse model of Alzheimer's Disease

Le Douce, Juliette 14 December 2015 (has links)
Les patients atteints de la MA souffrent d'altérations métaboliques et synaptiques précoces. Via la glycolyse et le cycle de Krebs, le métabolisme du glucose permet la production d'ATP, essentielle à l'activité et la plasticité synaptique. Contrairement aux neurones, les astrocytes utilisent majoritairement la glycolyse pour métaboliser le glucose. En plus de la production d'énergie, la glycolyse fournit les précurseurs indispensables à la synthèse de biomolécules comme la L-sérine. Cet acide aminé est produit à partir du glucose par la déviation du 3-phosphoglycérate (3PG), un intermédiaire glycolytique, via l'enzyme 3-phosphoglycérate déshydrogénase (PHGDH), exprimée spécifiquement dans les astrocytes. La L-sérine est le précurseur de la D-sérine, le principal co-agoniste des NMDAR nécessaires à l'activité et la plasticité synaptique.Nous avons utilisé des souris 3xTg-AD, un modèle développant une MA progressive, afin d'étudier si une altération de la production de L-/D-sérine pouvait contribuer à des déficits synaptiques.A 6 mois, lorsque les souris 3xTg-AD ne possèdent pas encore de plaques amyloïdes dans l'hippocampe, nous avons observé in vivo une diminution du métabolisme du glucose, de la concentration de L-sérine et des déficits synaptiques (LTP). L'expression locale de la PHGDH est aussi altérée. L'application de D-sérine restaure complètement les déficits de LTP chez les souris 3xTg-AD.Ces données supportent l'hypothèse qu'un déficit de production de L-sérine par les astrocytes médié par une diminution du flux glycolytique serait responsable de l'altération synaptique observée dans l'hippocampe des souris 3xTg-AD. / An early alteration of both cerebral glucose metabolism and synaptic activity has been consistently described in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Metabolism of glucose via glycolysis and the citric acid cycle produces ATP that is essential for synaptic activity and plasticity. In the brain, glucose is predominantly processed glycolytically into astrocytes and not by neurons. Beyond ATP production, a major function of aerobic glycolysis is to provide precursors to support macromolecular synthesis. L-serine, generated from glucose through diversion of the glycolytic intermediate 3-phosphoglycerate (3PG) into the phosphorylated pathway, is only produced in astrocytes by 3-phosphoglycerate dehydrogenase (PHGDH), selectively expressed in those glial cells. L-serine is the precursor of D-serine, the main co-agonist of synaptic NMDAR, required for synaptic activity and plasticity. We used 3xTg-AD mice, which develop a progressive pathology, to investigate whether a defective production of L-/D-serine contributes to early synaptic deficits in AD. We found that 3xTg-AD mice display early in vivo alterations of glucose metabolism, synaptic deficits (LTP) in the CA1 region and also lower concentration of L-serine. The local expression of PHGDH was significantly altered. Exogenous D-serine completely rescued LTP in 3xTg-AD mice. These data support the hypothesis that a deficit of L-serine synthesis by astrocytes likely mediated by a decreased glycolytic flux may be responsible for the synaptic alteration mediated by NMDAR in the hippocampus of 3xTg-AD mice.
3

Trockismus v České republice s důrazem na vývoj po roce 2000 / Trotskyism in the Czech Republic with Emphasis on Development since 2000

Štorkánová, Lucie January 2014 (has links)
The submitted thesis deals with the issue of left-wing extremism, especially the development of Trotskyist groups in the territory of Czechoslovakia, later the Czech Republic between the years 1989 - 2014. In the first part of the thesis, the background of Trotskyism thought is introduced as an ideology which is the result of a long-standing conflict between Trotsky and Stalin that was primarily concerned with direction, leadership and the nature of the Soviet Union. The main topics of Trotskyism as the intellectual movement are defined on the base of the analysis of several major writings by L. D. Trotsky. The second part is devoted to the analysis of a number of Trotskyist organizations that are acting or have acted in the Czech environment. In total, four groups from the Czech environment can be identified as Trotskyist. These are the following entities: "Budoucnost" ("Socialist Alternative Future"), "Socialistická solidarita" ("Socialist Solidarity"), "Socialistická organizace pracujících" ("Socialist Organization of Working People"), and "Nová antikapitalistická levice/Levá perspektiva" ("New Anti- Capitalist Left/Left Perspective"). This thesis is an analysis of the development of these groups, of their requirements and program principles, and of the events which these groups participated in during...
4

Reverse Engineering of Passenger Jets - Classified Design Parameters

De Grave, Emiel January 2017 (has links) (PDF)
This thesis explains how the classified design parameters of existing passenger jets can be determined. The classified design parameters are; the maximum lift coefficient for landing and take-off, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The entire concept is based on the preliminary sizing of jet powered civil aeroplanes. This preliminary sizing is explained in detail because it is the foundation of the final result. The preliminary sizing is combined using reverse engineering which is not a strict method. Therefore, only the basics are explained. By applying reverse engineering on the preliminary sizing and aiming for the classified design parameters as output, formulas are derived to calculate the maximum lift coefficients, the maximum aerodynamic efficiency and the specific fuel consumption. The goal is to calculate these parameters, using only aircraft specifications that are made public by the manufacturer. The calculations are complex with mutual relations, iterative processes and optimizations. Therefore, it is interesting to integrate everything in a tool. The tool is built in Microsoft Excel and explained in detail adding operating instructions. The program is executed for miscellaneous aeroplanes, supported with the necessary comments. Investigated aeroplanes are: Caravelle 10B (Sud-Aviation), Boeing 707-320C, BAe 146-200 (British Aerospance), A320-200 (Airbus), "The Rebel" (based on A320), Boeing SUGAR High, Boeing 747-400, Blended Wing Body VELA 2 (VELA) and Dassault Falcon 8X.

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