Van Rensburg, Alta
Thesis (MPhil (Dept. of Ancient Studies) -- University of Stellenbosch, 2005. Mention is yet again made of a new translation of the Bible into Afrikaans. The question is: Which translation approach must be followed in order to ensure effective communication of this age-old message? In 2002 and 2003, a project was launched in Stellenbosch during which translation teams prepared four different draft translations of parts of the Bible from the original languages. A new translation model was used, namely Gutt's direct and indirect translation strategies, which were applied within Nord's functionalistic approach as framework. After the review of some of the most important Bible translations through the ages, main features of Nida's translation model are explained. It is indicated that the basis of his translation approach, the code model of communication, is regarded as insufficient for describing translation as a phenomenon. New developments in linguistics, namely Sperber and Wilson's exposition of Relevance Theory, and Translation Studies, namely Ernst-August Gutt's application of Relevance Theory to translation and Christiane Nord's version of the Skopos Theory, are discussed. The conclusion is made that these developments have been taken into account in the translation model of the Stellenbosch translation project and that the model is indeed theoretically well founded. Based on the annotations of the translation products, it was found that this abstract theoretical model can indeed be applied successfully in practice. The results of the empirical study indicate that the average reader does not always prefer the same type of translation on a specific kind of occasion, but has a need for an informal as well as a formal Bible translation. Following the findings of this study, proposals are made that can be applied during a possible new translation of the Bible into Afrikaans.
Koen, Elizabeth Theresia
Thesis (MPhil (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 2008. This thesis explores the importance of the function of religion in the life of the average, non-royal woman in Ancient Egyptian society. As Ancient Egyptian society and the historical documentation thereof were dominated by the male perspective, the extent of religious participation by women was, until recently, underestimated. Recent research has shown that women had taken part in, and in some cases even dominated, certain spheres of Ancient Egyptian religion. This included religious participation in public, as well as the practice of certain religious rituals in the home. The religious lives of ordinary women of non-royal families were studied by looking at their involvement in the public aspects of Egyptian religion, such as temples, tombs and festivals, as well as at the influence of religion on their identities as women and mothers. The research method followed was that of an iconographical analysis of original sources, which were classified and examined in order to establish their religious links to women of the middle and lower classes. A catalogue of sources is given, including sources depicting women participating in public rituals and objects used in a more domestic sphere. The first included tomb paintings and reliefs from tombs and temples, as well as objects given as public offerings to various deities. The second group included objects and visual depictions relating to fertility, birth and death. This thesis attempts better to understand and illuminate to what an extent the ordinary women of Ancient Egypt were involved in religious participation in their daily lives, as well as to illustrate the dimensions of this participation.
Ponelis, I. A. (Isabella Annanda)
