• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 15
  • 8
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 30
  • 9
  • 8
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Appropriate Use of Meropenem: A Pharmacy Intervention

Stacey Abbott, Rubal-Peace, Georgina, Natkowski, Jamie January 2014 (has links)
Class of 2014 Abstract / Specific Aims: The primary objective was to determine the effectiveness of a criteria-based antibiotic order form (CBAOF) at increasing appropriate meropenem use at University of Arizona Medical Center –South Campus (UAMCSC). The secondary objective was to assess any cost savings associated with increased appropriate meropenem use. Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients (n = 133) meeting inclusion criteria at UAMCSC during the pre and post-intervention periods was conducted. Outcomes included appropriate empiric use of meropenem, appropriate treatment of a known pathogen use of meropenem, appropriate dose and frequency of meropenem, appropriate antibiotic streamlining after culture and susceptibility report, and meropenem acquisition costs. Main Results: Appropriate empiric use of meropenem was significantly higher after the implementation of the CBAOF (100% vs. 65.8%, p = 0.002). Although not statistically significant, the post-intervention group had more patients meeting the criteria for appropriate use of meropenem for a known pathogen than the pre-intervention group (50% vs. 40%, p = 0.809). There were no differences between the pre and post-intervention groups with respect to appropriate dose of meropenem or appropriate frequency. After the implementation of the CBAOF there were significantly more patients who received antibiotic streamlining within 24 hours of culture and susceptibility reports (12.5% vs. 48.7%, p = 0.002). Drug acquisition costs for meropenem were reduced by approximately $30,000 after CBAOF implementation. Conclusion: The CBAOF was effective at increasing appropriate empiric meropenem use and decreasing meropenem acquisition costs at UAMCSC.
2

The Appropriateness of Antibiotic Therapy in Patients Initiated on Meropenem in a University-Affiliated Hospital

Wolken, Kathryn, Viswesh, Velliyur January 2011 (has links)
Class of 2011 Abstract / OBJECTIVES: To determine the appropriateness of antimicrobial therapy in patients initiated on empiric meropenem therapy. METHODS: Adult patients prescribed empiric meropenem therapy between January 1, 2010 and March 31, 2010 at a tertiary care, academic medical center were included. Data collected included site of infection, culture and susceptibility data, risk factors for multi-drug resistant organisms, and changes in antimicrobial therapy during the first seven days after meropenem therapy was initiated. Demographic variables included age, sex, weight, and race. RESULTS: RESULTS: A total of 89 patients were included in the study analysis. Initial culture(s) was obtained before administration of antibiotics in only 58% of patients. During the first 24 hours of admission, four or more different antibiotics were prescribed in 26% of patients often with overlapping spectrums of activity. The majority of patients received meropenem for either less than 1 day or greater than 4 days. CONCLUSION: The primary issues identified with appropriate antibiotic prescribing involved the timing of cultures, and multiple changes in antibiotic therapy without culture-driven reasoning.
3

Evaluation of in vitro serial antibiotic elution from meropenem-impregnated polymethylmethacrylate beads after ethylene oxide gas and autoclave sterilization

Baez, Leonardo Alfredo 07 August 2010 (has links)
The objective of this study was to determine elution properties of meropenem and compare the elutions of meropenem impregnated PMMA beads without sterilization (PMMA-Cont) to those sterilized with steam (PMMA-Auto) and ethylene oxide gas (PMMA-EO). Four groups of beads were produced: one group without antibiotic and three groups of meropenem impregnated beads: PMMA-Cont, PMMA-Auto, and PMMA-EO. Antibiotic concentrations in eluent samples were determined using a microbiological assay at different time intervals. The microbiological assay resulted in no zone of inhibition at all time periods for the PMMA-Auto samples and the samples of PMMA without antimicrobial. The meropenem concentration on the eluent remained above 4 mcg/ml for 15 days in the PMMA-Cont group and until day 18 for PMMA-EO group. The meropenem incorporated in the PMMA beads elutes effectively and gradually decreases after the 24 hour peak. Ethylene oxide does not adversely affect meropenem’s elution.
4

