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Récupération et valorisation d'énergie thermique sur gaz chauds- Approche expérimentale et numérique / Contribution to Waste Thermal Energy Recovery on Hot Gases by Heat Pipe Heat Exchanger - Expeirmental Approach and ModelingHoang, Thanh Tung 30 November 2018 (has links)
L’objectif de la thèse porte sur l’analyse de la récupération de l’énergie thermique sur gaz chauds à température élevée(250°C - 450°C). Pour cela, la technologie de récupérateur à caloduc de type thermosiphon a été retenue. L’un des points cruciaux porte sur le choix d’un fluide de travail adapté à ces niveaux de température. Une analyse bibliographique a permis d’identifier le naphtalène comme élément de fluide potentiel pour cette gamme de température. Cependant le manque d’informations sur son comportement et ses capacités de transport a nécessité le développement d’un montage fondamental spécifique.Un caloduc thermosiphon chargé en naphtalène et de la forme d’un tube inox lisse de diamètre 23,9 mm, de longueur 1m (zone évaporateur : 20 cm ; zone condenseur : 20 cm) a été réalisé et testé. Les résultats expérimentaux obtenus démontrent tout d’abord la faisabilité d’un tel système dans cette gamme de température et pour les puissances thermiques envisagées. Ils révèlent un comportement inhabituel du thermosiphon lors des phases de démarrage (régime transitoire). En régime permanent, l’analyse a porté sur l’influence de la température de saturation, la puissance transférée ainsi que l’inclinaison. En termes de performances, les conductances thermiques (évaporateur, condenseur, système) augmentent avec la température vapeur et diminuent avec la puissance apportée à l’évaporateur. La puissance transférée peut s’échelonner de 0,2 kW à 1,5 kW, soit 1 à 8 W/cm² à l’évaporateur. Une faible sensibilité à l’inclinaison a été constatée lors des tests (0°-78°), un peu plus marqué pour 84°. Enfin pour une orientation à l’horizontale (90°), le caloduc fonctionne malgré tout et sa capacité de transfert reste élevée bien qu’éloignée du mode thermosiphon. En parallèle, un modèle de thermosiphon a été développé dans lequel les coefficients d’échanges locaux (évaporateur et condenseur) sont calculés par différentes corrélations issues de la littérature. La comparaison avec les résultats expérimentaux a permis de valider les modèles physiques retenus avec un bon accord, et de prédire le fonctionnement du caloduc pour d’autres sollicitations.Ainsi et enfin, un premier prototype récupérateur à thermosiphon au naphtalène a été conçu, fabriqué et couplé sur la veine « gaz chauds » conçue et développée aussi au sein du laboratoire. Les premiers résultats obtenus du système complet permettent de développer des stratégies de récupération et de valorisation de l’énergie thermique sur la ligne d’échappement, dans un contexte d’application automobile. / The aim of the thesis is to analyze the heat recovery on hot gases at intermediate temperature range (250°C - 450°C). For this purpose, the thermosyphon heat exchanger recuperation technology has been chosen. The choice of a working fluid adapted to these temperature levels is one of the crucial points. A literature review identified naphthalene as a potentialfluid for this temperature range. However, because of the lack of information about naphthalene heat pipes, the development of a fundamental test-rig was necessary to fully characterize the thermal behavior and transport capacities of this fluid.A thermosyphon heat-pipe charged with naphthalene in the shape of a smooth stainless steel tube with a diameter of 23.9mm, a length of 1 m (evaporator zone: 20 cm, condenser zone: 20 cm) has been manufactured and tested. The experimental results obtained demonstrate the feasibility of such system in this temperature range and for the thermal powers required.They reveal an unusual behavior of the thermosyphon during the start-up process. In steady state, the analysis deals with the influence of the saturation temperatures, the transferred heat power and the thermosyphon inclination. In terms of performances, the thermal conductance (evaporator, condenser, system) increases with the vapor temperature and decreases with the heat power supplied to the evaporator. The heat flow rate can be applied from 0.2 to 1.5 kW, or 1 to 8W/cm² at the evaporator. During the tests, the system is found to be less sensitive to inclination (0° to 78°), but more important for 84°. In the horizontal position, the thermosyphon operates, but its heat transfer remains high even far away from the thermosyphon mode. A theoretical model has been developed in which the local heat transfer coefficients(evaporator and condenser) are evaluated by different correlations from literature. The comparison with the experimental results allowed to validate the models retained with good agreement, and to make it possible to predict the heat pipe operation for other solicitations.Thus, and finally, a first thermosyphon charged naphthalene recuperator prototype was designed, manufactured and coupled to the "hot gas" line designed and performed in the laboratory. The first results obtained from the complete system allowed us to develop a strategy for heat recovery system on the exhaust line of an automotive application.
