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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Minibus transport in Far Eastern cities, with special reference to Beijing

Lam, Han January 1992 (has links)
Transport systems employing small sized vehicles and operated under an informal institutional structure are the essence of unconventional wisdom of urban transport planning in the Third World. The minibus is one of the many types of unconventional passenger carriers which primarily originate from indigenous technology. In the Far East, minibuses play a crucial role in moving commuters in large urban areas. Using minibuses in urban passenger transport services is interesting phenomena in urban transport planning in both developed and developing countries. Being small the minibus can ply along narrow streets often seen in crowded residential quarters and thus provide users with a high level of accessibility to trip ends. Furthermore, providers of minibus transport services are profitable, associated with small scale business and informal organizational structure and, more interestingly, often under private ownership. The minibus system in Beijing is one of the most recent public transport systems established in the Far East. It is distinctive in that the providers can be financially viable under state ownership and in large fleets. This study examines the system's service style, ownership pattern and organizational structure which are thought to have influenced the undertakings' financial performance. The findings suggest that neither ownership nor institutional structure contributes directly to profitability. The main factors for financial viability rest upon the self-reliance and entrepreneurship within the industry, which stimulates labour efficiency of the crews. Besides, the 'near-monopolistic' market and the limited total supply serving a huge population, also create opportunities for providers to charge high fares. On the basis of the findings, the study recommends that, in order to encourage the passenger transport business, a competitive market mechanism should be developed within the industry, with the participation of all sectors. The major outcome of this study is the building of a model of transport planning for developing cities. The essence of the model is that in low-income countries, cheap labour is an important resource which should be utilized fully in substitution for expensive imported technology, and that the use of modern technology should follow the affordability of the citizens and the condition of economic development. In conclusion, the study confirms that the unconventional transport wisdom is an appropriate approach that should be given proper weight, especially in the developing world.
2

Trolebus, espaço e sociedade / Trolley-bus, space and society

Enéas Rente Ferreira 12 June 1995 (has links)
Esse trabalho relata uma tentativa de demonstrar que o estudo de um conjunto de informações provenientes das discussões sobre os caminhos da Geografia, nas últimas décadas, pode permitir a identificação de conceitos e processos úteis para análise de relações entre equipamentos de transporte urbano, o Estado, o espaço e a difusão de inovações em nossa Sociedade. Para isso, relatam-se resultados de uma reflexão sobre o papel do espaço, o espaço urbano, relações entre o Estado e o espaço, a difusão de inovações, relações entre transporte urbano e espaço, e a história resumida do transporte por trolebus no Brasil. Detalham-se a análise de dados sobre a operação de trolebus em cinco cidades, onde hoje (1994), se transporta passageiros com o ônibus elétrico no Brasil, resultados de análise da história do trolebus sob os conceitos resultantes da reflexão exposta e conclusões gerais que corroboram com a tese demonstrada. / This work reports a trial to demonstrate that the study of a set of information from discussions about the last decade Geography\'s way can allow the identification of concepts and useful processes to explain the relationships between urban transportation equipments and the State, the space and the innovation difusion process in our Society. For this some meditation results on the space\'s role, urban space, relationships between space and State or urban transportation and space, innovation diffusion, and the story of trolleybus in Brazil was related. The data analysis on operation of trolleys in five cities, where today (1994) passengers are conducted by eletric buses in Brazil and the results of the trolley story on the concepts results from the reflexion exposed and the general conclusion that cooperate with this thesis are detailed here.
3