Thesis (MPhil)--Stellenbosch University, 2003. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: The rise of Ancient Egyptian civilization by the end of the fourth millennium BC was essentially a religious process. The civilization developed from a religious core that was formed by and in the Nile valley. Metaphors were drawn from the context of the Nile to represent deities. In different epochs and at different places, creation myths attempted explaining the mystery of the origin of god and man. According to these myths, both god and man were created by a primal being after it had brought itself into being. In an attempt to depict different facets of deities, various metaphors were used. One and the same god could be represented as a human and as an animal. Nonetheless, all deities possessed human features and all functioned in human structures. In the primal state mankind and the gods coexisted in harmony. When man rebelled this harmony was shattered, and the gods left the world of man. After the gods had left earth they could be approached only by a mediator. The role of mediator was played by the pharaoh. It was the pharaoh's mission to maintain the order on earth that had been present since creation. Inthe office as high priest of all cults it was incumbent on the pharaoh to keep the gods satisfied by ensuring them of the maintenance of Ma'at. In this the pharaoh as god-king was assisted by a hierarchy of priests who performed cult rituals in temples and sacrificed to the gods. To a great extent, ordinary people were excluded from formal religion and resorted to popular or demotic religion. The dominant role of artefacts in death and grave rituals does not signify an obsession with death. All rituals and artefacts were involved in maintaining life after death, and the afterlife was something that Ancient Egyptians implicitly believed in. Admission to life after death required a morally sound and just life, which was determined in the judgement ceremony when the deeds of the deceased were placed on a scale weighted with the feather of Ma'at. Religion, with the pharaoh at its centre, permeated every aspect of daily life in Ancient Egypt. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Die opkoms van die Antieke Egiptiese beskawing teen die einde van die vierde millennium vC was essensieel 'n godsdienstige proses. Die beskawing het rondom 'n godsdiens ontwikkel wat sy skering en inslag in die vrugbare Nylvallei gehad het. Metafore uit die Nylkonteks is gebruik om die godedom te vergestalt. Skeppingsmites het op verskillende tye en op verskillende plekke 'n verklaring van die ontstaansgeheim van gode en mense probeer gee. Hiervolgens is alle gode en mense deur 'n oerwese geskape nadat hierdie oerwese homself tot stand gebring het. In 'n poging om die verskillende fasette van gode uit te beeld, is verskillende metafore gebruik; dieselfde god kon vergestalt word as mens en/of dier. Tog het alle gode menslike eienskappe gehad en het hulle almal in menslike strukture gefunksioneer. In die oerstaat sou mense en gode in harmonie saamleef. Toe die mens in opstand gekom het, is hierdie harmonie versteur, en die gode het die wêreld van die mensdom verlaat. Nadat die gode die aarde verlaat het, kon hulle net deur 'n middelaar bereik word. Die rol van middelaar is ingeneem deur die farao. Dit was die opdrag van die farao om die orde wat van die skepping af teenwoordig was, op aarde te handhaaf. In sy amp as hoëpriester van alle kultusse moes die farao daagliks die gode tevrede hou deur hulle van die instandhouding van Ma'at te verseker. Hierin is hy as godkoning bygestaan deur 'n hiërargie van priesters wat in tempels kultusrituele uitgevoer en offers aan die gode gebring het. Die gewone mens is in 'n groot mate uitgesluit van formele godsdiens en het 'n heenkome in volksgodsdiens gevind. Die dominante rol wat artefakte rondom die dood en grafrituele speel, het geensins gedui op 'n beheptheid met die dood nie. Alle rituele en toerusting is gerig op die instandhouding van die lewe na die dood, waaraan die Antieke Egiptenaar onwrikbaar geglo het. Toetrede tot die lewe na die dood het 'n moreel regverdige lewe vereis en is bepaal by die oordeelseremonie wanneer die afgestorwene se dade op 'n skaal teenoor die veer van Ma'at geweeg is. Elke aspek van die daaglikse lewe in Antieke Egipte is geraak en bepaal deur die besondere rol van die godsdiens en die farao as hoofrolspeler in die godsdiens.
Van Zyl Smit, E.
DLitt (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 1987.
