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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Uso da metodologia de projetos visando uma aprendizagem significativa de F?sica: estudo contextualizado das propriedades do solo. / Using the methodology of projects for a meaningful learning of Physics. Contextualized study of soil properties.

Lima, Ananias de Oliveira 28 February 2010 (has links)
Submitted by Sandra Pereira (srpereira@ufrrj.br) on 2018-05-09T12:45:23Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2010 - Ananias de Oliveira Lima.pdf: 5673141 bytes, checksum: c85c1dd5947492ba2e6f14cf595a0a03 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-05-09T12:45:24Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2010 - Ananias de Oliveira Lima.pdf: 5673141 bytes, checksum: c85c1dd5947492ba2e6f14cf595a0a03 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010-02-28 / The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of methodology of projects in the context of the concepts of physics in the teaching of Soil Science, arousing interest in the scientific research while working as a team, contributing for the education of the student and promoting a meaningful learning. Such research is warranted because the contemporary pedagogical proposals must have a focus on new meaning of education, centered on the idea that education means preparing the individual to meet personal needs and desires of a society in constant transformation. Unfortunately, most schools have established a methodology represented by the traditional lecture, in whose model the teacher conveys to the student the content through the verbal exposition of the subject, exercises of memorization and retention. However, for learning to be meaningful it becomes necessary for one school with previous experience of students, allowing the formulation and solution of problems that encourage the construction of knowledge. The traditional methodology of physics has not met the goal of educating the young for the exercise of technical and scientific activities, being disconnected from the vocational subjects, therefore, does not attract the interest of the student, being unable to stimulate development skills of teamwork. In this sense, it is believed that the teaching-learning process could be enhanced with the implementation of interdisciplinary activities in order to understand concepts in physics laboratory activities in their professional practice. The research was conducted at IFES Campus Santa Teresa with a group of students from the Technical Course on Integrated Agricultural High School, enrolled in physics, consisting of 24 students. Initially, the students participated in educational activities of conceptual physics, and the theme generator design methodology was selected as the objective of developing an interdisciplinary and contextualized, referring to the concepts of soil. Following these concepts were used to carry out laboratory activities using the equipment available for the determination of texture, density, humidity and porosity of the soil samples, which resulted in completing reports. Students planned activities, preparing reports on their group, to determine the density, humidity and porosity of the fields according to the standard reports. Throughout this study, it was observed that the methodology allowed a greater interest by students, demonstrated by enthusiasm during the development of activities. It also promoted a better understanding of the concept of soil and a contextualized view of the behavior of soil water in the face of the texture features and their correlations with the physical quantities such as mass, density, velocity and humidity studied in high school. Project activities also allowed students to experience teamwork, allowing them to interact with equipment and materials, acquiring skills and acquire skills that only work on a project using the methodology. / The objective of this research was to evaluate the effectiveness of methodology of projects in the context of the concepts of physics in the teaching of Soil Science, arousing interest in the scientific research while working as a team, contributing for the education of the student and promoting a meaningful learning. Such research is warranted because the contemporary pedagogical proposals must have a focus on new meaning of education, centered on the idea that education means preparing the individual to meet personal needs and desires of a society in constant transformation. Unfortunately, most