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has become one of the main instruments for the prediction of many commercial and research oriented fluid flow and heat transfer problems. While single phase flow analysis through CFD has gained grounds within the commercial industry, multiphase flow analysis is still the subject of further research and development. Heat Pipes and thermosyphones are no exception to this. However, the involvement of more than one fluid phase within these devices has made their analysis through CFD more challenging and computationally more demanding to perform. In this thesis, computational fluid dynamics is used as a modelling tool in order to predict the thermal hydraulic behaviour of multiphase environment within thermosyphones and heat pipes. Eulerian two-fluid method is used to solve the conservation equations for mass, momentum and energy, for each phase along with the inclusion of interfacial heat and mass transfer terms. Numerical predictions are obtained for the steady-state and transient operation of stationary thermosyphon, while rotating heat pipes operation is also simulated using axially and radially rotating heat pipe models. Apart from using the commercially available CFD code for the analysis of thermosyphones related simulation, numerical work is performed regarding the coupling of momentum equations based on Eulerian two-fluid modelling scheme. OPENFOAM open source code is used and modified to include the Partial Elimination Algorithm (PEA) for the coupling of interfacial exchange terms, including interfacial mass transfer term, in the momentum equations of both phases. Results obtained from above discussed studies provide good agreement with corresponding experimental and analytical observations.
Theoretical, numerical and experimental investigations have been successfully carried out to characterise the thermal performance of an air-to-water multi-pass heat exchanger equipped with thermosyphon technology. Air and water are the heat source and the heat sink on the evaporator and condenser, respectively. Evaporator and condenser are connected by six thermosyphons, through which thermal energy is transferred. The investigation was performed for two multi-pass configurations at various inlet conditions: a range of air inlet temperatures (100, 150, 200 and 250°C) and mass flow rates (0.05, 0.08, 0.11 and 0.14 kg/s). The water inlet conditions were kept constant (a temperature of 15°C and a mass flow rate of 0.08 kg/s). The theoretical model was built by applying the thermal resistance analogy with the aid of convection, boiling and condensation correlations found in the literature. It was found that the thermal resistances in the first pass act in parallel mode along the ones in the second pass. Similarly, in the case of three passes. Also, the external convective thermal resistance were found to be the major contributor to the overall thermal resistance in the entire heat exchanger. ANSYS Fluent was the numerical tool used to investigate the shell-side convective heat transfer for two multi-pass configurations. The CFD model has been experimentally validated. The two-phase change processes inside the thermosyphons were not modelled during the simulation. Instead, the thermosyphons were treated as solid rods with a constant thermal conductivity, which was calculated. The overall rate of heat transfer was obtained by both CFD and a theoretical model, and the results lay within 15% of the experimental data. The numerical predictions demonstrated that the K-ε Realizable turbulence model with scalable wall function is a reliable tool for predicting heat transfer and fluid flow in such types of heat exchangers. This investigation will add a great knowledge to the academia in terms of both experimentation and modelling in the area of multi-pass thermosyphons-based heat exchangers. Also, it provides the industries with a cost effect design tool for future modelling of similar heat exchanger systems.
