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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Investigating the Feasibility of Asynchronous Design Methodologies in Large-scale Microprocessor Systems

Hoshino, Robert 20 December 2007 (has links)
Microprocessor systems have been advancing at a phenomenal rate, with each new generation introducing improved fabrication processes and architectural innovations. Unfortunately, traditional fabrication techniques cannot sustain this exponential growth indefinitely. Thus, additional research into conventional design methodologies, such as those involving asynchronous design techniques, is essential to maintain the current trend. The primary objective of this research was to explore the viability of asynchronous design techniques as an alternative to current synchronous design methods. In order to simulate the design complexities involved in a real-world system, the MIPS-II R2000 pipelined microprocessor was selected as the basis for comparison. All of the experimental processors were designed in VHDL on an FPGA using the Altera Quartus II design package. The processors were tested using timing simulations with various benchmarks to determine the advantages and disadvantages of each design technique. Four distinct asynchronous processors with varying handshaking and synchronization methods were designed and compared to the baseline synchronous processor. Although, in theory, each of the asynchronous design variations had its merits, it was clear that not all of them were well suited for practical use in a large-scale microprocessor environment. Three of the asynchronous processors suffered from an excessive amount of synchronization overhead that drastically reduced their overall system performance to the point where they performed considerably worse than the baseline synchronous processor. However, one asynchronous processor performed considerably better: with only a 1.5 percent increase in logic complexity, it outperformed the baseline synchronous processor by over 10 percent on a sorting test benchmark and had a maximum theoretical speedup of over 36 percent. Therefore, it is evident that asynchronous designs have the potential to improve the performance of traditional synchronous systems. However, designing efficient and hazard-free asynchronous logic on an FPGA proved to be challenging and time-consuming. With additional research and further design tool improvements to facilitate the creation of optimized glitch-free logic, asynchronous design methodologies may become a viable alternative to traditional synchronous designs and contribute to the current trend of microprocessor advancement. / Thesis (Master, Electrical & Computer Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2007-12-19 01:30:22.248

The Genetic Basis of Phytate, Oligosaccharide Content, and Emergence in Soybean

Glover, Natasha M. 08 September 2011 (has links)
Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr] is one of the U.S.'s most economically important crops due to the protein and oil content of seeds. The major storage form of phosphorus in soybean seeds is found in the form of phytate, but because of its negative nutritional and environmental impacts, seed phytate and raffinosaccharide content have been a recent focus of breeders and molecular geneticists. The soybean line CX1834 is a low phytate mutant known to have two low phytate QTLs on linkage groups (LGs) L and N. The first objective of this research was to determine the genetic basis of the low phytate trait in CX1834. By using the whole genome sequence, we identified two candidate multidrug resistance-associated (MRP) ABC transporter genes. Sequencing the genes from CX1834 and comparing them to the reference genome sequence revealed a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the MRP gene located on LG N (causing a stop codon), and a SNP mutation in the MRP gene located on LG L (causing an amino acid change from arginine to lysine). One major concern with low phytate soybeans is the low seedling emergence. The second objective was to undertake a population-wide study of emergence in the recombinant inbred population CX1834 x V99-3337, over two years and two locations. We found a positive correlation between phytate level and emergence, and that variation among year, location, genotypic class, year x genotypic class, and year x location interactions were significantly affecting emergence. V99-5089, in addition to being low phytate, has high sucrose and low raffinosaccharide content. This phenotype of V99-5089 has been previously determined to be due to a SNP mutation in its myo-inositol phosphate synthase (MIPS) gene located on LG B1. The third objective was to use the recombinant inbred population derived from CX1834 x V99-5089 to observe the combinations of all three mutations to see how the different alleles impact phytate and raffinosaccharide content. The individuals with all three mutations, as well as those with the two MRP mutations together had lower phytate than the other genotypic classes. However, these lines (all three mutations) had unexpectedly high stachyose. / Ph. D.