Convulsant carbapenems potential of different models in experimental convulsion: benchmarking, behavioral and neurochemical / Potencial convulsivante de carbapenÃmicos em diferentes modelos experimentais de convulsÃo: avaliaÃÃo comparativa, comportamental e neuroquÃmica

Camila Nayane de Carvalho Lima 28 December 2011 (has links)
CoordenaÃÃo de AperfeiÃoamento de NÃvel Superior / Epilepsy is the most common neurological disorder, affecting 50 million people worldwide, 40 million of them in developed countries. People of all races, genders, socioeconomic conditions and regions are affected. The pilocarpine (P400) is a cholinergic agonist characterized by inducing seizures evolving to status epilepticus, similar to human temporal lobe epilepsy. The pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) is a GABA antagonist that mimics the small-mal seizures (absence seizure) and tonic-clonic seizures in humans. The strychnine is a potent convulsant and acts mainly as a selective antagonist of postsynaptic inhibition mediated by glycine. Its main action is to increase the excitability of the spinal reflex . The convulsant picrotoxin is an agent that blocks chloride channels activated by gamma-aminobutyric acid. Convulsant agents were administered intraperitoneally, 10 minutes after intravenous administration of carbapenÃmcios With the development of this work, we found that pretreatment with imipenem or meropenem interfere with various neurotransmitter systems when animals are subjected to seizures induced by pilocarpine at a dose of 400mg/kg, 55mg/Kg at a dose of pentylenetetrazole, strychnine and picrotoxin 10mg/Kg 2mg/kg. This has been evidenced by increasing levels of excitatory amino acids such as glutamate and on the other hand, a decrease in levels of inhibitory amino acids such as GABA reinforcing the existence of a possible modulatory pathway of these amino acids in control and development of seizure occurs when pre-treatment with imipenem or meropenem. / Epilepsia à o mais freqÃente distÃrbio neurolÃgico, atingindo 50 milhÃes de pessoas no mundo, 40 milhÃes delas em paÃses desenvolvidos. Pessoas de todas as raÃas, sexos, condiÃÃes socioeconÃmicas e regiÃes sÃo acometidas. A pilocarpina (P400) à um agonista colinÃrgico que se caracteriza por induzir convulsÃes que evoluem para status epilÃpticus, similar à epilepsia do lobo temporal humana. O pentilenotetrazol (PTZ) à um antagonista GABA que mimetiza convulsÃes do pequeno-mal (crise de ausÃncia) e do tipo tÃnico-clÃnico em humanos. A estricnina à um potente convulsivante e atua, principalmente, como antagonista competitivo seletivo da inibiÃÃo pÃs-sinÃptica mediada pela glicina. Sua principal aÃÃo à o aumento da excitabilidade reflexa da medula. A picrotoxina à um agente convulsivante que bloqueia os canais de cloro ativados pelo Ãcido gama-aminobutÃrico. Os agentes convulsivantes foram administrados intraperitonialmente, apÃs 10 minutos da administraÃÃo intravenosa dos carbapenÃmcios Com o desenvolvimento deste trabalho, podemos observar que o prÃ-tratamento com imipenem ou meropenem interfere com vÃrios sistemas de neurotransmissores quando os animais sÃo submetidos à convulsÃo induzida pela pilocarpina na dose de 400mg/kg, pentilenotetrazol na dose de 55mg/Kg, estricnina 2mg/Kg e picrotoxina 10mg/Kg. Tal efeito foi evidenciado atravÃs do aumento nos nÃveis de aminoÃcidos excitatÃrios como o glutamato e, por outro lado, uma diminuiÃÃo nos nÃveis de aminoÃcidos inibitÃrios como o GABA reforÃando a existÃncia de uma possÃvel via modulatÃria desses aminoÃcidos no controle e desenvolvimento de crises epilÃpticas quando ocorre o prÃ-tratamento com imipenem/cilastatina ou meropenem.
5

Sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY e produção de carbapenemanses em pseudomonas aeruginosa : efeito na resistência aos carbapenêmicos