Eskatologiese/apokaliptiese oorlog tussen goed en kwaad in die Zoroastrisme, die Judaismse (Qumran) en 'n vroeg-Christelike geskrif (Die apokalips)Louw-Kritzinger, Ellie Maria 2008 (has links)
Thesis (DPhil (Ancient Studies))--University of Stellenbosch, 2008. Since time immemorial and throughout the centuries up to the present, the struggle between Good and Evil has played a cardinal role in the “cultural web” of mankind. In the various religions, this dimension of life is linked to the theological issue of human suffering and need in the light of Divine Omnipotence and Grace. Some of the earliest prophets/compilers/authors expressed their own perspectives on this ongoing conflict and burning question. This comparative research stems from a statement by the well-known Iranologist, Mary Boyce. She described the origin of the Christian faith as a new religion that developed out of Judaism, enriched by contact with the old Persian religion, Zoroastrianism. Other researchers also described various aspects of the dualism, eschatology, angelology and demonology, as well as the cosmogony and purity laws, as “obvious” similarities. However, researchers have not yet reached consensus on the possible influence exercised by Zoroastrianism on Judaism and the early Christian writings. The aim of the study is to make a contribution to the ongoing debate from another perspective. Writings from the religions are juxtaposed in full, and analysed and compared according to the war theme and components arising from the writings themselves. A holistic approach offers a more structured starting -point for further research rather to opposing aspects randomly from a large variety of texts. The holistic approach draws attention to similarities as well as differences. Keywords out of each analysis of a component have been placed in a framework to present the summarising comparison more compactly. Historical and literary contexts play an important role in a comparative study. The writings of the three religions originated in four major eras: the Bronze Age/the Sasanian Period, the Hellenistic Era and the Roman Era. The characteristic dualism of Zoroastrianism is limited to the eschatological/apocalyptic war as it is found in the Gathas of Zarathustra. References are also made to the “later” apocalyptic writing, the Bahman Yasht. The most relevant writing in the Judaism (Qumran) is the War Scroll. Richard Bauckham has described Revelations as the “Christian War Scroll”. The analysis of the various aspects shows that core principles in the religions underlie the war themes. Some of the proper names contain defining elements in the determination of dualism and monotheism. Planning and weapons are main components in the strategy of the war - the “revelation” of the modus operandi. The eschatology is caught up in the ultimate end of the war. In the final chapter, the main corresponding elements are placed on a “scale” and “weighed”. Although no further “lexical links” – the weight-bearing criteria of García Martínez – have been found in this study, the amount of corresponding aspects in merely one text per religion is significant. Differences and unique imagery/symbolism put each writing in its own time-slot and framework.
Du Toit, Pieter Francois
Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: A persona is a definable literary technique that all authors necessarily use. This thesis tries to show how Catullus, with the use of six personae (amator acceptus, amator reiectus, hospes urbanus, poeta doctus, fabulator en sacerdos), persuades the reader of the emotional “authenticity” and the accessibility of his poems. This is done firstly by investigating the literary process of which a persona forms part. By comparing this process with the three phases of a conversation (thought, expression and utterance), it is possible to see how a persona can be “discovered”. The thought represents the historical author and his literary context. The expression represents the literary persona itself. The utterance represents the unemotional, “unloaded” elements of the text manifested as the collective function of characters, speakers and narrators. By identifying this process in Catullus’ poetry, the relevant personae are illuminated. Catullus, as a Latin poet who was familiar with “Roman performance poetry” and the ancient theatre mask, also understood this complex process. This thesis argues that Catullus used the persona – like a theatre mask – as a so-called “totem of perspective”. The careful use of persuasive techniques that provide the momentum, are analysed in some of his poems, keeping the function of this “totem of perspective” in mind. The result is that the poet succeeds in creating sophisticated, diverse and accessible personae, which readers through the ages readily accept as “authentic”. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: ’n Persona is ’n definieerbare literêre tegniek wat alle outeurs noodwendig gebruik. Hierdie tesis beoog om aan te dui hoe Catullus, met die gebruik van ses personae (amator acceptus, amator reiectus, hospes urbanus, poeta doctus, fabulator en sacerdos), die leser van die emosionele “egtheid” en die toeganklikheid van sy werk oortuig. Dit word eerstens gedoen deur die literêre proses waarvan ’n persona deel is, te ondersoek. Deur hierdie proses te vergelyk met die drie fases van ’n gesprek (gedagte, uitdrukking en uiting) is dit moontlik om te sien hoe ’n persona “ontdek” kan word: die gedagte verteenwoordig die werklike outeur en sy literêre konteks, die uitdrukking verteenwoordig die literêre persona self en die uiting verteenwoordig die onemosionele, “ongelaaide” elemente van die teks, soos vergestalt deur die gesamentlike funksionering van karakters, sprekers en vertellers. Deur hierdie proses te identifiseer in Catullus se gedigte, word die betrokke personae verhelder. Catullus, as Latynse digter wat bekend was met “Romeinse performatiewe poësie” en die antieke toneelmasker, het ook hierdie ingewikkelde proses begryp. Hierdie tesis argumenteer dat Catullus die persona – soos ’n toneelmasker – as ’n sogenaamde “perspektieftotem” gebruik het. Die sorgvuldige gebruik van oorredingstegnieke wat die momentum voorsien, word in van sy gedigte geanaliseer met hierdie perspektieftotem-funksie in gedagte. Die resultaat is dat die digter dit regkry om gesofistikeerde, diverse en toeganklike personae te skep wat lesers deur die eeue as “eg” aanvaar.