Trolebus, espaço e sociedade / Trolley-bus, space and society

Ferreira, Enéas Rente 12 June 1995 (has links)
Esse trabalho relata uma tentativa de demonstrar que o estudo de um conjunto de informações provenientes das discussões sobre os caminhos da Geografia, nas últimas décadas, pode permitir a identificação de conceitos e processos úteis para análise de relações entre equipamentos de transporte urbano, o Estado, o espaço e a difusão de inovações em nossa Sociedade. Para isso, relatam-se resultados de uma reflexão sobre o papel do espaço, o espaço urbano, relações entre o Estado e o espaço, a difusão de inovações, relações entre transporte urbano e espaço, e a história resumida do transporte por trolebus no Brasil. Detalham-se a análise de dados sobre a operação de trolebus em cinco cidades, onde hoje (1994), se transporta passageiros com o ônibus elétrico no Brasil, resultados de análise da história do trolebus sob os conceitos resultantes da reflexão exposta e conclusões gerais que corroboram com a tese demonstrada. / This work reports a trial to demonstrate that the study of a set of information from discussions about the last decade Geography\'s way can allow the identification of concepts and useful processes to explain the relationships between urban transportation equipments and the State, the space and the innovation difusion process in our Society. For this some meditation results on the space\'s role, urban space, relationships between space and State or urban transportation and space, innovation diffusion, and the story of trolleybus in Brazil was related. The data analysis on operation of trolleys in five cities, where today (1994) passengers are conducted by eletric buses in Brazil and the results of the trolley story on the concepts results from the reflexion exposed and the general conclusion that cooperate with this thesis are detailed here.
4

Decision-making for sustainable transport planning : reducing car dependency culture in Alexandria, Egypt

Hassan, Sara January 2016 (has links)
This thesis aims at investigating the challenges and barriers of reducing car dependency culture to achieve urban sustainability in Egypt. This is operationalised by identifying different policy options and theoretically examining a nested-case study empirically. A more important purpose behind this academic enterprise was to find more robust and nuanced explanations of the constant failure of the transport planning system in Egyptian cities. The adoption of a cultural-oriented analytical framework to examine decision-making processes demonstrated a way forward in the re-evaluation of current transport policy directions in Egypt. The research applies qualitative methods to a nested case study in Alexandria through the Sustainable Urban Transport Project, 2032. The rigorous data-collection methods included extensive documentary analysis, elite interviews, semi-structured interviews and non-participant observations. The results obtained from applying these unconventional methods of social and political sciences in transport planning studies show the richness of these research methods in providing comprehensive explanations. This research illustrates the value of placing policy and transport-planning-related studies into the centre of different research positions. The main contributions of this research are grounded on a number of key research findings. First, the development of a cultural-oriented analytical framework based on the central thesis of polyrationality. Second, the research pioneers the approach of identifying the relevant stakeholders and contexts in transport decision-making processes in Egypt which serves as a basis for other future transport-related research for Egypt. This research builds the foundation for conducting multidisciplinary research for transport planning studies. The final contribution of this research suggests the need for mediators or policy analysts who have relevant education and knowledge in the transport planning sector to influence the decision-making processes.
5

Metodologia para o planejamento do transporte urbano: um enfoque para o processo empresarial do serviço por ônibus / not available