Pereira, Dariane Castro January 2013 (has links)
Introdução. Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno clinicamente importante. Existem diversos mecanismos de resistência aos antimicrobianos em P. aeruginosa, dentre eles a produção de enzimas (β-lactamases) e sistemas de efluxo se destacam, uma vez que são capazes de conferir resistência aos carbapenêmicos. Objetivo. Avaliar os sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY em isolados clínicos de P.aeruginosa de pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS e relacionar a expressão destes sistemas com a CIM de meropenem em isolados produtores e não produtores de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL). Metodologia. Um total de 86 isolados de P. aeruginosa com suscetibilidade reduzida aos carbapenêmicos foram avaliados. A hiperexpressão dos sistemas MexAB e MexXY foi determinada fenotipicamente utilizando inibidor seletivo da bomba (PAβN). MBLs foi determinada por PCR utilizando primers específicos. Resultados. O fenótipo de hiperexpressão dos sistemas de efluxo estudados foi observado em 34 (47,8%) dos 71 isolados negativos para a produção de MBL e em 14 (93.3%) dos 15 isolados MBL positivos. Na presença de PaβN, todos os isolados não produtores de MBL apresentaram uma redução da CIM para meropenem para valores na faixa de suscetibilidade. Entretanto, das 13 P. aeruginosa produtoras de MBL que diminuíram a CIM, essa redução não foi para valores dentro da faixa de sensibilidade. Conclusão. Os isolados de P. aeruginosa não produtores de MBL apresentam resistência ao meropenem devido a hiperexpressão de MexAB-OprM. Na presença de PaβN, independente de apresentarem produção de MBL, o CIM de meropenem reduziu para valores ≤ 8 mg/L. Contudo, quando isolados não apresentavam MBL, a CIM de meropenem reduziu para níveis de sensibilidade. / Introduction. Bacterial efflux pump systems are resistance mechanisms which may lead to therapeutic failure of antibiotic treatment since many antimicrobial agents are substrate for these mechanisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of the MexAB, MexXY pump efflux and to determine its influence on meropenem MIC in carbapenemase producing and non-producing P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 86 non-repetitive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were evaluated. Overexperession of MexAB and MexXY efflux systems were evaluated phenotypically using the PAβN selective inhibitor. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Results. The efflux pump-overexpressed phenotype was observed in 34 (47.8%) MBL-negative and in 14 (93.3%) MBL-positive isolates. In the presence of the PaβN, all non-producers of MBL presented a reduction of meropenem MICs to the range of susceptibility. In contrast, the 13 P. aeruginosa MBL-producing isolates decreased meropenem MICs at least 16-fold but this reduction did not reach the range of susceptibility. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa non-MBL-producing showed resistance to meropenem due to overexpression of MexAB-OprM. In the presence of PaβN, the isolates harboring or not MBL genes, the meropenem MICs were reduced to values ≤8 mg/L. However, when the isolates harbor MBL genes, the meropenem MIC values were reduced to the susceptibility.
6

Sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY e produção de carbapenemanses em pseudomonas aeruginosa : efeito na resistência aos carbapenêmicos

