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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Multi-view machine learning for integration of brain imaging and (epi)genomics data

January 2021 (has links)
archives@tulane.edu / 1 / Yuntong Bai
2

On surrogate supervision multi-view learning

Jin, Gaole 03 December 2012 (has links)
Data can be represented in multiple views. Traditional multi-view learning methods (i.e., co-training, multi-task learning) focus on improving learning performance using information from the auxiliary view, although information from the target view is sufficient for learning task. However, this work addresses a semi-supervised case of multi-view learning, the surrogate supervision multi-view learning, where labels are available on limited views and a classifier is obtained on the target view where labels are missing. In surrogate multi-view learning, one cannot obtain a classifier without information from the auxiliary view. To solve this challenging problem, we propose discriminative and generative approaches. / Graduation date: 2013
3

Improving Classification and Attribute Clustering: An Iterative Semi-supervised Approach

Seifi, Farid January 2015 (has links)
This thesis proposes a novel approach to attribute clustering. It exploits the strength of semi-supervised learning to improve the quality of attribute clustering particularly when labeled data is limited. The significance of this work derives in part from the broad, and increasingly important, usage of attribute clustering to address outstanding problems within the machine learning community. This form of clustering has also been shown to have strong practical applications, being usable in heavyweight industrial applications. Although researchers have focused on supervised and unsupervised attribute clustering in recent years, semi-supervised attribute clustering has not received substantial attention. In this research, we propose an innovative two step iterative semi-supervised attribute clustering framework. This new framework, in each iteration, uses the result of attribute clustering to improve a classifier. It then uses the classifier to augment the training data used by attribute clustering in next iteration. This iterative framework outputs an improved classifier and attribute clustering at the same time. It gives more accurate clusters of attributes which better fit the real relations between attributes. In this study we proposed two new usages for attribute clustering to improve classification: solving the automatic view definition problem for multi-view learning and improving missing attribute-value handling at induction and prediction time. The application of these two new usages of attribute clustering in our proposed semi-supervised attribute clustering is evaluated using real world data sets from different domains.
4

On discriminative semi-supervised incremental learning with a multi-view perspective for image concept modeling

Byun, Byungki 17 January 2012 (has links)
This dissertation presents the development of a semi-supervised incremental learning framework with a multi-view perspective for image concept modeling. For reliable image concept characterization, having a large number of labeled images is crucial. However, the size of the training set is often limited due to the cost required for generating concept labels associated with objects in a large quantity of images. To address this issue, in this research, we propose to incrementally incorporate unlabeled samples into a learning process to enhance concept models originally learned with a small number of labeled samples. To tackle the sub-optimality problem of conventional techniques, the proposed incremental learning framework selects unlabeled samples based on an expected error reduction function that measures contributions of the unlabeled samples based on their ability to increase the modeling accuracy. To improve the convergence property of the proposed incremental learning framework, we further propose a multi-view learning approach that makes use of multiple features such as color, texture, etc., of images when including unlabeled samples. For robustness to mismatches between training and testing conditions, a discriminative learning algorithm, namely a kernelized maximal- figure-of-merit (kMFoM) learning approach is also developed. Combining individual techniques, we conduct a set of experiments on various image concept modeling problems, such as handwritten digit recognition, object recognition, and image spam detection to highlight the effectiveness of the proposed framework.
5

Relational Representation Learning Incorporating Textual Communication for Social Networks