Adelaide dos Santos Figueiredo 30 April 1999 (has links)
O trabalho apresenta uma metodologia para o planejamento empresarial do serviço de transporte urbano por ônibus. A metodologia foi concebida a partir de três pontos: a fundamentação metodológica, a revisão bibliográfica e a aplicação de uma técnica de análise de múltiplos critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão. A fundamentação metodológica do trabalho está no entendimento de que as variáveis relacionadas com a cultura, com a sociedade e com o poder político e econômico têm uma forte influência no processo de planejamento. Portanto, precisam ser consideradas na definição do produto completo da empresa, na gama de serviços a ser ofertado, na configuração da empresa e de suporte externo da oferta dos serviços e de insumos de produção. O desempenho empresarial é avaliado pela forma de gestão implementada na organização. A revisão bibliográfica permitiu selecionar e sistematizar os critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão e as alternativas para estruturar o planejamento, contemplando a organização interna, a avaliação e regulamentação do mercado de serviço do transporte urbano por ônibus. O método de múltiplos critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão adotado foi o Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP. Sua aplicação prioriza, em escala de importância, os critérios adotados de apoio à tomada de decisão e as alternativas de atuação contendo ações a serem implementadas para consolidar o planejamento empresarial. A metodologia permite ao empresário de transporte urbano por ônibus adotar um procedimento sistemático para consolidar o planejamento empresarial como um processo contínuo de gestão e de avaliação de resultados, ponderando inclusive as restrições de atuar em um mercado regulamentado. / The work presents a methodology for the managment planning of the urban bus passenger transportation service. The methodology was conceived three starting points: the methodological basis, a bibliographical review and the implementation of an analysis technique of different support criteria for decision making. The methodological basis of the work assumes that the variables related to the culture, society and to the political and economical power have a strong influence upon the planning process. Therefore, they must be taken into account when defining the total product of the enterprise, the range of services offered, the format of the enterprise and the external support of production services and assets available. The enterprise performance is evaluated by the type of management implemented in the organization. The bibliographical review allowed the selection and systematization of supporting criteria in decision making as well as the alternatives to structure the planning, taking into consideration the internal organization, the evaluation and regulation of the market in relation to urban bus transportation services. The different criteria of support to decision making adopted was the Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP. Its application, by priority, is in order of importance, the criteria adopted and the alternatives of performance containing actions to be implemented in order to consolidate the planning process. The methodology allows the entrepreneur to use the enterprise planning as a continuous process of performance and of evaluation of results, including considerations on restrictions of performance in a regulated market.
6

Análise da complexidade da malha viária para distribuição de última milha em áreas urbanas. / An analysis of road networks complexity for last mile distribution in urban areas.

Júlia Coutinho Amaral 31 July 2018 (has links)
O objetivo deste trabalho é apresentar um método que possibilite a avaliação e a comparação de áreas urbanas quanto à dificuldade imposta pela malha viária à circulação dos veículos que realizam a distribuição de última milha Busca-se um método automatizado que seja global, ou seja, que possa ser aplicado em qualquer cidade do mundo, não dependa de dados de campo nem de informações cujo acesso é restrito. A relevância deste trabalho é justificada pela carência de ferramentas que auxiliem a tomada de decisões relacionadas a políticas de transporte e planejamento da distribuição de última milha em cidades. Primeiro, é feita uma revisão bibliográfica de métodos e métricas de avaliação de cidades e redes viárias e de transportes, a fim de identificar quais podem ser adaptadas para o problema da distribuição de carga urbana. Em seguida é apresentado o procedimento do método proposto, que contempla as duas partes da distribuição de última milha: circulação local e acesso/regresso ao distrito de entrega. O método avalia a malha viária quanto a influência da sua infraestrutura nas distâncias das viagens através de um índice de \"retilinidade\" baseado em uma métrica revisada da literatura, e avalia a influência da ocupação viária nos tempos de viagem através das velocidades médias estimadas em dados históricos. O método ainda contempla a possibilidade do uso de veículos não motorizados nas entregas, adicionando a topografia da área urbana estudada à avaliação realizada. Os dados de entrada necessários para a aplicação do método são estabelecidos pelo usuário com base na região e no tipo de cadeia de suprimentos que se deseja estudar e as informações necessárias para a análise são obtidas através das ferramentas Google Maps Directions API e Open Street Map, cumprindo os objetivos de generalidade e automação desejados. Para a parte da circulação local, são apresentados resultados da aplicação do método proposto em seis áreas urbanas de seis cidades diferentes (São Paulo, Rio de janeiro, Bogotá, Nova Iorque, Londres e São Francisco), e, para a parte do acesso/regresso ao distrito de entrega, são apresentados resultados para quatro potenciais locais de Centro de Distribuição e uma área de entrega em São Paulo. Os resultados consistem em uma coletânea de métricas, gráficos e mapas que permitem a avaliação e comparação das áreas urbanas estudadas, como proposto. Adicionalmente são apresentadas as correlações entre as métricas estruturais das malhas viárias e as métricas associadas ao desempenho da distribuição de última milha, a fim de identificar possíveis causalidades entre elas. Por fim, os resultados obtidos são discutidos e são sugeridos próximos passos para a continuação deste trabalho. / The goal of this thesis is to introduce a method that allows the evaluation and comparison of urban areas regarding the difficulty imposed by the road network to the circulation of vehicles that perform the last mile distribution. The method must be automated and global, meaning that it can be applied in any city and does not rely on field data or restricted information. This thesis is motivated by the scarcity of supporting tools for elaborating transport policies and planning the last mile distribution operations in cities. Firstly, a literature review is conducted to identify urban and road network metrics that can be applicable to urban freight distribution analysis. Next, the proposed method is presented. It analyses two parts of the last mile distribution: local distribution and line-haul. The method evaluates the influence of the road network infrastructure on travel distances through a straightness index based on metric found in the literature review, and it evaluates the influence of road occupation on travel times through estimated speeds based on historical data. All inputs required for the application of the method are defined by the user and are based on the characteristics of the study area and type of supply chain. The information required for the analysis is obtained through the Google Maps Directions API and Open Street Map tools, which fulfill the automation premise of the method. For the local distribution, a study case is conducted in six urban areas from six cities (Sao Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Bogota, New York, London and San Francisco). For the line-haul, the case study includes four potential distribution center locations and a delivery area in Sao Paulo. The results are a collection of metrics, graphs and maps that allow the evaluation and the comparison of the six urban areas, as proposed. Additionally, the correlations between the structural metrics of the road networks and the drivers of the last mile distribution are presented, in order to identify possible causalities between them. Finally, the results are discussed and further steps for this work are suggested.
7