Pereira, Dariane Castro January 2013 (has links)
Introdução. Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno clinicamente importante. Existem diversos mecanismos de resistência aos antimicrobianos em P. aeruginosa, dentre eles a produção de enzimas (β-lactamases) e sistemas de efluxo se destacam, uma vez que são capazes de conferir resistência aos carbapenêmicos. Objetivo. Avaliar os sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY em isolados clínicos de P.aeruginosa de pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS e relacionar a expressão destes sistemas com a CIM de meropenem em isolados produtores e não produtores de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL). Metodologia. Um total de 86 isolados de P. aeruginosa com suscetibilidade reduzida aos carbapenêmicos foram avaliados. A hiperexpressão dos sistemas MexAB e MexXY foi determinada fenotipicamente utilizando inibidor seletivo da bomba (PAβN). MBLs foi determinada por PCR utilizando primers específicos. Resultados. O fenótipo de hiperexpressão dos sistemas de efluxo estudados foi observado em 34 (47,8%) dos 71 isolados negativos para a produção de MBL e em 14 (93.3%) dos 15 isolados MBL positivos. Na presença de PaβN, todos os isolados não produtores de MBL apresentaram uma redução da CIM para meropenem para valores na faixa de suscetibilidade. Entretanto, das 13 P. aeruginosa produtoras de MBL que diminuíram a CIM, essa redução não foi para valores dentro da faixa de sensibilidade. Conclusão. Os isolados de P. aeruginosa não produtores de MBL apresentam resistência ao meropenem devido a hiperexpressão de MexAB-OprM. Na presença de PaβN, independente de apresentarem produção de MBL, o CIM de meropenem reduziu para valores ≤ 8 mg/L. Contudo, quando isolados não apresentavam MBL, a CIM de meropenem reduziu para níveis de sensibilidade. / Introduction. Bacterial efflux pump systems are resistance mechanisms which may lead to therapeutic failure of antibiotic treatment since many antimicrobial agents are substrate for these mechanisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of the MexAB, MexXY pump efflux and to determine its influence on meropenem MIC in carbapenemase producing and non-producing P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 86 non-repetitive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were evaluated. Overexperession of MexAB and MexXY efflux systems were evaluated phenotypically using the PAβN selective inhibitor. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Results. The efflux pump-overexpressed phenotype was observed in 34 (47.8%) MBL-negative and in 14 (93.3%) MBL-positive isolates. In the presence of the PaβN, all non-producers of MBL presented a reduction of meropenem MICs to the range of susceptibility. In contrast, the 13 P. aeruginosa MBL-producing isolates decreased meropenem MICs at least 16-fold but this reduction did not reach the range of susceptibility. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa non-MBL-producing showed resistance to meropenem due to overexpression of MexAB-OprM. In the presence of PaβN, the isolates harboring or not MBL genes, the meropenem MICs were reduced to values ≤8 mg/L. However, when the isolates harbor MBL genes, the meropenem MIC values were reduced to the susceptibility.
7

Sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY e produção de carbapenemanses em pseudomonas aeruginosa : efeito na resistência aos carbapenêmicos

Pereira, Dariane Castro January 2013 (has links)
Introdução. Pseudomonas aeruginosa é um patógeno clinicamente importante. Existem diversos mecanismos de resistência aos antimicrobianos em P. aeruginosa, dentre eles a produção de enzimas (β-lactamases) e sistemas de efluxo se destacam, uma vez que são capazes de conferir resistência aos carbapenêmicos. Objetivo. Avaliar os sistemas de efluxo MexAB-OprM e MexXY em isolados clínicos de P.aeruginosa de pacientes atendidos no Hospital de Clínicas de Porto Alegre-RS e relacionar a expressão destes sistemas com a CIM de meropenem em isolados produtores e não produtores de metalo-beta-lactamases (MBL). Metodologia. Um total de 86 isolados de P. aeruginosa com suscetibilidade reduzida aos carbapenêmicos foram avaliados. A hiperexpressão dos sistemas MexAB e MexXY foi determinada fenotipicamente utilizando inibidor seletivo da bomba (PAβN). MBLs foi determinada por PCR utilizando primers específicos. Resultados. O fenótipo de hiperexpressão dos sistemas de efluxo estudados foi observado em 34 (47,8%) dos 71 isolados negativos para a produção de MBL e em 14 (93.3%) dos 15 isolados MBL positivos. Na presença de PaβN, todos os isolados não produtores de MBL apresentaram uma redução da CIM para meropenem para valores na faixa de suscetibilidade. Entretanto, das 13 P. aeruginosa produtoras de MBL que diminuíram a CIM, essa redução não foi para valores dentro da faixa de sensibilidade. Conclusão. Os isolados de P. aeruginosa não produtores de MBL apresentam resistência ao meropenem devido a hiperexpressão de MexAB-OprM. Na presença de PaβN, independente de apresentarem produção de MBL, o CIM de meropenem reduziu para valores ≤ 8 mg/L. Contudo, quando isolados não apresentavam MBL, a CIM de meropenem reduziu para níveis de sensibilidade. / Introduction. Bacterial efflux pump systems are resistance mechanisms which may lead to therapeutic failure of antibiotic treatment since many antimicrobial agents are substrate for these mechanisms. The aim of the study was to evaluate the expression of the MexAB, MexXY pump efflux and to determine its influence on meropenem MIC in carbapenemase producing and non-producing P. aeruginosa. Methods. A total of 86 non-repetitive clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa with reduced susceptibility to carbapenems were evaluated. Overexperession of MexAB and MexXY efflux systems were evaluated phenotypically using the PAβN selective inhibitor. Metallo-β-lactamases (MBL) were detected by PCR using specific primers. Results. The efflux pump-overexpressed phenotype was observed in 34 (47.8%) MBL-negative and in 14 (93.3%) MBL-positive isolates. In the presence of the PaβN, all non-producers of MBL presented a reduction of meropenem MICs to the range of susceptibility. In contrast, the 13 P. aeruginosa MBL-producing isolates decreased meropenem MICs at least 16-fold but this reduction did not reach the range of susceptibility. Conclusion. P. aeruginosa non-MBL-producing showed resistance to meropenem due to overexpression of MexAB-OprM. In the presence of PaβN, the isolates harboring or not MBL genes, the meropenem MICs were reduced to values ≤8 mg/L. However, when the isolates harbor MBL genes, the meropenem MIC values were reduced to the susceptibility.
8