schools have established a methodology represented by the traditional lecture, in whose model the teacher conveys to the student the content through the verbal exposition of the subject, exercises of memorization and retention. However, for learning to be meaningful it becomes necessary for one school with previous experience of students, allowing the formulation and solution of problems that encourage the construction of knowledge. The traditional methodology of physics has not met the goal of educating the young for the exercise of technical and scientific activities, being disconnected from the vocational subjects, therefore, does not attract the interest of the student, being unable to stimulate development skills of teamwork. In this sense, it is believed that the teaching-learning process could be enhanced with the implementation of interdisciplinary activities in order to understand concepts in physics laboratory activities in their professional practice. The research was conducted at IFES Campus Santa Teresa with a group of students from the Technical Course on Integrated Agricultural High School, enrolled in physics, consisting of 24 students. Initially, the students participated in educational activities of conceptual physics, and the theme generator design methodology was selected as the objective of developing an interdisciplinary and contextualized, referring to the concepts of soil. Following these concepts were used to carry out laboratory activities using the equipment available for the determination of texture, density, humidity and porosity of the soil samples, which resulted in completing reports. Students planned activities, preparing reports on their group, to determine the density, humidity and porosity of the fields according to the standard reports. Throughout this study, it was observed that the methodology allowed a greater interest by students, demonstrated by enthusiasm during the development of activities. It also promoted a better understanding of the concept of soil and a contextualized view of the behavior of soil water in the face of the texture features and their correlations with the physical quantities such as mass, density, velocity and humidity studied in high school. Project activities also allowed students to experience teamwork, allowing them to interact with equipment and materials, acquiring skills and acquire skills that only work on a project using the methodology. / O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a efic?cia da metodologia de projetos na contextualiza??o dos conceitos de F?sica no ensino da Ci?ncia do Solo, despertando o interesse pela pesquisa cient?fica ao trabalhar em equipe, contribuindo na forma??o integral do aluno e promovendo uma aprendizagem significativa. Tal pesquisa se justifica porque as propostas pedag?gicas contempor?neas precisam ter em foco um novo sentido da educa??o, centrado na id?ia de que educar significa preparar o indiv?duo para responder ?s necessidades pessoais e aos anseios de uma sociedade em constante transforma??o. Infelizmente, na maioria das escolas, vigora a metodologia tradicional representada pela aula expositiva, em cujo modelo o professor passa para o aluno o conte?do, atrav?s da exposi??o verbal da mat?ria, de exerc?cios de memoriza??o e fixa??o. Entretanto, para que a aprendizagem seja significativa torna-se necess?ria uma rela??o escolar com as experi?ncias anteriores dos alunos, permitindo a formula??o e resolu??o de problemas que incentivam a constru??o do saber. No ?mbito da F?sica a metodologia tradicional n?o tem atendido ao objetivo de formar o jovem para o exerc?cio de atividades t?cnicas e cient?ficas, mostrando-se desconectada das disciplinas de forma??o profissional, consequentemente n?o atrai o interesse do estudante, sendo incapaz de estimular o desenvolvimento de habilidades de trabalho em equipe. Neste sentido, acredita-se que o processo ensino-aprendizagem poderia ser aprimorado com a realiza??o de atividades interdisciplinares visando a compreens?o de conceitos de F?sica nas atividades laboratoriais em sua pr?tica profissional. O ensaio experimental foi realizado no IFES Campus Santa Teresa com uma turma de alunos do Curso T?cnico em Agropecu?ria Integrado ao Ensino M?dio, matriculados na disciplina de F?sica, constitu?da por 24 alunos. Inicialmente os alunos participaram de atividades pedag?gicas conceituais de f?sica, sendo que o tema gerador da metodologia de projetos foi selecionado como o intuito de desenvolver um