Yi-Yu Lai (10157291) 01 March 2021 (has links)
<div>Representation learning (RL) for social networks facilitates real-world tasks such as visualization, link prediction and friend recommendation. Many methods have been proposed in this area to learn continuous low-dimensional embedding of nodes, edges or relations in social and information networks. However, most previous network RL methods neglect social signals, such as textual communication between users (nodes). Unlike more typical binary features on edges, such as post likes and retweet actions, social signals are more varied and contain ambiguous information. This makes it more challenging to incorporate them into RL methods, but the ability to quantify social signals should allow RL methods to better capture the implicit relationships among real people in social networks. Second, most previous work in network RL has focused on learning from homogeneous networks (i.e., single type of node, edge, role, and direction) and thus, most existing RL methods cannot capture the heterogeneous nature of relationships in social networks. Based on these identified gaps, this thesis aims to study the feasibility of incorporating heterogeneous information, e.g., texts, attributes, multiple relations and edge types (directions), to learn more accurate, fine-grained network representations. </div><div> </div><div>In this dissertation, we discuss a preliminary study and outline three major works that aim to incorporate textual interactions to improve relational representation learning. The preliminary study learns a joint representation that captures the textual similarity in content between interacting nodes. The promising results motivate us to pursue broader research on using social signals for representation learning. The first major component aims to learn explicit node and relation embeddings in social networks. Traditional knowledge graph (KG) completion models learn latent representations of entities and relations by interpreting them as translations operating on the embedding of the entities. However, existing approaches do not consider textual communications between users, which contain valuable information to provide meaning and context for social relationships. We propose a novel approach that incorporates textual interactions between each pair of users to improve representation learning of both users and relationships. The second major component focuses on analyzing how users interact with each other via natural language content. Although the data is interconnected and dependent, previous research has primarily focused on modeling the social network behavior separately from the textual content. In this work, we model the data in a holistic way, taking into account the connections between the social behavior of users and the content generated when they interact, by learning a joint embedding over user characteristics and user language. In the third major component, we consider the task of learning edge representations in social networks. Edge representations are especially beneficial as we need to describe or explain the relationships, activities, and interactions among users. However, previous work in this area lack well-defined edge representations and ignore the relational signals over multiple views of social networks, which typically contain multi-view contexts (due to multiple edge types) that need to be considered when learning the representation. We propose a new methodology that captures asymmetry in multiple views by learning well-defined edge representations and incorporates textual communications to identify multiple sources of social signals that moderate the impact of different views between users.</div>
6

Méthodes ensembliste pour des problèmes de classification multi-vues et multi-classes avec déséquilibres / Tackling the uneven views problem with cooperation based ensemble learning methods

Koco, Sokol 16 December 2013 (has links)
De nos jours, dans plusieurs domaines, tels que la bio-informatique ou le multimédia, les données peuvent être représentées par plusieurs ensembles d'attributs, appelés des vues. Pour une tâche de classification donnée, nous distinguons deux types de vues : les vues fortes sont celles adaptées à la tâche, les vues faibles sont adaptées à une (petite) partie de la tâche ; en classification multi-classes, chaque vue peut s'avérer forte pour reconnaître une classe, et faible pour reconnaître d’autres classes : une telle vue est dite déséquilibrée. Les travaux présentés dans cette thèse s'inscrivent dans le cadre de l'apprentissage supervisé et ont pour but de traiter les questions d'apprentissage multi-vue dans le cas des vues fortes, faibles et déséquilibrées. La première contribution de cette thèse est un algorithme d'apprentissage multi-vues théoriquement fondé sur le cadre de boosting multi-classes utilisé par AdaBoost.MM. La seconde partie de cette thèse concerne la mise en place d'un cadre général pour les méthodes d'apprentissage de classes déséquilibrées (certaines classes sont plus représentées que les autres). Dans la troisième partie, nous traitons le problème des vues déséquilibrées en combinant notre approche des classes déséquilibrées et la coopération entre les vues mise en place pour appréhender la classification multi-vues. Afin de tester les méthodes sur des données réelles, nous nous intéressons au problème de classification d'appels téléphoniques, qui a fait l'objet du projet ANR DECODA. Ainsi chaque partie traite différentes facettes du problème. / Nowadays, in many fields, such as bioinformatics or multimedia, data may be described using different sets of features, also called views. For a given classification task, we distinguish two types of views:strong views, which are suited for the task, and weak views suited for a (small) part of the task; in multi-class learning, a view can be strong with respect to some (few) classes and weak for the rest of the classes: these are imbalanced views. The works presented in this thesis fall in the supervised learning setting and their aim is to address the problem of multi-view learning under strong, weak and imbalanced views, regrouped under the notion of uneven views. The first contribution of this thesis is a multi-view learning algorithm based on the same framework as AdaBoost.MM. The second part of this thesis proposes a unifying framework for imbalanced classes supervised methods (some of the classes are more represented than others). In the third part of this thesis, we tackle the uneven views problem through the combination of the imbalanced classes framework and the between-views cooperation used to take advantage of the multiple views. In order to test the proposed methods on real-world data, we consider the task of phone calls classifications, which constitutes the subject of the ANR DECODA project. Each part of this thesis deals with different aspects of the problem.
7

