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Operational Transconductance Amplifiers For Gigahertz ApplicationsZheng, You 19 September 2008 (has links)
A novel CMOS operational transconductance amplifier (OTA) is proposed and demonstrated in this thesis. Due to its feedforward-regulated cascode topology, it breaks the previous OTA frequency limit of several hundred MHz and operates at frequencies up to 10 GHz with a large transconductance. This is confirmed by an in-depth high-frequency analysis, simulations, and experimental demonstrations using purpose-built circuits. Experimental results also show that the proposed OTA has high linearity and low intermodulation distortion, which is of particular interest in microwave circuits. The OTA’s noise behavior and the effects of process variations, device mismatch, and power supply noise on the transconductance are also studied. To the best of our knowledge, the noise analysis here is the first of its kind on regulated cascode circuits, which can be applied to other regulated cascodes with minor changes. Three microwave applications of this OTA are explored in this thesis: 1) an active bandpass filter with a wide tuning range, 2) a 2.4-GHz ISM-band variable phase shifter, and 3) a microwave active quasi-circulator, which are all in CMOS MMIC form. These three circuits can be easily integrated with other chip components for System-on-Chip (SoC) realizations. The use of the OTA makes these three applications super compact: the active filter is at least 5 times smaller than previous circuits with a similar topology, and the phase shifter and quasi-circulator are at least 3 times smaller than previous works in that frequency range. Furthermore, the tunability of the developed OTA on its transconductance gives its applications extra freedom in tuning their frequencies and gains/losses electronically. In the first application, the active bandpass filter has a novel narrowband-filtering topology and has a wide tuning-range of 28% around 1.8 GHz, which makes it very suited for reconfigurable multi-band wireless systems. In the second and third applications, the active variable phase shifter has a comparable variable phase shift range of 120º in the 2.4-GHz ISM band and the active quasi-circulator has transmissions close to 0 dB and directivities over 24 dB from 1.5 GHz to 2.7 GHz. / Thesis (Ph.D, Electrical & Computer Engineering) -- Queen's University, 2008-09-18 09:49:00.07
Confinement élastique au sein de nanostructures : le nanofil isolé, un système modèle / Single nanowires as model systems to study acoustic confinement in nanostructuresCyril, Jean 23 June 2017 (has links)
Dans ce travail de thèse, nous étudions expérimentalement la dynamique vibrationnelle de nano-objets uniques métalliques ou semi-conducteurs par des techniques pompe/sonde femtosecondes. Nous démontrons d’abord que l’observation de nanofils uniques, suspendus au-dessus de tranchées permet à la fois de s’affranchir de l’effet d’étalement inhomogène des propriétés acoustiques et d’augmenter le confinement acoustique. Grâce à l’enrichissement du paysage vibrationnel ainsi obtenu, nous explorons les propriétés élastiques de nombreux systèmes : métalliques, semi-conducteurs, poreux, alliages, cœur/coquille, etc. Ensuite, nous tirons parti de l’augmentation du confinement acoustique pour observer la propagation d’ondes acoustiques gigahertz guidées le long de nanofils ou de nanopoutres. Nous montrons que la propagation de ces ondes acoustiques dans ces guides d’ondes nanométriques permet d’obtenir des informations indépendantes sur les propriétés élastiques des objets. A contrario, nous mettons en évidence que lorsque le nanofil est en contact avec un substrat, il agit comme une source acoustique monochromatique d’ondes longitudinales qui rayonne dans le substrat. Nous réalisons en transmission l’imagerie spatio-temporelle de ce champ acoustique généré et détectons acoustiquement l’orientation du nanofil sous-jacent grâce à l’anisotropie de forme du champ acoustique. Enfin, nous envisageons une preuve de concept d’un système de microscopie acoustique de résolution spatiale nanométrique en utilisant une pointe de microscopie à force atomique. / Vibrational dynamics of individual nano-objects is studied experimentally using pump and probe time-resolved spectroscopy. First, suspended and individual nano-objects avoid the inhomogeneous broadening of the acoustic properties and increase the acoustics confinement inside the nano-object. Elastic properties of metallic, semiconducting, porous, alloys or core-shell nanowires are thus studied in this advantageous geometry. The increased acoustic confinement in the suspended geometry also lead us to the observation of gigahertz coherent guided acoustic phonons in single copper nanowires and gold nanobeams. We show that the observation of propagating acoustic waves in nanoscale waveguides provide additional elastic informations. Furthermore, it gives the opportunity to unambiguously discriminate which mode is excited and detected using pump and probe time-resolved spectroscopy. On the contrary, nanowires can be used as monochromatic acoustic sources of longitudinal waves when deposited on a substrate. As the acoustic source radiates longitudinal waves inside the substrate, the spatiotemporal imaging of the generated acoustic field is undergone and the nanowire’s orientation is detected in transmission thanks to the acoustic field’s anisotropy. Finally, as another step toward acoustic microscopy with nanoscale spatial resolutions, an atomic force microscopy tip is used as a waveguide and an acoustic transducer with nanometric spatial extension.