Metodologia para o planejamento do transporte urbano: um enfoque para o processo empresarial do serviço por ônibus / not available

Figueiredo, Adelaide dos Santos 30 April 1999 (has links)
O trabalho apresenta uma metodologia para o planejamento empresarial do serviço de transporte urbano por ônibus. A metodologia foi concebida a partir de três pontos: a fundamentação metodológica, a revisão bibliográfica e a aplicação de uma técnica de análise de múltiplos critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão. A fundamentação metodológica do trabalho está no entendimento de que as variáveis relacionadas com a cultura, com a sociedade e com o poder político e econômico têm uma forte influência no processo de planejamento. Portanto, precisam ser consideradas na definição do produto completo da empresa, na gama de serviços a ser ofertado, na configuração da empresa e de suporte externo da oferta dos serviços e de insumos de produção. O desempenho empresarial é avaliado pela forma de gestão implementada na organização. A revisão bibliográfica permitiu selecionar e sistematizar os critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão e as alternativas para estruturar o planejamento, contemplando a organização interna, a avaliação e regulamentação do mercado de serviço do transporte urbano por ônibus. O método de múltiplos critérios de apoio à tomada de decisão adotado foi o Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP. Sua aplicação prioriza, em escala de importância, os critérios adotados de apoio à tomada de decisão e as alternativas de atuação contendo ações a serem implementadas para consolidar o planejamento empresarial. A metodologia permite ao empresário de transporte urbano por ônibus adotar um procedimento sistemático para consolidar o planejamento empresarial como um processo contínuo de gestão e de avaliação de resultados, ponderando inclusive as restrições de atuar em um mercado regulamentado. / The work presents a methodology for the managment planning of the urban bus passenger transportation service. The methodology was conceived three starting points: the methodological basis, a bibliographical review and the implementation of an analysis technique of different support criteria for decision making. The methodological basis of the work assumes that the variables related to the culture, society and to the political and economical power have a strong influence upon the planning process. Therefore, they must be taken into account when defining the total product of the enterprise, the range of services offered, the format of the enterprise and the external support of production services and assets available. The enterprise performance is evaluated by the type of management implemented in the organization. The bibliographical review allowed the selection and systematization of supporting criteria in decision making as well as the alternatives to structure the planning, taking into consideration the internal organization, the evaluation and regulation of the market in relation to urban bus transportation services. The different criteria of support to decision making adopted was the Analytic Hierarchy Process - AHP. Its application, by priority, is in order of importance, the criteria adopted and the alternatives of performance containing actions to be implemented in order to consolidate the planning process. The methodology allows the entrepreneur to use the enterprise planning as a continuous process of performance and of evaluation of results, including considerations on restrictions of performance in a regulated market.
8