Secundum Naturam Vivere : the stoic telos and practical guidance for the attainment of a happy life in Seneca’s epistulae moralesRaal, Eva-Melitta 2011 (has links)
Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2011. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: Stoic philosophy taught along with the other prominent philosophical schools of the Hellenistic Era (i.e. the Academics, the Peripatetics and the Epicureans) that the goal or final end (telos) of human existence is our well-being or happiness (eudaimonia). The Stoics provided various definitions of this telos, the most famous being “living in agreement with nature” (ηὸ ὁκνινγνπκέλσο ηῇ θύζεη δῆλ) or “living according to nature” (secundum naturam vivere) and this goal essentially comes down to living according to perfect reason and virtue. The purpose of this study is to investigate how Seneca presents the Stoic doctrines regarding this topic in his Epistulae Morales (“Letters on Morality”) and to determine whether he managed to make the theoretical framework, proposed by the Stoics for the attainment of a happy life, more easily applicable in practice without compromising orthodox Stoic teachings. The orthodoxy of Seneca‟s philosophy may be judged by comparison with the doctrines of the early Stoic teachers, which is why this study will first look at the traditional Stoic teachings concerning the definition of the telos as well as the theory behind the attainment thereof. Thereafter it will be investigated how true Seneca stayed to these traditional teachings and whether he managed to make the Stoic telos more realistically attainable by the practical advice he offers in his letters. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Stoïsynse filosofie voer aan soos die ander prominente filosofiese skole van die Hellenistiese era (d.w.s. die Akademie, die Peripatetiese skool, en die Epikureërs) dat die einddoel (telos) van die mensdom welsyn of geluk (eudaimonia) is. Die Stoïsyne het verskillende definisies van die telos verskaf; die mees bekende is “om in ooreenkoms met die natuur te leef” (ηὸ ὁκνινγνπκέλσο ηῇ θύζεη δῆλ) of “om volgens die natuur te leef” (secundum naturam vivere) en hierdie einddoel kom in wese daarop neer om volgens volmaakte rede of deug te leef. Die doel van hierdie studie is om te ondersoek hoe Seneca die Stoïsynse leerstellings oor hierdie onderwerp in sy Epistulae Morales (“Briewe oor Moraliteit”) behandel en om te bepaal of hy dit makliker gemaak het om die teoretiese raamwerk, wat deur die Stoïsyne vir die bereiking van 'n gelukkige lewe voorgestel is, in die praktyk toe te pas sonder om die ortodokse Stoïsynse leerstellings te kompromitteer. Die ortodoksie van Seneca se filosofie kan beoordeel word deur dit met die leerstellings van die vroeë Stoïsyne te vergelyk. Hierdie studie begin dus met „n ondersoek na die tradisionele Stoïsynse leerstellings aangaande die definisie van die telos, sowel as die teorie oor die bereiking daarvan. Daarna word ondersoek hoe getrou Seneca was aan die tradisionele leerstellings en of hy deur die praktiese raad in sy briewe dit makliker gemaak het om die Stoïsynse telos te bereik.