trabalho interdisciplinar e contextualizado, referente aos conceitos de solo. A seguir tais conceitos foram empregados na realiza??o de atividades de laborat?rio empregando os equipamentos dispon?veis para a determina??o da textura, densidade, umidade e porosidade total das amostras de solo, que resultaram no preenchimento de relat?rios. Os alunos planejaram as atividades, elaborando seus relat?rios em grupo para determinar a densidade, a umidade e a porosidade das ?reas experimentais de acordo com o padr?o de relat?rios. Ao longo da pesquisa foi poss?vel perceber que a metodologia utilizada possibilitou maior interesse dos alunos, demonstrado pelo entusiasmo pelas atividades desenvolvidas. Tamb?m promoveu um melhor entendimento do conceito de solo e uma vis?o contextualizada do comportamento da ?gua no solo em face das caracter?sticas da textura e de suas correla??es com as grandezas f?sicas como massa, densidade, velocidade e umidade estudadas no Ensino M?dio. As atividades do projeto ainda possibilitaram aos alunos a viv?ncia do trabalho em equipe, permitindo que eles interagissem com equipamentos e materiais, adquirindo habilidades e compet?ncias que somente adquiririam em um trabalho utilizando a metodologia de projetos. / O objetivo da pesquisa foi avaliar a efic?cia da metodologia de projetos na contextualiza??o dos conceitos de F?sica no ensino da Ci?ncia do Solo, despertando o interesse pela pesquisa cient?fica ao trabalhar em equipe, contribuindo na forma??o integral do aluno e promovendo uma aprendizagem significativa. Tal pesquisa se justifica porque as propostas pedag?gicas contempor?neas precisam ter em foco um novo sentido da educa??o, centrado na id?ia de que educar significa preparar o indiv?duo para responder ?s necessidades pessoais e aos anseios de uma sociedade em constante transforma??o. Infelizmente, na maioria das escolas, vigora a metodologia tradicional representada pela aula expositiva, em cujo modelo o professor passa para o aluno o conte?do, atrav?s da exposi??o verbal da mat?ria, de exerc?cios de memoriza??o e fixa??o. Entretanto, para que a aprendizagem seja significativa torna-se necess?ria uma rela??o escolar com as experi?ncias anteriores dos alunos, permitindo a formula??o e resolu??o de problemas que incentivam a constru??o do saber. No ?mbito da F?sica a metodologia tradicional n?o tem atendido ao objetivo de formar o jovem para o exerc?cio de atividades t?cnicas e cient?ficas, mostrando-se desconectada das disciplinas de forma??o profissional, consequentemente n?o atrai o interesse do estudante, sendo incapaz de estimular o desenvolvimento de habilidades de trabalho em equipe. Neste sentido, acredita-se que o processo ensino-aprendizagem poderia ser aprimorado com a realiza??o de atividades interdisciplinares visando a compreens?o de conceitos de F?sica nas atividades laboratoriais em sua pr?tica profissional. O ensaio experimental foi realizado no IFES Campus Santa Teresa com uma turma de alunos do Curso T?cnico em Agropecu?ria Integrado ao Ensino M?dio, matriculados na disciplina de F?sica, constitu?da por 24 alunos. Inicialmente os alunos participaram de atividades pedag?gicas conceituais de f?sica, sendo que o tema gerador da metodologia de projetos foi selecionado como o intuito de desenvolver um trabalho interdisciplinar e contextualizado, referente aos conceitos de solo. A seguir tais conceitos foram empregados na realiza??o de atividades de laborat?rio empregando os equipamentos dispon?veis para a determina??o da textura, densidade, umidade e porosidade total das amostras de solo, que resultaram no preenchimento de relat?rios. Os alunos planejaram as atividades, elaborando seus relat?rios em grupo para determinar a densidade, a umidade e a porosidade das ?reas experimentais de acordo com o padr?o de relat?rios. Ao longo da pesquisa foi poss?vel perceber que a metodologia utilizada possibilitou maior interesse dos alunos, demonstrado pelo entusiasmo pelas atividades desenvolvidas. Tamb?m promoveu um melhor entendimento do conceito de solo e uma vis?o contextualizada do comportamento da ?gua no solo em face das caracter?sticas da textura e de suas correla??es com as grandezas f?sicas como massa, densidade, velocidade e umidade estudadas no Ensino M?dio. As atividades do projeto ainda possibilitaram aos alunos a viv?ncia do trabalho em equipe, permitindo que eles interagissem com equipamentos e materiais, adquirindo habilidades e compet?ncias que somente adquiririam em um trabalho utilizando a metodologia de projetos.
2