Educational package based on the MIPS architecture for FPGA platforms

Pereira, João Luís Silva Campos January 2009 (has links)
Tese de mestrado integrado. Engenharia Electrotécnica e de Computadores (Major em Telecomunicações). Faculdade de Engenharia. Universidade do Porto. 2009

Functions of allatostatin A (AstA) and myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs) in the regulation of food intake and sleep in Drosophila / Funktion der Allatostatin A (AstA) und myoinhibitorische Peptide (MIP) in Bezug zu Nahrungsaufnahme und Schlaf bei Drosophila

Chen, Jiangtian January 2018 (has links) (PDF)
Neuropeptides and peptide hormones carrying neural or physiological information are intercellular signalling substances. They control most if not all biological processes in vertebrates and invertebrates by acting on specific receptors on the target cell. In mammals, many different neuropeptides and peptide hormones are involved in the regulation of feeding and sleep. In \textit{Drosophila}, allatostatin A (AstA) and myoinhibitory peptides (MIPs) are brain-gut peptides. The AstA receptors are homologues of the mammalian galanin receptors and the amino acid sequences of MIPs are similar to a part of galanin, which has an orexigenic effect and is implicated in the control of sleep behaviour in mammals. I am interested in dissecting pleiotropic functions of AstA and MIPs in the regulation of food intake and sleep in \textit{Drosophila}. \par In the first part of the dissertation the roles of brain-gut peptide allatostatin A are analysed. Due to the genetic and molecular tools available, the fruit fly \textit{Drosophila melanogaster} is chosen to investigate functions of AstA. The aims in this part are to identify pleiotropic functions of AstA and assign specific effects to the activity of certain subsets of AstA expressing cells in \textit{Drosophila} adults. A new and restricted \textit{AstA\textsuperscript{34}-Gal4} line was generated. The confocal imaging result showed that AstA neurons are located in the posterior lateral protocerebrum (PLP), the gnathal ganglia (GNG), the medullae, and thoracic-abdominal ganglion (TAG). AstA producing DLAa neurons in the TAG innervate hindgut and the poterior part of midgut. In addition, AstA are detected in the enteroendocrine cells (EECs).\par Thermogenetic activation and neurogenetic silencing tools with the aid of the \textit{UAS/Gal4} system were employed to manipulate the activity of all or individual subsets of AstA cells and investigate the effects on food intake, locomotor activity and sleep. Our experimental results showed that thermogenetic activation of two pairs of PLP neurons and/or AstA expressing EECs reduced food intake, which can be traced to AstA signalling by using \textit{AstA} mutants. In the locomotor activity, thermogenetic activation of two pairs of PLP neurons and/or AstA expressing EECs resulted in strongly inhibited locomotor activity and promoted sleep without sexual difference, which was most apparent during the morning and evening activity peaks. The experimental and control flies were not impaired in climbing ability. In contrast, conditional silencing of the PLP neurons and/or AstA expressing EECs reduced sleep specifically in the siesta. The arousal experiment was employed to test for the sleep intensity. Thermogenetically activated flies walked significantly slower and a shorter distance than controls for all arousal stimulus intensities. Furthermore, PDF receptor was detected in the PLP neurons and the PLP neurons reacted with an intracellular increase of cAMP upon PDF, only when PDF receptor was present. Constitutive activation of AstA cells by tethered PDF increased sleep and thermogenetic activation of the PDF producing sLNvs promoted sleep specifically in the morning and evening. \par The study shows that the PLP neurons and/or EECs vis AstA signalling subserve an anorexigenic and sleep-regulating function in \textit{Drosophila}. The PLP neurons arborise in the posterior superior protocerebrum, where the sleep relevant dopaminergic neurons are located, and EECs extend themselves to reach the gut lumen. Thus, the PLP neurons are well positioned to regulate sleep and EECs potentially modulate feeding and possibly locomotor activity and sleep during sending the nutritional information from the gut to the brain. The results of imaging, activation of the PDF signalling pathway by tethered PDF and thermoactivation of PDF expressing sLNvs suggest that the PLP neurons are modulated by PDF from sLNv clock neurons and AstA in PLP neurons is the downstream target of the central clock to modulate locomotor activity and sleep. AstA receptors are homologues of galanin receptors and both of them are involved in the regulation of feeding and sleep, which appears to be conserved in evolutionary aspect.