Scanning Fabry-perot Spectrometer For Terahertz And Gigahertz Spectroscopy Using Dielectric Bragg MirrorsCleary, Justin 01 January 2007 (has links)
A scanning Fabry-Perot transmission filter composed of a pair of dielectric mirrors has been demonstrated at millimeter and sub-millimeter wavelengths. The mirrors are formed by alternating quarter-wave optical thicknesses of silicon and air in the usual Bragg configuration. Detailed theoretical considerations are presented for determining the optimum design including factors that affect achievable finesse. Fundamental loss by lattice and free carrier absorption are considered. High resistivity in the silicon layers was found important for achieving high transmittance and finesse, especially at the longer wavelengths. Also considered are technological factors such as surface roughness, bowing, and misalignment for various proposed manufacturing schemes. Characterization was performed at sub-mm wavelengths using a gas laser together with a Golay cell detector and at millimeter wavelengths using a backward wave oscillator and microwave power meter. A finesse value of 422 for a scanning Fabry-Perot cavity composed of three-period Bragg mirrors was experimentally demonstrated. Finesse values of several thousand are considered to be within reach. This suggests the possibility of a compact terahertz Fabry-Perot spectrometer that can operate in low resonance order to realize high free spectral range while simultaneously achieving a high spectral resolution. Such a device is directly suitable for airborne/satellite and man-portable sensing instrumentation.
Elektromagnetisch modifizierte Materialien für Radarsensor-AbdeckungenBonfig, Teresa 23 December 2022 (has links)
Bei der Anwendung von Radarsensoren zur Fahrzeug-Umfelderfassung müssen verwendete Blenden (Radome), welche den Sensor vor externen Einﬂüssen schützen und das Fahrzeugdesign unterstützen, die hochfrequente elektromagnetische Welle ohne Beeinﬂussung transmittieren. Allerdings werden beim Durchstrahlen eines Bauteils unterschiedliche Anteile der Welle absorbiert, reﬂektiert oder transmittiert. Mit dem Ziel die Transmission von Materialien zu erhöhen, werden im Rahmen dieser Arbeit die Einﬂüsse auf den Materialparameter Permittivität von Kunststoﬀen und Lacken untersucht. Dadurch kann auch die praktische Umsetzbarkeit der theoretisch hergeleiteten Kompensationsmethoden für hochreﬂektierende Lacke nachgewiesen werden. Zur Absicherung der Radarfunktion müssen darüber hinaus auch Einﬂussfaktoren aus Design, Fertigungsprozess und Umgebung bekannt sein.:1 Einleitung 2 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung 3 Stand der Wissenschaft 4 Elektromagnetische Eigenschaften von Kunststoﬀen 5 Einﬂuss elektromagnetischer Eigenschaften von Lacken 6 Radome im Gesamtaufbau 7 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Anhang / When radar sensors are used for vehicle environment scanning, the cover (radome) used to protect the sensor from external inﬂuences and support the vehicle design must transmit the high-frequency electromagnetic wave without interference. However, when the wave passes through a component it is absorbed, reﬂected or transmitted. The range of the radar sensor can be reduced, the sensor can be blinded by reﬂections and inhomogeneous reﬂection distributions can lead to angular errors. To increase the transmission of materials, the inﬂuences on the material parameter permittivity of plastics and paints are investigated. Furthermore, the practical feasibility of the theoretically derived compensation methods for highly reﬂective paints can be demonstrated. To ensure the radar function, inﬂuencing factors, including the design, the manufacturing process and environment, must also be known.:1 Einleitung 2 Problemstellung und Zielsetzung 3 Stand der Wissenschaft 4 Elektromagnetische Eigenschaften von Kunststoﬀen 5 Einﬂuss elektromagnetischer Eigenschaften von Lacken 6 Radome im Gesamtaufbau 7 Zusammenfassung und Ausblick Anhang
Fluidic Tuning of a Four-Arm Spiral-Based Frequency Selective SurfaceWells, Elizabeth Christine 2011 May 1900 (has links)
Frequency selective surfaces (FSSs) provide a variety of spatial filtering functions, such as band-pass or band-stop properties in a radome or other multilayer structure. This filtering is typically achieved through closely-spaced periodic arrangements of metallic shapes on top of a dielectric substrate (or within a stack of dielectric materials). In most cases, the unit cell size, its shape, the substrate parameters, and the inter-element spacing collectively impact the response of the FSS. Expanding this design space to include reconfigurable FSSs provides opportunities for applications requiring frequency agility and/or other properties. Tuning can also enable operation over a potentially wider range of frequencies and can in some cases be used as a loading mechanism or quasi-ground plane. Many technologies have been considered for this type of agility (RF MEMS, PIN diodes, etc.). This includes the recent use of microfluidics and dispersions of nanoparticles, or fluids with controllable dielectrics, which have entered the design space of numerous other EM applications including stub-tuners, antennas, and filters. In this work they provide a material based approach to reconfiguring an FSS. An FSS based on a four-arm spiral with tunable band-stop characteristics is presented in this work. A thin colloidal dispersion above each element provides this tuning capability. The radial expansion and contraction of this dispersion, as well as the variable permittivity of the dispersion, are used to load each element individually. This design incorporates thin fluidic channels within a PDMS layer below the substrate leading to individual unit cells that provide a closed pressure-driven subsystem that contains the dispersion. With the capability to individually control each cell, groups of cells can be locally altered (individually or in groups) to create gratings and other electromagnetically agile features across the surface or within the volume of a radome or other covering. Simulations and measurements of an S-band tunable design using colloidal Barium Strontium Titanate dispersed Silicone oil are provided to demonstrate the capability to adjust the stop-band characteristics of the FSS across the S-band.