Combining mobility demand and climate protection in urban transport systems. Obstacles and constraints in the case of Berlin

Stumpp, Inga January 2018 (has links)
Transportation is an essential part of city life. However the extensive use of private cars in urban transport systems leads not only to a decrease in public health and quality of life but also drives global warming through the emission of GHG. The growth rate of CO 2 emissions caused by transportation is among the highest across all energy sectors. In order to mitigate climate change, it is therefore crucial to reverse this trend and change urban transport systems towards more climate compatibility. Thus, this thesis investigates if and how mobility demand and climate protection can be combined in urban transport systems.To answer these questions, the thesis discusses characteristics of climate-friendly transportation based on findings from academic literature. Moreover, policy instruments to transform urban transportation towards climate compatibility as well as possible obstacles and constraints in this regard are investigated. More precisely, socio-technical/infrastructural, technological, financial, legal, institutional/organisational, political, habitual, and cultural constraints are described and the significance of pragmatic, moral, and cognitive legitimacy is ascertained with regard to public and political acceptance of policies.Drawing on these theoretical assumptions, the case of Berlin is analysed in more detail. Based on policy documents, statistical data, expert interviews, and a public hearing in the Senate of Berlin, it is investigated how the city plans to make its transport system more climate-friendly and what the actual state of climate compatibility within the transport sector is at the moment. As a result, it could be observed that policies for climate-friendly transport are in place and mostly implemented but that the amount of CO 2 emissions caused by the transport system and especially by road traffic has more or less stagnated since the 1990s. Several reasons for this development could be ascertained: The transformation towards climate compatibility is, on the one hand, constrained bylegal, infrastructural, institutional, political, habitual, and cultural factors as well as by the lack of personnel within the city administration, and, on the other hand, hampered by the perceived inacceptability of car-restrictive policies.The conclusion from this thesis is therefore that it is thereotically possible to combine mobility demand and climate protection in urban transport systems and it is furthermore imperative in order to mitigate climate change and its dreaded impacts. In practical terms, however, cities face several intertwined and often very distinct obstacles and constraints that can only be overcome by long-term, dedicated, and citizen-oriented policy planning and implementation.
9

An Aggregate Measure of Bicycle Commuting and its Relationship with Heart Disease Prevalence in the United States