\par In the second part of the dissertation, I analysed the role of myoinhibitory peptides. MIPs are brain-gut peptides in insects and polychaeta. Also in \textit{Drosophila}, MIPs are expressed in the CNS and EECs in the gut. Previous studies have demonstrated the functions of MIPs in the regulation of food intake, gut motility and ecdysis in moths and crickets. Yet, the functions of MIPs in the fruit fly are little known. To dissect effects of MIPs regarding feeding, locomotor activity and sleep in \textit{Drosophila melanogater}, I manipulated the activity of MIP\textsuperscript{WÜ} cells by using newly generated \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{WÜ}-Gal4} lines. Thermogenetical activation or genetical silencing of MIP\textsuperscript{WÜ} celles did not affect feeding behaviour and resulted in changes in the sleep status. \par My results are in contradiction to a recent research of Min Soohong and colleagues who demonstrated a role of MIPs in the regulation of food intake and body weight in \textit{Drosophila}. They showed that constitutive silencing of MIP\textsuperscript{KR} cells increased food intake and body weight, whereas thermogenetic activation of MIP\textsuperscript{KR} cells decreased food intake and body weight by using \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{KR}-Gal4} driver. Then I repeated the experiments with the \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{KR}-Gal4} driver, but could not reproduce the results. Interestingly, I just observed the opposite phenotype. When MIP\textsuperscript{KR} cells were silenced by expressing UAS-tetanus toxin (\textit{UAS-TNT}), the \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{KR}$>$TNT} flies showed reduced food intake. The thermogenetic activation of MIP\textsuperscript{KR} cells did not affect food intake. Furthermore, I observed that the thermogenetic activation of MIP\textsuperscript{KR} cells strongly reduced the sleep duration.\par In the third part of the dissertation, I adapted and improved a method for metabolic labelling for \textit{Drosophila} peptides to quantify the relative amount of peptides and the released peptides by mass spectrometry under different physiological and behavioural conditions. qRT-PCR is a practical technique to measure the transcription and the corresponding mRNA level of a given peptide. However, this is not the only way to measure the translation and production of peptides. Although the amount of peptides can be quantified by mass spectrometry, it is not possible to distinguish between peptides stored in vesicles and released peptides in CNS extracts. I construct an approach to assess the released peptides, which can be calculated by comparing the relative amount of peptides between two timepoints in combination with the mRNA levels which can be used as semiquantitative proxy reflecting the production of peptides during this period. \par After optimizing the protocol for metabolic labelling, I carried out a quantitative analysis of peptides before and after eclosion as a test. I was able to show that the EH- and SIFa-related peptides were strongly reduced after eclosion. This is in line with the known function and release of EH during eclosion. Since this test was positive, I next used the metabolic labelling in \textit{Drosophila} adult, which were either fed \textit{ad libitum} or starved for 24 hrs, and analysed the effects on the amount of AstA and MIPs. In the mRNA level, my results showed that in the brain \textit{AstA} mRNA level in the 24 hrs starved flies was increased compared to in the \textit{ad libitum} fed flies, whereas in the gut the \textit{AstA} mRNA level was decreased. Starvation induced the reduction of \textit{Mip} mRNA level in the brain and gut. Unfortunately, due to technical problems I was unable to analyse the metabolic labelled peptides during the course of this thesis.