Development of CMOS-Compatible, Microwave-Assisted Solution Processing of Nanostructured Zine Ferrite Films for Gigahertz CircuitsSai, Ranajit January 2013 (has links) (PDF)
The development of radio frequency integrated circuits (RFICs), especially the dream of integrating analog, digital and radio frequency (RF) components on the same chip that is commonly known as System-on-a-Chip (SoC), is crucial to mobile communications of the future. Such SoC approach offers enhanced performance, greater reliability, and substantially less power consumption of integrated circuits while reducing overall physical size and thus manufacturing cost. However, the progress has been stalled by the lack of miniaturized inductor elements. Rise of unwanted parasitic effects limits down-scaling of the inductor structures and leaves the use of magnetic coating as a viable and attractive option to enhance the inductance and thus inductance density. It is also essential to shift from perm alloy and other amorphous alloys to ferrites and hex ferrites as the core material because of their very high electrical resistivity so as to keep losses in check, a criterion that cannot be compromised on in GHz frequency applications. This is viable, however, only if the integration of the magnetic core (film), particularly a ferrite film, is fully compatible with the CMOS fabrication process. Various approaches have been taken to meet this requirement, including investigations of employing layers of ferrite materials to envelop the inductor loop. However, the deposition of thin films of ferrites, whether by PVD or CVD, usually calls for the deposited ferrite layer to be annealed at an elevated temperature to crystallize the layer so that its magnetic characteristics are appropriate for the optimum performance of the circuit element. Such annealing is incompatible with CMOS process flow required for aggressive device geometries, as the inductor element is added after the active semiconductor circuit is processed, and any exposure of the processed circuit to elevated temperatures risks disturbing precise doping profiles employed and the integrity of the inter-layer dielectrics. What is called for is a low-temperature process for the deposition of a ferrite layer on top of the patterned inductor element – a layer of thickness such that most of the fringe field is encapsulated – while ensuring that the layer comprises crystallites of uniform size that leads to uniform magnetic behaviour. Recognizing the difficulty of meeting the various stringent requirements, it has recently been remarked that such a goal is a formidable challenge. In an attempt to address this challenge, in this work, we have adopted a counter-intuitive approach - the deposition of the desired ferrite composition on a processed die (that contains the inductor structures along with active semiconductor circuits) by immersing it into a chemical (reactant) solution, followed by a brief irradiation of microwave frequency. However, to identify the desired ferrite composition and the appropriate recipe to deposit them, a systematic effort had to be made first, to understand the inter-relationship between synthesis process, structure of resulting material, and its physical and chemical properties. Therefore, at the beginning, a general introduction in which key concepts related to the magnetic-core inductors, the microwave-irradiation-assisted synthesis of nanostructures, the ‗state of the art‘ in the field of integration of appropriate magnetic material to the RFICs, are all outlined. As a proof of concept, microwave-irradiation-assisted solution-based deposition of zinc ferrite thin films on the technologically important Si (100) substrate is demonstrated. The highlight of the process is the use of only non-toxic metal organic precursors and aqua-alcoholic solvents for the synthesis, which is complete in 10 minutes @< 100 °C, without any poisonous by-products. Effects of various process parameters such as solute concentrations, surfactant types, and their concentrations are investigated. A wide range of deposition rates (10 - 2000 nm/min) has been achieved by tweaking the process parameters. The simultaneous formation of zinc ferrite nanocrystallites (ZFNC) along with deposition of thin film is the hallmark of this synthesis technique. Unlike its bulk counterpart, both film and powder are found upon investigation to be rich in magnetic behavior– owing to plausible cationic distribution in the crystal lattice, induced by the inherently quick and far-from-equilibrium nature of the process. The accurate estimation of magnetic characteristics in film is, however, found to be difficult due to the high substrate-to-film mass ratio. The simultaneously prepared ZFNC is examined to arrive at the optimized process recipe that imparts the desired magnetic properties to the zinc ferrite system. The crystallographic cationic distribution in zinc ferrite powder is, however, difficult to study due to the nanoscale dimension of the as prepared material. To enable crystal