Um estudo sobre a falta de padronização no uso de grandezas físicas em um curso de Engenharia Elétrica e Eletrônica / A study of the lack of standardization in the use of physical quantities on a course of Electrical and Electronic Engineering

Mattiazzo, Bruno Pagliarani [UNESP] 18 December 2015 (has links)
Submitted by Bruno Pagliarani Mattiazzo (bruno.mattiazzo@gmail.com) on 2016-04-08T17:40:02Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Um estudo sobre a falta de padronização no uso de grandezas físicas em um curso de Engenharia Elétrica e Eletrônica.pdf: 743772 bytes, checksum: 0dde4ea3cc894abf55715498dbb753b0 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Juliano Benedito Ferreira (julianoferreira@reitoria.unesp.br) on 2016-04-08T20:49:12Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 mattiazzo_bp_me_prud.pdf: 1045556 bytes, checksum: 67a1efed622abbb5161f3d28d675ad4a (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-08T20:49:12Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 mattiazzo_bp_me_prud.pdf: 1045556 bytes, checksum: 67a1efed622abbb5161f3d28d675ad4a (MD5) Previous issue date: 2015-12-18 / O ensino de Física deve ser melhorado e aprimorado em diversos âmbitos do sistema educacional, inclusive nas universidades. A maioria dos da Engenharia iniciam o curso sem estar devidamente preparados e com um grande déficit conceitual Física e Matemática. Já, nas próprias Faculdades, existe um desencontro de informações entre o que é ensinado de Física, de acordo com os conteúdos já conhecidos e aqueles utilizados no dia a dia do engenheiro já formado. Neste trabalho serão trabalhadas formas de repassar estes conteúdos padronizando a notação utilizada. No presente estudo também é discutidas formas para que os professores possam abordar esses conceitos e conseguir o máximo de aproveitamento dentro da sala de aula. Para a coleta de dados foi aplicados um questionário aos docentes de engenharia elétrica e eletrônica da Fundação Educacional de Votuporanga e dois questionários aos alunos destes mesmos cursos; aula teórica que abordou os principais conflitos na utilização das grandezas físicas foi também ministrada. Nos questionários, os docentes ressaltaram a importância de uma padronização no ensino das grandezas físicas nos cursos de engenharia, assim como as dificuldades no uso dessas grandezas físicas entre os alunos. Nos questionários aplicados aos alunos, a sua grande maioria apresentou déficit na conceitualização das grandezas físicas. Se faz necessária uma padronização no ensino das grandezas físicas nos materiais didáticos e na linguagem utilizada pelos docentes. / The teaching of physics should be improved and enhanced in various areas of the education system, including in universities. Many students begin an engineering degree without being properly prepared and with a great conceptual deficit in physics. This dissertation discussed the misleading ways in which the physical quantities are taught to students in engineering courses and used in the professional scope of these students, thus generating difficulties in learning and improvement of these future engineers. In the present study it is also discussed a way that teachers can address these concepts to achieve maximum use within the classroom. For data collection were applied a questionnaire to electrical and electronic engineering professors and two questionnaires to students of these courses and imposed a lecture that addressed the main conflicts in the use of results. By analyzing the data it was found that all teachers reported the importance of standardization in the teaching of physical quantities in engineering courses, as well as witnessed difficulties in the use of physical quantities among students. In questionnaires given to students it was noticeable that the vast majority of students presented a deficit in the conceptualization of results. So it follows that if a standardization is needed in the teaching of physical quantities in teaching materials and language used by teachers.
3

Netradiční fyzikální tabulky / Unusual physical tables

Slavíková, Karolina January 2013 (has links)
Název práce: Netradiční fyzikální tabulky Autor: Karolina Slavíková Katedra: Katedra didaktiky fyziky Vedoucí diplomové práce: Mgr. Jakub Jermář, Katedra didaktiky fyziky Abstrakt: Hlavním výsledkem diplomové práce jsou elektronické fyzikální tabulky obsahující přes 300 položek objekt· a jejich vlastností - fyzikálních veličin. Tyto tabulky jsou součástí práce a jsou umístěny na jejím konci jako příloha. Práce se zabývá problematikou výběru vhodných objekt· z reálného života a použitím jejich typických vlastností pro tvorbu nových fyzikálních úloh. Její součástí je zmapování středoškolských učebnic, které tvořily podklad pro výběr objekt· a jejich vlastností, a dále tvorba elektronických fyzikálních tabulek a jejich využití ve výuce. Práce obsahuje čtyři vzorové příklady pro základní a střední školy a návod na použití elektronických tabulek. ást práce se zabývá názory na pro- blematiku hmotného bodu a metodami měření a odhadování fyzikálních veličin pomocí jednoduchých pom·cek. Klíčová slova: fyzikální veličiny, elektronické tabulky, tabelované hodnoty Title: Unusual physical tables Author: Karolina Slavíková Department: Department of Physics Education Supervisor: Mgr. Jakub Jermář, Department of Physics Education Abstract: The main outcomes of this thesis are electronic physical tables contai- ning over...
4