\par / Neuropeptide und Peptidhormone sind interzelluläre Botenstoffe, die neuronale und physiologische Informationen tragen. Sie kontrollieren die meisten - wenn nicht alle - biologische Prozesse in Wirbeltieren und Wirbellosen durch ihre Wirkung auf spezifische Rezeptoren an den Zielzellen. So sind bei Säugetieren z.B. viele unterschiedliche Neuropeptide an der Regulierung des Freßverhaltens und des Schlafs beteiligt. In \textit{Drosophila} sind Allatostatin A (AstA) und myoinhibitorische Peptide (MIP) typische Gehirn-Darm- Peptide. Die AstA-Rezeptoren sind Homologe des Galanin-Rezeptors der Wirbeltiere, und die Aminosäurensequenz von MIP sind ähnlich zu einer Teilsequenz von Galanin, welches einen orexigenischen Effekt hat und mit der Kontrolle des Schlafverhaltens in Säugetieren verbunden ist. Ich bin interessiert an der Identifierung möglicher pleiotroper Funktionen von AstA und MIP in der Regulation von Nahrungsaufnahme und Schlaf in \textit{Drosophila}. \par Im ersten Teil der Dissertation wird die Rolle der Hirn-Darm- Peptide der AstA-Familie analysiert. Aufgrund der verfügbaren genetischen und molekularen Werkzeuge wurde die Taufliege \textit{Drosophila melanogaster} als Modell ausgewählt, um die Funktionen von AstA zu erforschen. Der Fokus lag dabei darauf, die pleiotropen Funktionen von AstA zu identifizieren, und herauszufinden, ob den verschiedenen AstA-exprimierenden Zelltypen jeweils unterschiedliche Funktionen zukommen. Eine neue, eingeschränkte AstA-Gal4-Linie wurde generiert. AstA-exprimierende Neuronen lassen sich im posterio-lateralen Protocerebrum (PLP), dem Gnathalganglion (GNG), der Medulla und dem thorakal-abdominalen Ganglion(TAG) finden. DLAa-Neuronen im TAG innervieren den Enddarm und den vorderen Teil des Mitteldarms. Ausserdem wird AstA auch in enteroendokrinen Zellen (EEC) im Mitteldarm exprimiert.\par Thermogenetische Aktivierung und neurogenetische Stillegung wurden zusammen mithilfe des UAS/Gal4-Systems eingesetzt, um die Aktivität vieler oder einzelner Untergruppen von AstA-Zellen zu manipulieren und die Effekte auf Nahrungsaufnahme, Laufaktivität und Schlaf zu untersuchen. Unsere Ergebnisse zeigen, dass die thermogenetische Aktivierung der zwei Paare von PLP-Neuronen und/oder AstA-exprimierenden EEC Schlaf und Nahrungsaufnahme reduziert, was auf die signalisierende Funktion von AstA zurückzuführen ist. In der Laufaktivität führte die thermogenetische Aktivierung der zwei Paare von PLP-Neuronen und/oder AstA-exprimierende EEC zu starker Hemmung, und förderte Schlaf ohne geschlechtsspezifischen Unterschied, was während der Aktivitätsgipfel am Morgen und Abend am besten zu beobachten war. Die Experimental- sowie die Kontrollfliegen waren im generellen Klettervermögen nicht beeinträchtigt. In Kontrast dazu reduzierte eine konditionale Stillegung von PLP-Neuronen und allen \textit{AstA-Gal4} exprimierenden Neuronen besonders den Siesta-Schlaf. Fliegen mit thermogenetisch aktivierten AstA-Zellen liefen wesentlich langsamer und weniger als die Kontrollgruppe bei allen Erregungsintensitäten. Außerdem wurde der PDF-Rezeptor in den PLP-Neuronen ermittelt. Die PLP-Neuronen reagierten auf PDF-Gabe mit einem intrazellulären Anstieg von cAMP nur dann, wenn der PDF-Rezeptor anwesend war. Konstitutive Aktivierung von AstA-Zellen durch "tethered" PDF steigerte den Schlaf, und thermogenetische Aktivierung von PDF-produzierenden sLNvs förderte Schlaf besonders am Morgen und Abend.\par Die Studie zeigt, dass die PLP-Neuronen und/oder EECs via AstA eine anorexigenische und schlafregulierende Funktion in \text{Drosophila} ausübt. PLP-Neuronen verzweigen im posterio-superioren Protocerebrum, wo die für Schlaf relevanten dopaminergen Neurone lokalisiert sind. Die EECs erstrecken sich bis zum Darmlumen. Daher sind die PLP-Neuronen gut positioniert, um Schlaf zu regulieren, und EECs modulieren potenziell die Verdauung und möglicherweise auch Laufaktivität und Schlaf durch Vermittlung der Nahrungsinformationen vom Darm zum Gehirn. Die Ergebnisse von Imaging, Aktivierung des PDF-wegs durch "tethered" PDF und Thermoaktivierung von PDF-exprimierenden s-LNvs weisen darauf hin, dass die PLP-Neuronen durch PDF aus sLNv-Uhr-Neuronen moduliert werden. AstA in den PLP-Neuronen scheint ein indirektes Ausgangssignal der inneren Uhr das die Laufaktivität und Schlaf modelliert. Die AstA-Rezeptoren sind Homologe der Galanin-Rezeptoren; beide sind an der Regulierung von Ernährung und Schlaf beteiligt, was auf eine evolutionär bewahrte Funktion hindeutet. \par Im zweiten Teil der Dissertation habe ich die Rolle der