Untersuchung der Gesamtwärmeübertragung in Kesseln mit nachgeschalteten Thermosiphons oder Wärmetauschern in BlasensäulenHatzfeld, Oliver. Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Techn. Hochsch., Diss., 2000--Aachen. / Gedr. Ausg. im Verl. Shaker, Aachen.
[en] EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF A THERMOSYPHON SYSTEM WITH SOLAR ENERGY / [pt] ANÁLISE EXPERIMENTAL DE SISTEMAS TERMOSSIFÃO COM ENERGIA SOLARSINOESTE CARDOSO DE OLIVEIRA 14 March 2018 (has links)
[pt] Uma análise experimental de um sistema termossifão para aquecimento d água com energia solar é feita. A vazão massica foi medida com um rotâmetro especialmente projetado. Coletores com e sem cobertura foram testados e seu desempenho comparado, como função da altura do tanque ao coletore outros parâmetros. Finalmente sugere-se uma faixa ótima de parâmetros para utilização do coletor sem cobertura para aquecimento d água. / [en] An experimental analysis of a thermosyphon loop used as a solar water heater is made. The mass flow rate was measured with a specially designed rotameter. Single glazed and unglazed collectors were tested and their performance compared as a function of collector-to-tank height and other parameters. Finally, it is suggested an Optimum range of parameters to be used in solar water heating systems with unglazed collectors.
Storey, James Kirk
26 November 2003
(has links) (PDF)
Thermosyphon transient operation was numerically modeled. The numerical model presented in this work overcame the limitations of previous studies by including transient conduction in the vessel wall, shear stress between the rising vapor and the falling film in the thermosyphon, the influence of the mass in the liquid pool in the evaporator, and by using a more refined and accurate numerical grid. Unique to this model was the accounting for temporal changes in the effective length of the vapor space due to the expanding and contracting of non-condensable gases in the vapor space. The model assumed quasi-steady one-dimensional vapor flow, transient one-dimensional flow in the falling liquid film, and transient behavior in the liquid pool in the evaporator. The model also assumed transient two-dimensional conduction in the thermosyphon wall. Using fundamental principles, the governing equations used in the numerical model were developed and then written in finite difference form. The finite difference forms of the governing equations were integrated using an explicit scheme. A sensitivity study was performed and found that the numerical model was accurate to 4%. An experiment was also conducted to validate the numerical model. The experiment used three distinct transient heat loads to simulate gradual, moderate and sharp increases in temperature. The uncertainty of the experiment was shown to be 2.3%. The temperatures from the numerical model were then compared to those measured during the physical experiment to determine the validity of the numerical model. The model was further exercised to develop a useful engineering relationship that can be used to predict the transient performance of a thermosyphon.
The conversion of low grade heat into electricity using the Thermosyphon Rankine Engine and Trilateral Flash CycleBryson, Matthew John, firstname.lastname@example.org January 2007 (has links)
Low grade heat (LGH) sources, here defined as below 80ºC, are one group of abundant energy sources that are under-utilised in the production of electricity. Industrial waste heat provides a convenient source of concentrated LGH, while solar ponds and geothermal resources are examples of sustainable sources of this energy. For a number of years RMIT has had two ongoing, parallel heat engine research projects aimed at the conversion of LGH into electricity. The Thermosyphon Rankine Engine (TSR) is a heat engine that uses water under considerable vacuum. The other research stream uses a hydrocarbon based working fluid in a heat engine employing the Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). The TSR Mk V was designed and built as a low cost heat engine for the conversion of LGH into electricity. Its main design advantages are its cost and the employment of only one moving part. Using the data gained from the experimental rig, deviations from the expected results (those derived theoretically) were explored to gain insight for further development. The results from the TSR rig were well below those expected from the design specifications. Although the experimental apparatus was able to process the required heat energy, the efficiency of conversion fell well below the expected 3% and was approximately 0.2%. The inefficiency was explained by a number of contributing factors, the major being form drag upon the rotor that contributed around 2/3 of the losses. Although this was the major cause of the power loss, other factors such as the interference with the rotor by the condensate on its return path contributed to the overall poor performance of the TSR Mk V. The RMIT TFC project came about from exploration of the available academic literature on the subject of LGH conversion. Early work by researchers into applying Carnot's theory to finite heat sources led them to explore the merits of sensible heat transfer combined with a cycle that passes a liquid (instead of a gas) though an expander. The results showed that it was theoretically possible to extract and convert more energy from a heat source of this type using this method than using any other alternative. This previous research was targeted at heat sources above 80ºC and so exploration of the theoretical and empirical results for sources below this temperature was needed. Computer models and an experimental rig using isopentane (with a 28ºC boiling point at atmospheric pressure) were produced to assess the outcomes of employing low temperature heat sources using a TFC. The experimental results from the TFC research proved promising with the efficiency of conversion ranging from 0.8% to 2.4%. Although s uch figures seem poor in isolation, it should be noted that the 2.4% efficiency represents an achievement of 47% of the theoretical ideal conversion efficiency in a rig that uses mainly off-the-shelf components. It also confirms that the TFC shows promise when applied to heat sources less than 80ºC.