A comprehensive summary and categorization of physical quantity libraries

Bennich-Björkman, Oscar January 2018 (has links)
In scientific applications, physical quantities and units of measurement are used regularly. If the inherent incompatibility between these different units is not handled properly it can lead to major, and sometimes catastrophic, problems. Although the risk of a miscalculation is high and the cost equally so, almost no programming languages has support for physical quantities. Instead developers often rely on external libraries to help them spot these mistakes or prevent them all together. There are several hundred of these types of libraries, spread across multiple sites and with no simple way to get an overview. No one has summarized what has and has not been achieved so far in the area leading to many developers trying to ‘reinvent the wheel’ instead of building on what has already been done. This shows a clear need for this type of research. Employing a systematic approach to look through and analyze all available physical quantity libraries, the search results were condensed into 82 libraries which are presented in this thesis. These are the most comprehensive and well-developed, open-source libraries, chosen from approximately 3700 search results across seven repository hosting sites. In this group, 30 different programming languages are represented. The goal is for the results of this thesis to contribute to a shared foundation on which to build future libraries as well as provide an easy way of spreading knowledge about which libraries exist in the area, thus making it easier for more people to use them.
5

Understanding Reasons Behind the Lack of Adoption of Units of Measure (UoM) Libraries

Salah, Omar-Alfred January 2019 (has links)
The concepts of units and units of measurement (UoM) are used in scientific and mathematicalapplications to encode variables and their types with units. There are many UoMlibraries, as identified by previous research, that exist that can handle and prevent unit errorsand failures that can arise if units are not handled properly, otherwise, the consequences ofnot using UoM libraries may have possibly disastrous implications. Previous research hascategorised thousands of UoM libraries, an indication that the ’wheel is being reinvented’time and time again instead of building on what was already done, indicating that thereexists a lack of adoption of these UoM libraries. It is therefore important to understand thescale of the lack of adoption and why that is the case. An exploratory-DSR style researchwas employed and developers and scientists were surveyed and interviewed to inquire whythis is the case, with results ranging from unawareness of these UoM libraries, to specificperformance concerns and even tradition and sticking to what already works. Towards theend, the thesis suggests possible solutions to relieving the lack of adoption of these UoMlibraries as recommendation for further UoM solutions, with recommendations rangingfrom including UoM libraries in standard libraries of programming languages to reducingthe complexity and verbosity of UoM solutions.
6

Estimation of geometric properties of three-component signals for condition monitoring / Estimation des propriétés géométriques de signaux à trois composantes pour la surveillance des systèmes

Phua, Gailene 07 January 2016 (has links)
La plupart des méthodes de surveillance des systèmes sont basées sur l'analyse et la caractérisation de grandeurs physiques qui sont par nature tridimensionnelles. Tracées dans un repère euclidien à trois dimensions, ces grandeurs parcourent en fonction du temps une trajectoire dont les caractéristiques géométriques sont représentatives de l'état du système surveillé. Les techniques classiques de surveillance des systèmes étudient les grandeurs mesurées composante par composante, sans prendre en compte leur nature tridimensionnelle et les propriétés géométriques de leur trajectoire. Une part importante de l'information est ainsi ignorée. Dans le cadre de ce travail de recherche, on se propose de développer une méthode d'analyse et de traitement de grandeurs à trois composantes permettant de mettre en évidence les spécificités géométriques des données et de fournir une information complémentaire pour la surveillance des systèmes. La méthode proposée a été appliquée à deux cas différents : la surveillance des creux de tension des réseaux de puissance triphasés et la surveillance des défauts de roulement des machines électriques tournantes. Dans ces deux cas, les résultats obtenus sont prometteurs et montrent que les indicateurs géométriques estimés mènent à de l'information complémentaire qui peut être utile pour la surveillance des systèmes. / Most methods for condition monitoring are based on the analysis and characterization of physical quantities that are three-dimensional in nature. Plotted in a three-dimensional Euclidean space as a function of time, these quantities follow a trajectory whose geometric characteristics are representative of the state of the monitored system. Usual techniques of condition monitoring study the measured quantities component by component, without taking into account their three-dimensional nature and the geometric properties of their trajectory. A significant part of the information is thus ignored. In this research work, we would therefore like to develop a method for the analysis and processing of three-component quantities capable of highlighting the special geometric features of such data and providing complementary information for condition monitoring. The proposed method has been applied to two different cases: voltage dips monitoring in three-phase power networks and bearing faults monitoring in rotating electrical machines. In this two cases, the results obtained are promising and show that the estimated geometric indicators lead to complementary information that can be useful for condition monitoring.
7