An Investigation of Cefadroxil and Meropenem’s Supply Chain and Estimationof the Health Economic Consequences in Sweden due to Shortage

Attemalm, Christine, Efverström, Jonathan, Elkhalifa, Dania, Hansen, Viktor, Tjärnström, Yasmine Sundelin January 2020 (has links)
Sweden has been increasingly affected by drug shortage and the public healthcare system has identified a large amount of antibiotics risking shortage. Drug shortage of antibiotics is a worldwide problem with complex causes and consequences affecting many countries healthcare systems. The aim of this study is to investigate the shortage of cefadroxil and meropenem. More specifically, to investigate risk factors in the supply chain contributing to their backorders as well as possible consequences for Swedish healthcare due to shortage.  To formulate the supply chain for cefadroxil and meropenem, the active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) manufacturers, final dosage form (FDF) holders and market authorization holders (MAHs)were identified. 4 active API manufactures, 18 active FDF holders and 4 MAHs were identified for cefadroxil and 4 active API manufactures, 32 FDF holders and 8 MAHs were identified for meropenem. In order to analyse the causes behind these antibiotic shortages, problems with the manufactures were researched using various sources. Since API production is the first step in thesupply chain, problems connected to the API manufactures was the sole focus in this study. Research identified several problems with the API manufacturers for both antibiotics, indicating that the shortages can in fact be explained by issues in the supply chain.  In order to calculate and get an estimate of the health economic costs for society, a model based on direct and indirect costs was used. The direct costs were calculated by comparing the most suitable alternative treatment methods. For cefadroxil there were 5 alternatives in the case of shortage for the oral suspension from Mylan AB (the only product covered in this section of the report due to limited data), whereof 3 of the alternatives still were cefadroxil products. These 3 were cefadroxil dispersible tablets, cefadroxil capsules and Grüncef. The other 2 alternatives were Clindamycin and the combination antibiotic Trimethoprim/Sulfamethoxazol (Eusaprim R). Meropenem had only one identified alternative drug called imipenem. In addition to comparing alternative treatments, the cost of extra labor hours spent on dealing with shortages as well as the increased risk of AMR was also also investigated closely. The indirect costs were based on loss of production due to patient care being longer and more demanding as a result of unforeseen side effects caused by the alternative treatments. This was analyzed qualitatively, in other words no definitive cost was calculatedfor loss of production. Results showed that the exchange from Cefadroxil Mylan oral suspension to cefadroxil dispersible tablets would cost Sweden approximately +35 105 SEK/day. The exchange to cefadroxil capsules would cost -30 939 SEK/day and for Grüncef the cost would be +311 814 SEK/day. As for the other 2 antibiotics, the cost would be -23 103 SEK/day for Clindamycin and -53 084 SEK/day for Eusaprim R. When exchanging meropenem for imipenem, the direct cost was estimated to +343 299 SEK/day. Regarding the cost for extra labor hours spent on dealing with shortage, this was estimated to 1.6 MSEK per shortage, regardless of the antibiotic and shortage duration. The costscalculated for the replacement pharmaceuticals were based on worst case scenarios for when all MAHs had their products unavailable. If the calculated values are of any relevance for real life situations depends on the fragility of the supply chain. In other words, how big these health economicconsequences are for Swedish healthcare is dependant on the risk of unavailability for these antibiotics which goes back to the fragility of the supply chain. In regards to AMR, research showed that substituting cefadroxil for clindamycin and meropenem for imipenem increased the risk of AMR and as a consequence, the direct cost increased as well. The use of clindamycin to treat infections caused by Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus (MRSA) could lead to an additional cost of +3665 SEK/outpatient visit in the case of induced resistance against the antibiotic. Substituting meropenem for imipenem would result in an additional cost of +1160 SEK/day assuming that the bacteria behind the infection is ESBLcarba, an Enterobacteriaeac able to break down carbapenems (a class of antibiotics in which meropenem and imipenem reside). Using licensed drugs could minimize this risk but would however come at a cost for the patients health due to the extended lead time as a result of importation. This would in turn increase the indirect cost to society in the form of loss of production. Despite maybe lowering the risk of AMR, the calculated costs for shortage/day show that using licensed drugs would in fact increase the direct cost a great deal. The calculations for Grüncef and imipenem illustrate this as they proved to be much more costly than the other alternative treatments.
9