growth, slow and rapid annealing in air at two different temperatures are employed. The effects of these annealing schemes on various attributes (magnetic properties in particular) are studied. Rapid annealing turns out to be an interesting pathway to promote rapid grain-growth without disturbing the crystallographic site occupancies. The presence of inversion, i.e., the amount of Fe3+ in the ‗A‘-sites in the spinel structure that ideally is zero in normal spinel structure of zinc ferrite, is evident in all annealed ZFNC, as determined by Riveted analysis. Such partially inverted ZFNC exhibits soft magnetic behavior with high saturation magnetization, which can easily be ―tuned‖ by choosing appropriate annealing conditions. However, a few unique strategic modifications to the same microwave-irradiation-assisted solution-based synthesis technique are tried for the formation of nanocrystalline powder with desired sizes and properties without the necessity of anneal. The approach eventually appears to pave a way for the formation of oriented structures of zinc ferrite. The effects of anneal, nevertheless, are studied with the help of neutron powder diffractometry and magnetic measurements. The magnetic ordering at various temperatures is analyzed and connected to the magnetic measurements. The study shows that long-range magnetic ordering, present even at room temperate, originates from the distribution of cations in the partially inverted spinel structures, induced by the rapid and kinetically driven microwave synthesis. Keeping the mild nature (<200 °C) of the processing in mind, a large degree of inversion (~0.5) is a surprise and results in a very high saturation magnetization, as much as 30 emu/g at room temperature (paramagnetic in bulk), in the ZFNC system. Based on the knowledge of process-structure-property interrelationship, a recipe for the deposition of ferrite thin films by the microwave-assisted deposition technique is optimized. Successful deposition of smooth and uniform zinc ferrite thin films on various substrates is, then, demonstrated. The mystery behind the strong adherence of the film to the substrate - an unexpected outcome of a low-temperature process - is probed by XPS and the formation of silicates at the interface is identified as the probable reason. The uniformity and consistency of film composition is also examined in this chapter. Another salient feature of the process is its capability to coat any complex geometry conformally, allowing the possibility of depositing the material in a way to ―wrap around‖ the three-dimensional inductor structures of RF-CMOS. Integration of nanostructure zinc ferrite thin films onto on-chip spiral inductor structures has been demonstrated successfully. The magnetic-core inductors so obtained exhibit the highest inductance density (700 nH/mm2) and the highest Q factor (~20), reported to date, operate at 5 GHz and above, by far the highest reported to date. An increase in inductance density of as much as 20% was achieved with the use of just 1 µm thick film of zinc ferrite covering only the ―top‖ of the spiral structure, i.e., up to 20% of chip real estate can potentially be freed to provide additional functionality. The microwave-assisted solution-based deposition process described in this thesis is meant for ‗post-CMOS‘ processing, wherein the film deposited on some specific electronic components can add desired functionality to or improve the performance of a component (circuit) underneath. However, the effect of such ‗post-CMOS‘ processing on the active MOS devices, interconnects, and even inter-layer-dielectrics fabricated prior to the deposition has to be mild enough to leave the performance of delicate MOS characteristics intact. Such CMOS-compatibility of the present deposition process has been tested with a satisfactorily positive result.
Acoustique - étude et utilisation de nouvelles sources et transducteurs aux longueurs d'onde nanométriques.Legrand, Romain 21 October 2013 (has links) (PDF)
Ce manuscrit porte sur l'étude de transducteur acoustique couvrant la plage de fréquence allant de 100 GHz à 1 THz. Un laser impulsionnel pico-seconde est à l'origine de ces hautes fréquences. Les structures utilisées pour la génération sont un empilement bicouches GaAs/AlAs. La sensibilité de génération et de détection d'onde acoustique en fonction de la longueur d'onde est étudiée expérimentalement. Afin d'améliorer l'efficacité de transduction, une micro-cavité optique est utilisée pour augmenter l'interaction entre le rayonnement laser et le super-réseau. Ces transducteurs opto-acoustiques sont utilisés pour mesurer les temps de vie des phonons subterahertz et terahertz. Une anomalie dans le comportement en fréquence des temps de vie a été mise en évidence dans l'arséniure de gallium. L'utilisation de courbes de dispersion issues de calculs ab initio associée à l'approche de Landau-Rumer pour les temps de vie ultra-sonores permet d'expliquer ce comportement inattendu.
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