Todoroff, Emma Coleman 19 November 2021 (has links)
United States bicycle commuting rates are low compared to similarly developed countries like the Netherlands and Denmark. However, bicycle commuting shows promise for positive health outcomes, especially those related to chronic diseases like obesity, diabetes, and heart disease. Little research has been conducted in the U.S. to study the association between bicycle commuting and heart disease. Furthermore, U.S. cities need guidance on how to increase bicycle commuting rates. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the association between U.S. bicycle commuting rates and heart disease prevalence and to identify infrastructure and policy factors most significantly associated with bicycle commuting rates in large U.S. cities. This research quantitatively defined infrastructure and policy factors and analyzed ecologic associations across the 50 most populous U.S. cities. The results of this study are based on an ecologic analysis that evaluated associations at the census tract and city levels. Secondary data from nine sources as used to conduct the analysis. Data sources include the League of American Bicyclists Benchmarking Report, PeopleForBikes bicycle network analysis, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System, the U.S. Census Bureau American Community Survey, and more. A principal components analysis was conducted to identify relevant infrastructure factors for research question one; ordinary least squares regression models were derived to compare associations between infrastructure and policy factors for research question two, and latent class cluster analysis was conducted to calculate the prevalence odds ratios of the association between bicycle commuting rate and heart disease for research question three. Three factors accounted for 70% of the variation in bicycle commuting rates. Those three factors include the average number of cyclist fatalities, the number of city employees working on bicycle projects, and bicycle network connections to public transit. The results also show that the association between bicycle commuting rate and heart disease prevalence was only statistically significant in census tract populations with predominantly high socioeconomic status, low health risk factors, and white race. The ecologic study design likely masked any positive health outcomes in populations with low socioeconomic status. The findings of this study provide valuable insights for transportation and public health practitioners, and the conclusions set the stage for future research on cycling and chronic disease outcomes in the United States. / Doctor of Philosophy / In the U.S., about 1% of the population bicycle commutes to work. Bicycle commuting is uncommon in the U.S. because many people feel it is not a safe or practical form of transportation. However, several U.S. organizations are working to make roadways safer for cyclists. Some of these organizations include The League of American Bicyclists (LAB), PeopleForBikes (PFB), and Smart Growth America (SGA). The LAB has awarded nearly 500 towns and cities with a bicycle-friendly community award, while PFB has created tools to help urban planners examine bicycle networks in their communities. SGA also helps create bicycle-friendly cities by working with elected officials to advocate for policies that will make roadways safer for cyclists. LAB, PFB, and SGA all collect data as part of their work to learn what U.S. communities are doing to support cycling. I used LAB, PFB, and SGA data to determine the most important factors for bicycle-friendliness in the 50 largest U.S. cities. I evaluated the impact of 14 factors, including, but not limited to, protected bike lanes, network connectedness, and bicycle-friendly policy. I found that three factors had the strongest association with bicycle commuting rates in large U.S. cities: network connections to public transit, the number of city employees working on bicycle projects, and the number of deaths from cyclist fatalities. Cities looking to increase bicycle commuting should use these results to focus their efforts on improving public transit networks, increasing the number of work hours spent on bicycle projects, and identifying strategies to reduce cyclist fatalities. U.S. cities should work towards improving bicycle-friendliness because of the population health benefits. In the past 20 years, the percentage of Americans with obesity has increased by 40%, and the percentage of Americans with Type 2 diabetes has doubled. Multiple factors contribute to obesity and diabetes, including bicycle commuting, which has been associated with decreases in both obesity and diabetes. Bicycle commuting may also be associated with heart disease, which is the leading cause of death in the U.S., but more research is needed. In the second part of this study, I evaluated the relationship between bicycle commuting rate and the percentage of Americans living with heart disease. I used data from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the U.S. Census Bureau to understand the association between bicycle commuting and heart disease in 50 U.S. cities. I analyzed the data by census tract to understand health outcomes at a population level. I found that the association between bicycle commuting and heart disease was only significant in census tracts that were predominately high-income. I also found that bicycle commuting rates in high-income populations were three times greater than in low-income populations. In other words, health benefits were not visible in low-income populations because of low bicycle commuting rates. Low-income populations have higher rates of obesity and diabetes and would benefit the most from bicycle commuting, yet these populations confront several barriers to cycling. Cities interested in improving bicycle-friendliness should work to engage low-income populations in their work.
10

Weaving the Networks of In/formality in African Urban Transport: Ethnography of Tera Askebari in Addis Ababa / アフリカ都市交通のフォーマルとインフォーマルの関係を紡ぐ―アディスアベバのミニバス乗り場で働く人々の民族誌―

Choi, Eunji 23 March 2022 (has links)
京都大学 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(地域研究) / 甲第24022号 / 地博第301号 / 新制||地||117(附属図書館) / 京都大学大学院アジア・アフリカ地域研究研究科アフリカ地域研究専攻 / (主査)教授 重田 眞義, 教授 平野(野元) 美佐, 准教授 金子 守恵, 教授 高橋 基樹 / 学位規則第4条第1項該当 / Doctor of Area Studies / Kyoto University / DGAM

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