Bronn, Johanna Aletta
Thesis (MPhil (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 2006. The time between the Middle and New Kingdoms in Ancient Egypt is known as the Second Intermediate Period. It was the time during which Egypt, for the first time in its history, lost autonomy and the inhabitants of Egypt became the vassals of the Hyksos, a name transcribed by Manetho, a historian of the third century BCE as 'shepherd kings', but which actually designated 'princes of foreign lands'. The term 'Hyksos' at first referred to the rulers only, but later became the accepted word to indicate the rulers, the people themselves and everything pertaining to them. The Hyksos were not a homogenous race, but were a conglomerate of peoples from the Near East. For centuries people from the east had been filtering into Egypt. Transhumants and nomads came in search of pasture for their animals and elected to stay. Others were employed by the Egyptian administration as ship-builders and mining engineers or as workers in the copper and turquoise mines in the Sinai. These workers were all settled in the Delta, the hub of mining and shipbuilding activities. Others were slaves who were dispersed all over Egypt as workers in households and on farms. Despite Egypt's best efforts to keep out Asiatics who wanted to enter the country of their own volition, their fortresses on the border between Egypt and Sinai proved ineffective, especially when the Egyptian administration faltered and collapsed during the Seventeenth Dynasty. It is still a point debated by historians whether a strong military force from the East overran Egypt in c.1658 BCE or whether the transition from Egyptian rule to Hyksos rule was a gradual and comparatively peaceful process. There is evidence that the Hyksos were supported by many Egyptians who collaborated with the Hyksos and who even served in the Hyksos administration which lasted from c. 1658 – 1550 BCE. However, the vassal princes in Upper Egypt saw the Hyksos as usurpers and amassed forces to expel the enemy. This they achieved in c. 1550 BCE, after which it was possible to once again unite Upper and Lower Egypt. This thesis probes the rule of the Hyksos and the influence they might have had on Egyptian culture. Part One (chapters 2-7) deals with the Hyksos per se: their origin, their rise to power, their rule, and how they were expelled. Part Two (chapters 8-12) investigates the Hyksos culture and has a close look at their architecture, arts and crafts, burial practices, warfare and weapons, and religion. Part Three (chapter 13) examines the influence the Hyksos might have had on Egyptian culture, with special attention to architecture, burial practices, arts and crafts, warfare and weapons, and religion. Chapter 14 rounds off the thesis and comes to the conclusion that the Hyksos made very little impact on the Egyptian culture in general, but contributed greatly to Egypt's development in warfare and weapons, and also for a period exerted some influence on religious practices, especially in the Delta. Finally, the Hyksos contributed to Egypt's altered world vision by forcing them to shed their complacency, which in turn opened the way to expansionism in countries in the Near East.
Syro-Palestinian stamp seals from the Persian Period (538-332 B.C.): an analysis of their iconographic motifs and inscriptionsKlingbeil, Martin Gerhard 1992 (has links)
Thesis (MA (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 1992. In the course of this M.A. thesis, 65 stamp seals (conoids, scaraboids, signet rings and scarabs) have been collected, described, and analyzed. They stem from legal archaeological excavations in Syro-Palestine, and have been found in strata and contexts which can clearly be ascribed to the Persian period. Methodological questions were addressed, including the following: historical outline of the Persian period, geographical limitations of the study, archaeological considerations, and the iconographic and epigraphic aspects of the study. For the description process, a computerized system was developed, by means of which the seals could be described on three levels: general description, element description, modification description. In this way, a uniform way of handling the data was achieved. The description procedure is reflected in the fonn of a catalogue. In order to facilitate the analysis, the seal corpus was organized in three, at times overlapping, classes: iconographic seals, epigraphic seals, and hieroglyphic seals. The different classes were then analyzed according to their peculiarities, e.g. geographical distribution, iconographic motif groups, palaeography, onomastica, etc. It was shown that the corpus of stamp seals from the Persian period consists of a wide variety of objects in tenns of form and content, and could by no means be characterized as being homogenous. A certain relationship between geographical origin, fonn, and content of the seal could be established.