Modelagem PK/PD na terapia antimicrobiana com carbapenêmico em pacientes sépticos críticos grandes queimados. \"Estudo da efetividade do meropenem administrado através de infusão intermitente versus estendida\" / PK/PD modelling in antimicrobial therapy with carbapenem in critically burn septic patients.\"Study of the effectiveness of meropenem administered by intermittent versus extended infusion\"

Kupa, Leonard de Vinci Kanda 25 June 2019 (has links)
O meropenem é um carbapenêmico de amplo espectro e alta potência, largamente prescrito para tratamento de infecções graves causadas por bactérias sensíveis gram-negativas em pacientes críticos internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a efetividade do antimicrobiano em pacientes grandes queimados, recebendo a dose recomendada 1 g q8h através da infusão intermitente de 0,5 hora que ocorreu até 2014 (grupo 1) comparada a infusão estendida de 3 horas que ocorreu após esse período (grupo 2). Investigaram-se 25 pacientes sépticos de ambos os sexos (6F/19M), 26 (21-34) anos, medianas (interquartil), 70 (60-75) kg, superfície corporal total queimada (SCTQ) 35 (16-42)%, SAPS 3: 55 (45-59) e Clcr 129 (95-152) ml/min que foram distribuídos em dois grupos. Registrou-se trauma térmico pelo fogo em 19/25 e trauma elétrico no restante dos pacientes (6/25), lesão inalatória (17/25), intubação orotraqueal e a necessidade de vasopressores em 18/25 pacientes. Duas amostras de sangue foram coletadas (3ª e 5ª horas) para dosagem sérica do meropenem por cromatografia líquida no período precoce do choque séptico. A farmacocinética foi investigada pela aplicação do modelo aberto de um compartimento e a abordagem PK/PD foi realizada com base no novo índice recomendado 100%f&#916;T>CIM. Evidenciou-se aumento do PCR 224 (179-286) versus 300 (264-339) mg/L, p=0,0411 e neutrofilia: 12 (8-17) versus 8 (2-15) células/mm3, p=0,1404, respectivamente nos grupos de infusão estendida versus infusão intermitente. Os níveis séricos obtidos mostraram diferença significativa entre grupos (p<0,0001) tanto para o pico 21 (21-22) mg/L versus 44 (42-45) mg/L, como para o vale 7,8 (7,3-9,5) mg/L versus 3,0 (2,6-3,7) mg/L. A farmacocinética mostrou-se alterada nos dois grupos frente aos dados de referência reportados em voluntários sadios. Significativa alteração ocorreu em diferentes proporções pela comparação entre os grupos relativamente à constante de eliminação 0,190 (0,157-0,211) versus 0,349 (0,334-0,382) h-1; meia-vida biológica 3,6 (3,3-4,4) versus 2,0 (1,8-2,1) h; depuração total corporal 8,6 (8,2-8,9) versus 5,3 (5,2-5,4) L/h; volume de distribuição 41,8 (39,9-44,5) versus 15,4 (14,1-16,2) L (p<0,0001). A infecção de ferida foi a mais prevalente nos dois grupos com 47% versus 38% dos isolados, sendo a Klebsiella pneumoniae, a principal enterobactéria. A abordagem PK/PD para patógenos CIM 1 a 4 mg/L mostrou cobertura até CIM 4 mg/L para a infusão estendida e até CIM 2 mg/L para infusão intermitente. Em conclusão, demonstrou-se a superioridade da infusão estendida decorrente de alterações na farmacocinética do meropenem em pacientes grandes queimados. O aumento do volume de distribuição contribuiu para o prolongamento da meia-vida e dos altos níveis de vale registrados, o justifica o impacto na cobertura antimicrobiana após infusão estendida e controle das infecções com cura desses pacientes. / Meropenem is a broad-spectrum agent widely prescribed for the treatment of septic shock caused by gram-negative susceptible