Ali, Adya Alisha
13 July 2004
Technological advancement, as well as consumer demands, has motivated the miniaturization of electronic/mechanical systems and increase of device power and performance. The notebook computer is not an exception, and innovative thermal management solutions must be employed to compensate for the increased heat dissipation in the space-constrained enclosures. The majority of current cooling systems in laptop computers rely on heat pipes attached to a remote heat exchanger with micro-fans providing forced convection to reject heat to the ambient, however this technique can not accommodate the increasing heat fluxes in the confined laptop enclosure. In this study, a two-phase closed loop cooling system is designed and tested for a laptop computer. The cooling system consists of an evaporator structure containing boiling structures connected to a compact condenser with mini fans providing external forced convection. A pump is also incorporated to assist the return of the condensate back to the evaporator. The cooling system is characterized by a parametric study which determines the effects of volume fill ratio of coolant, initial system pressure, and pump flow rate on the thermal performance of the closed loop. Experimental data shows the optimum parametric values which can dissipate 25 W of chip power with a chip temperature maintained at 95C. Numerical analysis provides additional data to further enhance the heat dissipation from the external air-cooled side of the condenser by studying the effects of ventilation and air flow rate across the system. Thermal management of mobile systems must be considered during the early design phases, and this research shows the feasibility of implementing of a two-phase cooling system to dissipate 25 W in a laptop computer.
18 May 2007
An experimental and numerical investigation was conducted to study boiling and condensation - the two most important phenomena occurring in a dual-chamber thermosyphon. Boiling experiments were carried out using water at sub-atmospheric pressures of 9.7, 15 and 21 kPa with a three-dimensional porous boiling enhancement structure integrated in the evaporator. Sub-atmospheric pressure boiling achieved heat fluxes in excess of 100 W/cm2 with negligible incipience superheat, for wall temperatures below 85 oC. Reduced pressures resulted in reduction of heat transfer coefficient with decrease in saturation pressure. The boiling enhancement structure showed considerable heat transfer enhancement compared to boiling from plain surface. Increased height of the structure decreased the heat transfer coefficient and suggested the existence of an optimum structure height for a particular saturation pressure. A parametric study showed that a reduction in liquid level of water increased the CHF for boiling with plain surfaces. For boiling with enhanced structures, the liquid level for optimum heat transfer increased with increasing height of the enhanced structure. A numerical model was developed to study condensation of water in horizontal rectangular microchannels of hydraulic diameters 150-375 Âµm. The model incorporated surface tension, axial pressure gradient, liquid film curvature, liquid film thermal resistance, gravity and interfacial shear stress, and implemented successive solution of mass, momentum and energy balance equations for both liquid and vapor phases. Rectangular microchannels achieved significantly higher heat transfer coefficient compared to a circular channel of similar hydraulic diameter. Increasing the inlet mass flow rate resulted in a higher heat transfer coefficient. Increasing the inlet temperature difference between wall and vapor led to a thicker film and a gradually decreasing heat transfer coefficient. Increasing the channel dimensions led to higher heat transfer coefficient, with a reduction in the vapor pressure drop along the axial direction of the channel. The unique contributions of the study are: extending the knowledge base and contributing unique results on the thermal performance of thermosyphons, and development of a analytical model of condensation in rectangular microchannels, which identified the system parameters that affects the flow and thermal performance during condensation.
