Leggat, Lennox John
The thesis describes experimental techniques used and results obtained in the investigation of the pure tone components of sound radiation from a commercial 19 inch axial flow fan. The causes and extent of the discrete tone sources were investigated by several methods: cross-correlation of fan surface pressure fluctuations with far field sound, spectral analysis of surface pressure, and examination of surface pressure waveforms. A unique feature involved the design of an apparatus for detecting and transmitting fan-borne pressure fluctuations off the rotating blades. "Causality Correlations" with the on-axis far field sound rendered dipole source strength distribution functions over a span wise line at 15 per cent chord from the leading edge of the fan blade and around a circumferential ring on the motor support strut at a fan radius of 89 per cent. Results indicate that the on-axis discrete tones are a result of source mechanisms causing force fluctuations on the blades and struts which in turn lead to sound radiation which is dipole in nature and is most intense on the axis of the fan. These mechanisms include ingestion of a concentrated vortex, modulation of the clearance between the blade tips and the fan shroud, flow separation around the inlet bell mouth, and fluctuations in the inflow velocity due to the proximity of the fan to the wedged wall of the Anechoic chamber. Crude integral approximations of source strength distributions over the surfaces of the blades and the struts indicated that sound radiation at the blade passage frequency from these two contributors to the overall sound would be about equal, although more sound radiation is expected to originate at the rotor. / Applied Science, Faculty of / Mechanical Engineering, Department of / Graduate
No description available.
Carter, Robert W.
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Florida Technological University College of Engineering Thesis / This research report documents the various types of Data Acquisition Systems in use for testing jet aircraft engines. The cost trade offs and design considerations are explored for systems which employ a digital computer as the prime recording/processing element. The digital computer has revolutionalized the data acquisition field, particularly in the testing of high performance jet engines. Test data can be acquired, processed, converted to engineering units, and out via high speed line printers and cathode ray tubes (CRT's). The data acquisition system operates on-line, and interleaves the random requests for data from multiple test cells by using a specially designed software system and multi-processing capability of the high speed digital computer. All test data must be traceable to The National Bureau of Standards, which required that all calibration standards also be traceable. Primary and secondary calibration methods are discussed and examples of the mathematical processes for conversion of the raw data to meaningful results are presented. Data Acquisition Systems for jet engine testing can be logically grouped into two main categories, with the determining factor being the type of test to be conducted. Production engine testing requires rapid setup, calibration, and fast data turn around, particularly for modern automated test facilities. Development engine testing requires a large number of data channels, infrequent setup, and complete software for extensive engine performance calculations. Both types of Data Acquistion Systems have been designed and built by Pratt & Whitney Aircraft and are used as examples of the techniques described in this report. / M.S.; / Masters; / Engineering; / Engineering; / Engineering; / 69 p. / 69 leaves, bound : ill. ; 29 cm.
Negrel, Christian Claude
This study examines NACA's organization in the light of Alfred D. Chandler's <i>Strategy and Structure</i>. It analyzes the agency's administration. NACA's strategy of maximizing existing technology and its committee's structure were the key elements in its failure to develop jet propulsion in the early 1940s. We will focus first on NACA and its organization. The second chapter will describe jet propulsion, particularly the acquisition of a Whittle engine from England and General Arnold 's role in keeping NACA out of the development of the Whittle engine in the United States. The third chapter will concentrate on the reasons that combined and led to the difficulties of NACA in the mid-forties and the 1950s. That chapter will look at the rise of the aviation industry, the criticism it expressed against NACA, and finally NACA's strategy as one of the causes of failure. / Master of Arts
Basic Comparison of Three Aircraft Concepts: Classic Jet Propulsion, Turbo-Electric Propulsion and Turbo-Hydraulic PropulsionRodrigo, Clinton January 2019 (has links) (PDF)
Purpose - This thesis presents a comparison of aircraft design concepts to identify the superior propulsion system model among turbo-hydraulic, turbo-electric and classic jet propulsion with respect to Direct Operating Costs (DOC), environmental impact and fuel burn. --- Approach - A simple aircraft model was designed based on the Top-Level Aircraft Requirements of the Airbus A320 passenger aircraft, and novel engine concepts were integrated to establish new models. Numerous types of propulsion system configurations were created by varying the type of gas turbine engine and number of propulsors. --- Findings - After an elaborate comparison of the aforementioned concepts, the all turbo-hydraulic propulsion system is found to be superior to the all turbo-electric propulsion system. A new propulsion system concept was developed by combining the thrust of a turbofan engine and utilizing the power produced by the turbo-hydraulic propulsion system that is delivered via propellers. The new partial turbo-hydraulic propulsion concept in which 20% of the total cruise power is coming from the (hydraulic driven) propellers is even more efficient than an all turbo-hydraulic concept in terms of DOC, environmental impact and fuel burn. --- Research Limitations - The aircraft were modelled with a spreadsheet based on handbook methods and relevant statistics. The investigation was done only for one type of reference aircraft and one route. A detailed analysis with a greater number of reference aircraft and types of routes could lead to other results. --- Practical Implications - With the provided spreadsheet, the DOC and environmental impact can be approximated for any commercial reference aircraft combined with the aforementioned propulsion system concepts. --- Social Implications - Based on the results of this thesis, the public will be able to discuss the demerits of otherwise highly lauded electric propulsion concepts. --- Value - To evaluate the viability of the hydraulic propulsion systems for passenger aircraft using simple mass models and aircraft design concept.
Benegas Jayme, Diego
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Purpose - This master thesis evaluates the hybrid-electric aircraft project E-Fan X with respect to its economical and environmental performance in comparison to its reference aircraft, the BAe 146-100. The E-Fan X is replacing one of the four jet engines of the reference aircraft by an electric motor and a fan. A turboshaft engine in the cargo compartment drives a generator to power the electric motor. --- Methodology - The evaluation of this project is based on standard aircraft design equations. Economics are based on Direct Operating Costs (DOC), which are calculated with the method of the Association of European Airlines (AEA) from 1989, inflated to 2019 values. Environmental impact is assessed based on local air quality (NOx, Ozone and Particulate Matter), climate impact (CO2, NOx, Aircraft-Induced Cloudiness known as AIC) and noise pollution estimated with fundamental acoustic equations. --- Findings - The battery on board the E-Fan X it is not necessary. In order to improve the proposed design, the battery was eliminated. Nevertheless, due to additional parts required in the new configuration, the aircraft is 902 kg heavier. The turboshaft engine saves only 59 kg of fuel. The additional mass has to be compensated by a payload reduced by 9 passengers. The DOC per seat-mile are up by more than 10% and equivalent CO2 per seat-mile are more than 16% up in the new aircraft. --- Research limitations - Results are limited in accuracy by the underlying standard aircraft design calculations. The results are also limited in accuracy by the lack of knowledge of some data of the project. --- Practical implications - The report contributes arguments to the discussion about electric flight. --- Social implications - Results show that unconditional praise given to the environmental characteristics of this industry project are not justified.
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