strains in critically ill patients from the Intensive Care Units. Subject of the present study was to evaluate the drug effectiveness in critically ill septic burn patients in SIRS at the early period of septic shock receiving the recommended dose of Meropenem 1 g q8h by intermittent 0.5 hour infusion or the extended 3 hour infusion. Twenty-five septic patients were: (6F/19M), 26 (21-34) years, medians (quartiles), 70 (60-75) kg, total burn body surface (SCTQ) 35 (16-42) %, SAPS 3: 55 (45-59) and Clcr 129 (95-152) ml/min. Thermal trauma was registered in 19/25 and electrical trauma in the remaining patients (6/25), inhalation injury (17/25), orotracheal intubation and vasopressor requirement in 18/25 patients. Patients were distributed in two groups on the basis of the duration of drug infusion that occurred for the patients of group 1 (1g q8h 0.5 hr) until 2014, December in the hospital. In addition, the extended 3 hours infusion occurred after that period for patients enrolled afterwards (group 2). Pharmacokinetics was investigated after blood sampling at the third (3rd) hour and the fifth (5th) hour of starting the meropenem infusion. Serum drug measurement was done by liquid chromatography. A one compartment open model was applied and kinetic parameters were estimated. PK/PD approach based on the new recommended index of drug effectiveness 100% f&#916;T>MIC was performed, on the basis on PK parameters and the minimum inhibitory concentration, PD parameter. It was demonstrated a significant difference between groups (p <0.0001) related to the trough levels 7.8 (7.3-9.5) mg/L versus 3.0 (2.6-3.7) mg/L, respectively after extended infusion or intermittent infusion. Concerning the pharmacokinetics, it was shown profound changes on meropenem kinetic parameters in both groups of burn patients by comparison with the reference data reported in healthy volunteers. In addition, it is important to highlight that significant changes occurred also by comparison of PK data between groups of patients related to the parameters: elimination constant 0.190 (0.157-0.211) versus 0.349 (0.334-0.382) h-1; biological half-life 3.6 (3.3-4.4) versus 2.0 (1.8-2.1) hr; total body clearance 8.6 (8.2-8.9) versus 5.3 (5.2-5.4) L/hr; volume of distribution 41.8 (39.9-44.5) versus 15.4 (14.1-16.2) L. Concerning the inflammatory biomarker an increase of C-reactive protein was registered in both groups of septic patients in SIRS: 224 versus 300 mg/L, p = 0.0411, after the extended infusion versus intermittent infusion, respectively. Wound and bone were the most prevalent sites of infection in those patients of both groups. It was shown in the isolates the prevalence of Gram-negative strains 54/83 (65%) that were distributed in Enterobacteriaceae, K. pneumoniae 7/30 (23%), and Non-Enterobacteriaceae, P. aeruginosa 13/54 (24%) followed by Acinetobacter baumannii 11/54 (20%). Drug effectiveness against susceptible strains was demonstrated by PK/PD approach up to 4 mg/L over 2 mg/L, after the extended infusion or after intermittent infusion, respectively. In conclusion, the superiority of the extended infusion in septic burn patients at the earlier period of septic shock was demonstrated, once considerable increases on volume of distribution impacted the drug effectiveness of these patients. Cure was obtained by meropenem monotherapy in 22/25 patients; only three patients (3/25) received meropenem - colistine combined therapy due to Acinetobacter baumannii isolated.
10