Aprendizado semissupervisionado multidescrição em classificação de textos / Multi-view semi-supervised learning in text classification

Ígor Assis Braga 23 April 2010 (has links)
Algoritmos de aprendizado semissupervisionado aprendem a partir de uma combinação de dados rotulados e não rotulados. Assim, eles podem ser aplicados em domínios em que poucos exemplos rotulados e uma vasta quantidade de exemplos não rotulados estão disponíveis. Além disso, os algoritmos semissupervisionados podem atingir um desempenho superior aos algoritmos supervisionados treinados nos mesmos poucos exemplos rotulados. Uma poderosa abordagem ao aprendizado semissupervisionado, denominada aprendizado multidescrição, pode ser usada sempre que os exemplos de treinamento são descritos por dois ou mais conjuntos de atributos disjuntos. A classificação de textos é um domínio de aplicação no qual algoritmos semissupervisionados vêm obtendo sucesso. No entanto, o aprendizado semissupervisionado multidescrição ainda não foi bem explorado nesse domínio dadas as diversas maneiras possíveis de se descrever bases de textos. O objetivo neste trabalho é analisar o desempenho de algoritmos semissupervisionados multidescrição na classificação de textos, usando unigramas e bigramas para compor duas descrições distintas de documentos textuais. Assim, é considerado inicialmente o difundido algoritmo multidescrição CO-TRAINING, para o qual são propostas modificações a fim de se tratar o problema dos pontos de contenção. É também proposto o algoritmo COAL, o qual pode melhorar ainda mais o algoritmo CO-TRAINING pela incorporação de aprendizado ativo como uma maneira de tratar pontos de contenção. Uma ampla avaliação experimental desses algoritmos foi conduzida em bases de textos reais. Os resultados mostram que o algoritmo COAL, usando unigramas como uma descrição das bases textuais e bigramas como uma outra descrição, atinge um desempenho significativamente melhor que um algoritmo semissupervisionado monodescrição. Levando em consideração os bons resultados obtidos por COAL, conclui-se que o uso de unigramas e bigramas como duas descrições distintas de bases de textos pode ser bastante compensador / Semi-supervised learning algorithms learn from a combination of both labeled and unlabeled data. Thus, they can be applied in domains where few labeled examples and a vast amount of unlabeled examples are available. Furthermore, semi-supervised learning algorithms may achieve a better performance than supervised learning algorithms trained on the same few labeled examples. A powerful approach to semi-supervised learning, called multi-view learning, can be used whenever the training examples are described by two or more disjoint sets of attributes. Text classification is a domain in which semi-supervised learning algorithms have shown some success. However, multi-view semi-supervised learning has not yet been well explored in this domain despite the possibility of describing textual documents in a myriad of ways. The aim of this work is to analyze the effectiveness of multi-view semi-supervised learning in text classification using unigrams and bigrams as two distinct descriptions of text documents. To this end, we initially consider the widely adopted CO-TRAINING multi-view algorithm and propose some modifications to it in order to deal with the problem of contention points. We also propose the COAL algorithm, which further improves CO-TRAINING by incorporating active learning as a way of dealing with contention points. A thorough experimental evaluation of these algorithms was conducted on real text data sets. The results show that the COAL algorithm, using unigrams as one description of text documents and bigrams as another description, achieves significantly better performance than a single-view semi-supervised algorithm. Taking into account the good results obtained by COAL, we conclude that the use of unigrams and bigrams as two distinct descriptions of text documents can be very effective
8