Análise comparativa de um sistema passivo com um sistema ativo de aquecimento de água por meio de um coletor solar de tubos de vidro a vácuoNaranjo Toro, Juan Diego January 2015 (has links)
Os sistemas solares de aquecimento de água são uma forma de produção de energia não poluente, que já faz parte da matriz energética brasileira. O uso deste tipo de sistemas traz benefícios econômicos ao país e principalmente a quem os utiliza, devido à poupança no uso de outras fontes de energia para o aquecimento da água. No Brasil o aquecimento solar de água é realizado, principalmente, por coletores solares planos, tecnologia bem conhecida e fabricada no país a preços baixos. Mas atualmente há uma outra tecnologia que está sendo difundida no âmbito nacional, os coletores solares de tubos a vácuo, os quais estão sendo produzidos internacionalmente em uma escala maior, importados e comercializados a preços mais competitivos no mercado nacional. Por isto é necessário entender estes sistemas e o seu funcionamento para evitar erros na sua instalação e otimizar sua operação. Nesta dissertação é realizada uma análise comparativa de um sistema de aquecimento de água composto por um coletor solar de tubos de vidro a vácuo de extração de calor por transferência direta operando em circulação forçada com o mesmo sistema operando em circulação por termossifão. Esta comparação foi realizada determinando a energia anual que o sistema pode produzir para cada tipo de circulação, a qual foi calculada usando como referência a norma ISO 9459-2 e os dados climáticos da cidade de Porto Alegre do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Também foram realizadas medições da vazão em termossifão, entre o reservatório e o coletor solar, e foi determinado o coeficiente de perdas térmicas do tanque reservatório segundo os procedimentos da mesma norma. Para isto foi realizada a montagem de uma bancada experimental, com sensores e instrumentos de medida que foram calibrados. Para o sistema de aquecimento testado, os resultados mostram que o sistema trabalhando em circulação por termossifão produz maior quantidade de energia no ano do que o sistema em circulação forçada, onde se observou que a estratificação no tanque reservatório era menor. Também foi observado que a máxima vazão em termossifão para este sistema de aquecimento de água foi de 0,5 L/min. / Solar water heating systems are a method of clean energy production, which is already part of the Brazilian energy matrix. The use of these systems brings economic benefits to the country and especially who use them due to savings in the use of other sources of energy for heating water. In Brazil, the solar water heating is carried out mainly by flat solar collectors, which is a widely known technology because it is produced in the country at low prices. But recently, there is another technology that is being used named: evacuated solar collectors. These collectors are being worldwide produced on a large scale and they are imported and inserted at competitive prices in the domestic market. Therefore it is necessary to understand these systems and their operation to avoid errors in its installation and optimize their operation. In this work, it is accomplishing a comparative analysis of a solar water heating system composed by a water-in-glass evacuated tube solar collector working in forced circulation with the same system working in thermosyphon circulation. This comparison was performed by determining the annual energy that the system can produce for each type of circulation, which was calculated based on the ISO 9459-2 standard and the climatic data of the Porto Alegre city, state of the Rio Grande Do Sul. Also, it was performed thermosyphon measurements between the thermal reservoir and the solar collector, and it was calculated the heat loss coefficient from the reservoir tank according to the procedures of ISO 9459-2 standard. To do so, a testing bench was made, with sensors and measuring instruments which were calibrated before use. For the heating system tested, the results show that the system with thermosyphon circulation produces more annual energy than the forced circulation system where the water temperature stratification in the thermal reservoir was lower. Also, it was observed that the maximum thermosyphon flow for this solar water heating system was 0,5 L/min.
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