Resistensbestämning av bakterier : Studie av odlingsbuljongens påverkan på resultatet i tidigare rapporterad forskning samt genom experimentell undersökning. / Determination of bacterial resistance : Study of the influence of broth on the results in previously reported reserch and through experimental investigation.

Svensson, Åsa January 2023 (has links)
Ökande antibiotikaresistens utgör en allvarlig samhällsutmaning. För resistensbestämning av bakterier används standardmetoden buljongspädning. Då bestäms minsta inhiberande koncentration (MIC) som den lägsta koncentration av antibiotika som kan förhindra tillväxt. Examensarbetets syfte var att undersöka om val av odlingsbuljong påverkar MIC-värdet för Gramnegativa bakterier. En litteraturundersökning genomfördes av studier som jämfört resistensbestämning i standardbuljong med alternativ buljong. Därutöver gjordes en experimentell jämförelse. Litteraturstudien visade att buljongens sammansättning kan ha betydelse för MIC-värdet, men resultatet varierade med både bakteriearter och typer av antibiotika. Viktigt att beakta är det begränsade materialet i studien, möjliga förklaringar till MIC-varianser är exempelvis bikarbonat och antibiotikums olika känslighet för ämnet. Den experimentella studien visade att buljongvalet inte hade någon inverkan på MIC-värdet när det undersöktes för Klebsiella pneumoniae och antibiotikan meropenem. Det kan möjligen förklaras av att effekten av meropenem inte påverkas av buljongvalet. Slutsatsen är att många faktorer påverkar MIC-värdet och att standardbuljongen är en tillgång med stor mängd historiska data som kan nyttjas för att följa resistensutvecklingen, även om alternativa buljonger i vissa fall kan vara bättre lämpade för att förutsäga behanlingsbarheten. Buljongval bör väljas med noggrannhet efter rådande omständigheter. / Increasing antibiotic resistance is a concerning societal challenge. The standard test for measuring antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria is the method of broth microdilution. This method is used to determine the minimum inbibitory concentration (MIC), defined as the lowest concentration of an antibiotic that can inhibit the growth of a specific strain of a bacterium. This study aimed to investigate whether the choice of broth affects the MIC-value for Gram-negative bacteria. A literature review was conducted to examine studies comparing standard broth against alternative broth, alongside an experimental comparison of the same. The result of the literature review indicated that the composition of the broth does have an effect. However, the effect varies depending on the bacterial species and type of the antibiotic that was analyzed. Its important to note the limited amount of data from both prior work and this study, but one possible explanation to the variance in MIC-values could be e.g., bicarbonate and the specific antibiotic´s sensitivity to this substance. The experimental part of this study concluded that the choice of broth did not affect the resulting MIC-value when the antibiotic susceptibility of Klebsiella pneumoniae to meropenem was analyzed. This could be attributed to the efficacy of meropenem being unaffected by the broths used in this study. The conclusing of this study is that multiple factors contribute to the resulting MIC-value, and that the standard broth with its large volume of historical data, is a valuable asset to use when tracking the evolution of antibiotic resistance, even though an alternative broth may be better suited to predict treatability. The choice of broth should be made with great care and be adapted to actual circumstances and conditions.

Page generated in 0.0581 seconds