O algoritmo de aprendizado semi-supervisionado co-training e sua aplicação na rotulação de documentos / The semi-supervised learning algorithm co-training applied to label text documents

Edson Takashi Matsubara 26 May 2004 (has links)
Em Aprendizado de Máquina, a abordagem supervisionada normalmente necessita de um número significativo de exemplos de treinamento para a indução de classificadores precisos. Entretanto, a rotulação de dados é freqüentemente realizada manualmente, o que torna esse processo demorado e caro. Por outro lado, exemplos não-rotulados são facilmente obtidos se comparados a exemplos rotulados. Isso é particularmente verdade para tarefas de classificação de textos que envolvem fontes de dados on-line tais como páginas de internet, email e artigos científicos. A classificação de textos tem grande importância dado o grande volume de textos disponível on-line. Aprendizado semi-supervisionado, uma área de pesquisa relativamente nova em Aprendizado de Máquina, representa a junção do aprendizado supervisionado e não-supervisionado, e tem o potencial de reduzir a necessidade de dados rotulados quando somente um pequeno conjunto de exemplos rotulados está disponível. Este trabalho descreve o algoritmo de aprendizado semi-supervisionado co-training, que necessita de duas descrições de cada exemplo. Deve ser observado que as duas descrições necessárias para co-training podem ser facilmente obtidas de documentos textuais por meio de pré-processamento. Neste trabalho, várias extensões do algoritmo co-training foram implementadas. Ainda mais, foi implementado um ambiente computacional para o pré-processamento de textos, denominado PreTexT, com o objetivo de utilizar co-training em problemas de classificação de textos. Os resultados experimentais foram obtidos utilizando três conjuntos de dados. Dois conjuntos de dados estão relacionados com classificação de textos e o outro com classificação de páginas de internet. Os resultados, que variam de excelentes a ruins, mostram que co-training, similarmente a outros algoritmos de aprendizado semi-supervisionado, é afetado de maneira bastante complexa pelos diferentes aspectos na indução dos modelos. / In Machine Learning, the supervised approach usually requires a large number of labeled training examples to learn accurately. However, labeling is often manually performed, making this process costly and time-consuming. By contrast, unlabeled examples are often inexpensive and easier to obtain than labeled examples. This is especially true for text classification tasks involving on-line data sources, such as web pages, email and scientific papers. Text classification is of great practical importance today given the massive volume of online text available. Semi-supervised learning, a relatively new area in Machine Learning, represents a blend of supervised and unsupervised learning, and has the potential of reducing the need of expensive labeled data whenever only a small set of labeled examples is available. This work describes the semi-supervised learning algorithm co-training, which requires a partitioned description of each example into two distinct views. It should be observed that the two different views required by co-training can be easily obtained from textual documents through pre-processing. In this works, several extensions of co-training algorithm have been implemented. Furthermore, we have also implemented a computational environment for text pre-processing, called PreTexT, in order to apply the co-training algorithm to text classification problems. Experimental results using co-training on three data sets are described. Two data sets are related to text classification and the other one to web-page classification. Results, which range from excellent to poor, show that co-training, similarly to other semi-supervised learning algorithms, is affected by modelling assumptions in a rather complicated way.
9

O algoritmo de aprendizado semi-supervisionado co-training e sua aplicação na rotulação de documentos / The semi-supervised learning algorithm co-training applied to label text documents