MIP analysiert. MIP sind Hirn-Darm- Peptide der Insekten und Polychaeta. Auch in \textit{Drosophila} wird MIP durch Neurone im ZNS und durch EEC im Darm exprimiert. Bisherige Studien haben Funktionen von MIP bei der Nahrungsaufnahme, Regulation der Darmbewegung und Häutung in Motten und Grillen demonstriert. Für \textit{Drosophila} waren Funktionen von MIP nicht bekannt. Um mögliche Effekte von MIP bezüglich des Freßverhaltens, Laufaktivität und und Schlaf in \textit{Drosophila melanogaster} zu finden, habe ich die Aktivität von MIP\textsuperscript{WÜ}-Zellen mit Hilfe der neu in unserem Labor hergestellten \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{WÜ} -Gal4}-Linien manipuliert. Dabei konnte ich keinen Effekt auf das Freßverhalten finden, nachdem ich die MIP\textsuperscript{WÜ}–Zellen thermogenetisch aktiviert oder genetisch stillgelegt habe. Allerdings führte dies zu Änderungen des Schlafstatuses. \par Meine Ergebnisse stehen im Widerspruch zu einer neueren Veröffentlichung von Min Soohong und Kollegen, die eine Rolle der MIP in der Regulation von Nahrungsaufnahme und Körpergewicht von \textit{Drosophila} nachweisen konnten. Sie zeigten dass konstitutive Stillegung der MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Zellen Nahrungsaufnahme und Körpergewicht steigerte, während thermogenetische Aktivierung der MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Zellen Nahrungsaufnahme und Körpergewicht durch \textit{MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Gal4}-Treiber verringerte. Ich habe daraufhin die Versuche mit der von Soohong eingesetzen \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{KR}-Gal4}-Treiber wiederholt, konnte aber damit die Ergebnisse nicht bestätigen. Interessanterweise habe ich genau das Gegenteil beobachtet. Wenn ich MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Zellen durch Expresseion von UAS-Tetanustoxin (UAS-TNT) ausgeschaltet habe, zeigten die \textit{Mip\textsuperscript{KR}$>$TNT}-Fliegen eine reduzierte Nahrungsaufnahme. Eine thermogenetische Aktivierung der MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Zellen hat die Nahrungsaufnahme nicht beeinflusst. Weiterhin habe ich beobachtet, dass die thermogenetische Aktivierung der MIP\textsuperscript{KR}-Zellen die Schlafdauer stark reduziert.\par Im dritten Teil der Dissertation haben ich eine Methode zur metabolischen Markierung für \textit{Drosophila}-Peptide adaptiert und verbessert, um die relative Menge von Peptiden und die Peptidausschüttung mittels Massenspektrometrie unter verschiedenen physiologischen Bedingungen und Verhaltenskontexten zu quantifizieren. qRT-PCR ist eine praktische Technik um die Transkription und die entsprechende mRNA-Menge für ein gegebenes Peptid zu messen. Dies ist allerdings kein zwingendes Maß für die Translation und Menge eines Peptids. Massenspektrometisch kann die Peptidmenge zwar quantifiziert werden, es kann aber nicht zwischen in Vesikel gespeicherten Peptiden und ausgeschütteten Peptiden in ZNS-Extrakten unterschieden werden. Ich habe nach einem Zugang zu den ausgeschütteten Peptiden gesucht, die durch Vergleich der relativen Menge der Peptide zwischen zwei Zeitpunkten kalkuliert werden können, wenn die mRNA-Menge, welche ein semiquantitatives Proxy der Produktion der Peptide in dieser Periode darstellt, bekannt ist. \par Nachdem ich das Protokoll für die metabolische Markierung optimiert hatte, habe ich als Test eine quantitative Peptidomanalyse vor und nach dem Adultschlupf durchgeführt. Dabei konnte ich zeigen, dass die EH- und SIFa-relatierte Peptide nach dem Schlupf stark reduziert sind. Dies passt gut überein mit der bekannten Funktion und Freisetzung von EH während des Schlupfs. Da dieser Test positiv war, habe ich dann als nächsten Schritt die metabolische Markierung in adulten \textit{Drosophila} eingesetzt, die für 24h entweder \textit{ad libitum} gefüttert oder gehungert wurden, und geschaut, wie sich dies auf die Menge der AstA und MIP auswirkt. Meine Ergebnisse zeigten, dass das \textit{AstA} mRNA-Niveau im Gehirn der Fliegen, die 24 Stunden gehungert haben im Vergleich zu \textit{ad libitum} gefütterten Fliegen steigt, während das \textit{AstA} mRNA-Niveau im Darm sank. Hunger führte zur Reduzierung des \textit{Mip} mRNA-Spiegels in Gehirn und Darm. Wegen technischer Probleme konnte ich die metabolisch markierten Peptide während meiner Forschungsphase leider nicht mehr analysieren. \par