Proposition de stratégies de surveillance d’usinage en perçage de superalliage base nickel, application à l’usure de l’outil / Proposal for monitoring strategies in drilling nickel-based superalloy, application to the tool wear

Popa, Andrei 18 June 2012 (has links)
Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse sont réalisés dans le cadre du projet européen ACCENT et s’inscrivent dans la problématique de l’utilisation de la surveillance d’usinage dans la fabrication des pièces critiques de moteurs aéronautiques. L’objectif est de définir une technique de surveillance de l’usure de l’outil dans l’usinage de l’alésage central d’un disque haute pression réalisé en superalliage à base nickel. Trois grandes étapes peuvent être identifiées dans notre démarche : l’identification des modes de dégradation dans le perçage de l’Udimet® 720 LI, la définition de relations entre les différents types d’usure et les grandeurs physiques mesurées et finalement, la proposition de stratégies de surveillance basées sur les résultats précédents. Afin de répondre aux objectifs, un protocole expérimental a été défini. Les campagnes expérimentales nous ont permis de caractériser l’usure du foret et de définir une cartographie des modes de dégradation en fonction de conditions de coupe testées. Par ailleurs, l’impact des perturbations d’usinage (coupure de lubrification, modification du pourcentage d’émulsion du lubrifiant, défaut de position de l’outil par rapport à l’avant-trou, etc.) a été étudié. La deuxième partie consiste à identifier les relations entre les modes de dégradation et les signaux de surveillance enregistrés (efforts, couple, puissance, vibrations, etc.). Pour cela, nous avons privilégié deux pistes : une explication directe de l’évolution des signaux par des phénomènes physiques et une approche selon « la base de données », pour développer des modèles d’usures par des critères statistiques extraits sur les signaux. Cette analyse a aussi permis la détection de certaines perturbations d’usinage en utilisant les grandeurs physiques mesurées. Il s’agit notamment d’un défaut d’excentration de l’outil dans le porte-outil et d’un problème d’évacuation de copeaux. La troisième étape porte sur la sensibilité des signaux afin de détecter l’ensemble des phénomènes et la définition des stratégies de surveillance pouvant être mises en œuvre. Pour chaque relation définie, nous avons déterminé une probabilité de détection. Ensuite, nous avons utilisé les signaux en parallèle afin d’accroitre la robustesse de la détection. Les taux de probabilité ont été améliorés, en se basant sur l’hypothèse d’indépendance des signaux (sans calculer les biais existants). Enfin, l’association de l’approche phénoménologique à l’approche dite « statistique » a permis d’augmenter la robustesse de la surveillance. / The work presented in this thesis is a part of European project ACCENT and fits into the context of using process monitoring in the manufacture of critical parts for aircraft engines. The aim is to define a monitoring technique for the tool wear in the machining of the central bore of a high pressure disk made in nickel based superalloy. The major stages can be identified in our approach: identification of tool failure modes in drilling Udimet® 720 LI, defining the relationships between wear and measured physical quantities and finally, a proposal for monitoring strategies based on the previous results. In order to complete the objectives, an experimental protocol was defined. The experimental campaigns allowed us to characterize the drill wear and to define cartography of tool failure modes depending on cutting conditions tested. Moreover, the impact of machining disturbances (lubricant stop, change in percentage of lubricant emulsion, the position over the before hole, etc.) was studied. In the second part, the relations between the tool failure modes and monitoring signals recorded during the machining (forces, torque, power, vibrations, etc.) were identified. For this task, we focused on two directions: a straightforward explanation of signals evolution by physical phenomena and “black box” approach to develop wear models from a database obtained by statistical criteria extracts from the signals. This analysis also allowed the detection of certain machining disturbances using the physical quantities. These include an eccentricity of the tool in the tool holder and a chips evacuation problem. The third part concerns the signals sensitivity to detect the different phenomena and the definition of monitoring strategies which can be implemented. For each relation defined, a detection probability was determined. Further, we used signals in parallel to increase the robustness of detection. The probabilities were improved, with an assumption of independent signals (without calculating existing biases). Finally, the combination of the phenomenological approach to the so-called "statistical" has increased the robustness of the monitoring technique.

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