Matsubara, Edson Takashi 26 May 2004 (has links)
Em Aprendizado de Máquina, a abordagem supervisionada normalmente necessita de um número significativo de exemplos de treinamento para a indução de classificadores precisos. Entretanto, a rotulação de dados é freqüentemente realizada manualmente, o que torna esse processo demorado e caro. Por outro lado, exemplos não-rotulados são facilmente obtidos se comparados a exemplos rotulados. Isso é particularmente verdade para tarefas de classificação de textos que envolvem fontes de dados on-line tais como páginas de internet, email e artigos científicos. A classificação de textos tem grande importância dado o grande volume de textos disponível on-line. Aprendizado semi-supervisionado, uma área de pesquisa relativamente nova em Aprendizado de Máquina, representa a junção do aprendizado supervisionado e não-supervisionado, e tem o potencial de reduzir a necessidade de dados rotulados quando somente um pequeno conjunto de exemplos rotulados está disponível. Este trabalho descreve o algoritmo de aprendizado semi-supervisionado co-training, que necessita de duas descrições de cada exemplo. Deve ser observado que as duas descrições necessárias para co-training podem ser facilmente obtidas de documentos textuais por meio de pré-processamento. Neste trabalho, várias extensões do algoritmo co-training foram implementadas. Ainda mais, foi implementado um ambiente computacional para o pré-processamento de textos, denominado PreTexT, com o objetivo de utilizar co-training em problemas de classificação de textos. Os resultados experimentais foram obtidos utilizando três conjuntos de dados. Dois conjuntos de dados estão relacionados com classificação de textos e o outro com classificação de páginas de internet. Os resultados, que variam de excelentes a ruins, mostram que co-training, similarmente a outros algoritmos de aprendizado semi-supervisionado, é afetado de maneira bastante complexa pelos diferentes aspectos na indução dos modelos. / In Machine Learning, the supervised approach usually requires a large number of labeled training examples to learn accurately. However, labeling is often manually performed, making this process costly and time-consuming. By contrast, unlabeled examples are often inexpensive and easier to obtain than labeled examples. This is especially true for text classification tasks involving on-line data sources, such as web pages, email and scientific papers. Text classification is of great practical importance today given the massive volume of online text available. Semi-supervised learning, a relatively new area in Machine Learning, represents a blend of supervised and unsupervised learning, and has the potential of reducing the need of expensive labeled data whenever only a small set of labeled examples is available. This work describes the semi-supervised learning algorithm co-training, which requires a partitioned description of each example into two distinct views. It should be observed that the two different views required by co-training can be easily obtained from textual documents through pre-processing. In this works, several extensions of co-training algorithm have been implemented. Furthermore, we have also implemented a computational environment for text pre-processing, called PreTexT, in order to apply the co-training algorithm to text classification problems. Experimental results using co-training on three data sets are described. Two data sets are related to text classification and the other one to web-page classification. Results, which range from excellent to poor, show that co-training, similarly to other semi-supervised learning algorithms, is affected by modelling assumptions in a rather complicated way.
10

A Unified View of Local Learning : Theory and Algorithms for Enhancing Linear Models / Une Vue Unifiée de l'Apprentissage Local : Théorie et Algorithmes pour l'Amélioration de Modèles Linéaires