Design and implementation of an asynchronous version of the MIPS R3000 microprocessor /

Siers, Scott. January 1993 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Rochester Institute of Technology, 1993. / Typescript. Includes bibliographical references (leaf 81).

MIPS Scenarios

Holt, Jim, Metzger, Kevin, Mizell, Brandon, Ross, John, Sheldon-Deuser, Shelby, Spencer, Luke, Stone, Katherine, Veerman, Richard 22 February 2018 (has links)
No description available.

<b>Electrochemical Strategies for Enabling the In-field Detection and Quantification of Per- and Polyfluoroalkylsubstances (PFAS)</b>

Rebecca Beth Clark (17112571) 11 October 2023 (has links)
<p dir="ltr">Per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS), once considered to be emerging micro-pollutants, are now a very present class of pervasive and persistent micropollutant. Frequently referred to as “forever chemicals”, once they’re in the environment, they do not break down owing to the strength of their network of carbon-fluorine bonds. Their persistence is of particular concern, as they have been shown to have a plethora of negative health effects on living things including low infant birth weights, dyslipidemia, and cancer, to name a few. Due to both their persistence and negative health effects, the ability to rapidly test waters (<i>i.e.,</i> drinking water, river water, lake water, etc.) is of critical importance. The current “gold-standard” method for testing waters is the collection and transport of a sample to a centralized facility where chromatography and mass spectrometric methods can be performed for the separation, identification, and quantification of PFAS; however, this method is not able to be used for real-time analyses and is not sufficient for efficiently informing consumers or remediation efforts. An in-field detection method that is capable of providing real-time analyses is needed.</p><p dir="ltr">Electrochemistry stands well-poised to offer a suite of techniques that can be used for in-field detection. Electrochemistry is cost-effective, easy to perform and analyze, and readily portable; however, it lacks specificity and typically requires an electroactive analyte. These limitations can be overcome through the use of a surface functionalization strategy which adds specificity through the imprinting of the analyte of interest and monitors the change in signal from an alternate mediator molecule. Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are the chosen surface functionalization strategy that will be used and discussed in this work. While MIPs overcome the specificity and requirement of an electroactive analyte limitations and have been previously demonstrated for the detection of perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), they traditionally require the use of added buffers and one electron mediators, which are not found in natural waters. Thus, to expand MIP-based electrochemical detection to in-field use strategies must be developed and employed to mitigate these concerns.</p><p dir="ltr">This work provides significant strides forward in enabling in-field, MIP-based electro-chemical sensing. We take advantage of ambient dioxygen present in river water to quantify one of the more harmful PFAS molecules, perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), from 0 to 0.5 nM on a MIP-modified carbon substrate. Differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) generated calibration curves for PFOS in river water using oxygen as the mediator. Importantly, we show that electrochemical impedance spectroscopy is superior to voltammetric techniques: like ultramicroelectrodes, this technique can be used in low-conductivity matrices like river water with high reproducibility. Further, impedance provides a PFOS limit of detection of 3.4 pM. We also demonstrate that the common interferents humic acid and chloride do not affect the sensor signal. The use of dioxygen is predicated on the assumption that there will be consistent ambient dioxygen levels in natural waters. This is not always the case in hypoxic groundwater and at high altitudes. To overcome this challenge, and further advance the strategies that will enable in-field electroanalysis of PFAS, we demonstrate that dioxygen can be generated in solution through the hydrolysis of water. The electrogenerated dioxygen can then be used as a mediator for molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP)-based electroanalysis. We demonstrate that calibration curves can be constructed with high precision and sensitivity (LOD > 1 ppt). We also demonstrate the development and use of a universal multiplexer and electrode array, which can enable high throughput, in-field electroanalysis for a wide variety of compounds. In this work, we demonstrate it specifically for detecting PFOS from 0.05 to 0.05 nM and lead at a concentration of 1 nM.</p><p dir="ltr">Additionally, in this work, we lay the groundwork for the future direction of developing a more fundamental understanding of MIPs to be able to fine-tune their selectivity and performance. Preliminary data and experimental approaches are shown for using nanoparticle deposition and visualization, with scanning electrochemical microscopy, to characterize surface reactivity and binding site distribution, functional group studies to better understand what groups and molecular interactions affect the binding of the analyte to the MIP the most, and using cyclic voltammetry to determine the capacitance and resistance of the polymer. Further approaches are outlined to relate the conditions under which the polymer was created to the polymer’s characteristics and then the polymer’s performance. Future improvements to make the in-field use of the multiplexer more efficient are also shown. In total, this work shows the feasibility and nearness of in-field, MIP-based electrochemical detection for PFAS by advancing the strategies and hardware necessary to do so.</p>

Discovery and quantification of proteins of biological relevance through differential proteomics and biosensing

Lonardoni, Francesco January 2012 (has links)
Medical diagnosis is the process of attempting to determine and/or identify a possible disease or disorder. This process is revealed by biomarkers, defined by The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) as “characteristics that are objectively measured and evaluated as indicators of normal biologic processes, pathogenic processes, or pharmacologic responses to a therapeutic intervention”. The process of biomarker discovery has been boosted in the last years by proteomics, a research discipline that takes a snapshot of the entire wealth of proteins in an organism/ tissue/ cell/ body fluid. An implementation of the analysis methods can help in isolate proteins present in the low range of concentrations, such as biomarkers very often are. An established biomarker can further be measured with the help of biosensors, devices that can be employed in the point-of care diagnostics. This PhD thesis shows and discusses the results of three projects in the field of protein biomarkers discovery and quantification. The first project exploited proteomics techniques to find relevant protein markers for Intrauterine Growth Restriction (IUGR) in cordonal blood serum (UCS) and amniotic fluid (AF). A 14 proteins in UCS and 11 in AF were successfully identified and found to be differentially expressed. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers (MIPs) directed towards proteins and peptides containing phosphotyrosine were then produced, with the final goal of selectively extracting phosphopeptides from a peptide mixture. An alteration of the phosphorylation pattern is in fact often associated to important diseases such as cancer. The polymers were produced as nanoparticles, that were characterised with Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). A recipe was also tested for binding capacity towards phosphotyrosine. A Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) biosensor to quantify hepcidin hormone was finally produced. This is the major subject in iron homeostasis in vertebrates and marker of iron unbalance diseases. A calibration curve was made and affinity/kinetic parameters for the ligand employed were measured.

Extensible microprocessor without interlocked pipeline stages (emips), the reconfigurable microprocessor

Pittman, Richard Neil 17 September 2007 (has links)
In this thesis we propose to realize the performance benefits of applicationspecific hardware optimizations in a general-purpose, multi-user system environment using a dynamically extensible microprocessor architecture. We have called our dynamically extensible microprocessor design the Extensible Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages, or eMIPS. The eMIPS architecture uses the interaction of fixed and configurable logic available in modern Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA). This interaction is used to address the limitations of current microprocessor architectures based solely on Application Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). These limitations include inflexibility, size, and application specific performance optimization. The eMIPS system allows multiple secure extensions to load dynamically and to plug into the stages of a pipelined central processing unit (CPU) data path, thereby extending the core instruction set of the microprocessor. Extensions can also be used to realize on-chip peripherals, and if area permits, even multiple cores. Extension instructions reduce dramatically the execution time of frequently executed instruction patterns. These new functionalities we have developed can be exploited by patching the binaries of existing applications, without any changes to the compilers. A FPGA based workstation prototype and a flexible simulation system implementating this design demonstrates speedups of 2x-3x on a set of applications that include video games, real-time programs and the SPEC2000 integer benchmarks. eMIPS is the first realized workstation based entirely on a dynamically extensible microprocessor that is safe for general purpose, multi-user applications. By exposing the individual stages of the data path, eMIPS allows optimizations not previously possible. This includes permitting safe and coherent accesses to memory from within an extension, optimizing multi-branched blocks, and throwing precise and restart able exceptions from within an extension. This work describes a simplified implementation of an extensible microprocessor architecture based on the Microprocessor without Interlocked Pipeline Stages (MIPS) Reduced Instruction Set Computer (RISC) architecture. The concepts and methods contained within this thesis may be applied to other similar architectures. Given this simplified prototype we look forward to propose how this architecture will be expanded as it matures.

VHDL modeling and design of an asynchronous version of the MIPS R3000 microprocessor /

Fanelli, Paul. January 1994 (has links)
Thesis (M.S.)--Rochester Institute of Technology, 1994. / Typescript. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 124-125).

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