Zantedeschi, Valentina 18 December 2018 (has links)
Dans le domaine de l'apprentissage machine, les caractéristiques des données varient généralement dans l'espace des entrées : la distribution globale pourrait être multimodale et contenir des non-linéarités. Afin d'obtenir de bonnes performances, l'algorithme d'apprentissage devrait alors être capable de capturer et de s'adapter à ces changements. Même si les modèles linéaires ne parviennent pas à décrire des distributions complexes, ils sont réputés pour leur passage à l'échelle, en entraînement et en test, aux grands ensembles de données en termes de nombre d'exemples et de nombre de fonctionnalités. Plusieurs méthodes ont été proposées pour tirer parti du passage à l'échelle et de la simplicité des hypothèses linéaires afin de construire des modèles aux grandes capacités discriminatoires. Ces méthodes améliorent les modèles linéaires, dans le sens où elles renforcent leur expressivité grâce à différentes techniques. Cette thèse porte sur l'amélioration des approches d'apprentissage locales, une famille de techniques qui infère des modèles en capturant les caractéristiques locales de l'espace dans lequel les observations sont intégrées.L'hypothèse fondatrice de ces techniques est que le modèle appris doit se comporter de manière cohérente sur des exemples qui sont proches, ce qui implique que ses résultats doivent aussi changer de façon continue dans l'espace des entrées. La localité peut être définie sur la base de critères spatiaux (par exemple, la proximité en fonction d'une métrique choisie) ou d'autres relations fournies, telles que l'association à la même catégorie d'exemples ou un attribut commun. On sait que les approches locales d'apprentissage sont efficaces pour capturer des distributions complexes de données, évitant de recourir à la sélection d'un modèle spécifique pour la tâche. Cependant, les techniques de pointe souffrent de trois inconvénients majeurs :ils mémorisent facilement l'ensemble d'entraînement, ce qui se traduit par des performances médiocres sur de nouvelles données ; leurs prédictions manquent de continuité dans des endroits particuliers de l'espace ; elles évoluent mal avec la taille des ensembles des données. Les contributions de cette thèse examinent les problèmes susmentionnés dans deux directions : nous proposons d'introduire des informations secondaires dans la formulation du problème pour renforcer la continuité de la prédiction et atténuer le phénomène de la mémorisation ; nous fournissons une nouvelle représentation de l'ensemble de données qui tient compte de ses spécificités locales et améliore son évolutivité. Des études approfondies sont menées pour mettre en évidence l'efficacité de ces contributions pour confirmer le bien-fondé de leurs intuitions. Nous étudions empiriquement les performances des méthodes proposées tant sur des jeux de données synthétiques que sur des tâches réelles, en termes de précision et de temps d'exécution, et les comparons aux résultats de l'état de l'art. Nous analysons également nos approches d'un point de vue théorique, en étudiant leurs complexités de calcul et de mémoire et en dérivant des bornes de généralisation serrées. / In Machine Learning field, data characteristics usually vary over the space: the overall distribution might be multi-modal and contain non-linearities.In order to achieve good performance, the learning algorithm should then be able to capture and adapt to these changes. Even though linear models fail to describe complex distributions, they are renowned for their scalability, at training and at testing, to datasets big in terms of number of examples and of number of features. Several methods have been proposed to take advantage of the scalability and the simplicity of linear hypotheses to build models with great discriminatory capabilities. These methods empower linear models, in the sense that they enhance their expressive power through different techniques. This dissertation focuses on enhancing local learning approaches, a family of techniques that infers models by capturing the local characteristics of the space in which the observations are embedded. The founding assumption of these techniques is that the learned model should behave consistently on examples that are close, implying that its results should also change smoothly over the space. The locality can be defined on spatial criteria (e.g. closeness according to a selected metric) or other provided relations, such as the association to the same category of examples or a shared attribute. Local learning approaches are known to be effective in capturing complex distributions of the data, avoiding to resort to selecting a model specific for the task. However, state of the art techniques suffer from three major drawbacks: they easily memorize the training set, resulting in poor performance on unseen data; their predictions lack of smoothness in particular locations of the space;they scale poorly with the size of the datasets. The contributions of this dissertation investigate the aforementioned pitfalls in two directions: we propose to introduce side information in the problem formulation to enforce smoothness in prediction and attenuate the memorization phenomenon; we provide a new representation for the dataset which takes into account its local specificities and improves scalability. Thorough studies are conducted to highlight the effectiveness of the said contributions which confirmed the soundness of their intuitions. We empirically study the performance of the proposed methods both on toy and real tasks, in terms of accuracy and execution time, and compare it to state of the art results. We also analyze our approaches from a theoretical standpoint, by studying their computational and memory complexities and by deriving tight generalization bounds.

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