Die vertaling van die Bybels-Hebreeuse kommunikasieleidraad hinneh in Afrikaanse Bybelvertaling : 'n verkennende studieCoetsee, Ydalene 2009 (has links)
Thesis (MPhil (Ancient Studies)--University of Stellenbosch, 2009. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In the past, Bible translations sometimes suffered from inadequate theoretical and grammatical description, which interfered with consistent translation choices. Nowadays, however, development of translation theory and improved description of Biblical Hebrew cause more scientifically motivated translation options to be generated in a more consistent way. This study has as its point of departure for future Bible translations the translation model of Gutt’s direct and indirect strategies within the paradigm of Nord’s functionalist approach. According to Gutt first generation Bible readers can make use of indirect translations while serious Bible students prefer to come to their own conclusions about source texts. For that reason translators should provide all possible communicative clues from source texts to enable target readers to reach appropriate interpretations about its underlying message. Following an overview of a sample of previous Bible translations, three Afrikaans translations are discussed to examine whether previous translation approaches (sometimes assumed) have supplied an adequate theoretical basis for ensuring consistent translation choices. Nida’s influential dynamic-functional approach is discussed next. My hypothesis that past translation theory and the description of Biblical Hebrew grammar were not adequate to provide motivation for consistent translation options, is then tested during a comparative study of the translation of the communicative clue hinneh in three previous Afrikaans Bible translations. Gutt’s requirement for direct Bible translations, that all communicative clues should be translated, presupposes insight into translation theory and close co-operation between a Biblical-Hebrew and a translation expert. This requirement was tested and proved during this study. In accordance with the findings of this study recommendations are made to demonstrate some ways in which hinneh as example of other complicated communicative clues can be treated in future Afrikaans Bible translations. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Vorige Bybelvertalings het soms in die verlede gely onder onvoldoende vertaalkundige en taalkundige beskrywing wat vertaalkeuses bemoeilik het. Deesdae bring die ontwikkeling van vertaalkunde en die beter beskrywing van Bybels- Hebreeuse grammatika egter mee dat meer wetenskaplik begronde vertaalkeuses konsekwent uitgeoefen en gemotiveer kan word. Hierdie studie neem as uitgangpunt vir toekomstige Bybelvertaling die vertaalmodel van Gutt se direkte en indirekte strategieë binne die paradigma van Nord se funksionalistiese benadering. Volgens Gutt kan eerstegenerasielesers baat vind by ’n indirekte vertaling terwyl ernstige Bybelstudente verkies om self relevante afleidings uit brontekste te maak. Daarvoor moet vertalers alle kommunikasieleidrade moontlik uit die brontekste verskaf om doellesers te help om gepaste interpretasies te maak. Ná ’n historiese oorsig oor ’n aantal Bybelvertalings word Afrikaanse vertalings onder die loep geneem om te ondersoek of vorige (soms veronderstelde) teoretiese vertaalbenaderings die gewenste wetenskaplike begronding verskaf het om te verseker dat konsekwente vertaalkeuses gemaak is. Aandag word ook gegee aan die invloed van Nida se dinamies-funksionele vertaalstrategie op Afrikaanse Bybelvertalings. Die hipotese dat die vertaalteorie en die beskrywing van Bybels-Hebreeuse taalkunde nie genoegsame teoretiese begronding verskaf het vir vorige vertalers om konsekwente keuses uit te oefen nie, word voorts getoets deur ’n verkennende studie van die kommunikasieleidraad hinneh in drie Afrikaanse Bybelvertalings. Gutt se benadering vereis dat alle kommunikasieleidrade vertaal behoort te word in die geval van direkte vertalings. Daarom is ’n grondige kennis van die mees onlangse vertaalteorie asook voldoende beskrywing van Bybels-Hebreeuse grammatika noodsaaklik. Nord se voorstel vir noue samewerking tussen vertaalkundiges en brontaalkundiges vir Bybelvertaling is met hierdie studie proefondervindelik bewys. Na aanleiding van die bevindings van hierdie studie word voorstelle gemaak waarvolgens hinneh as eksemplaries van ander ingewikkelde kommunikasieleidrade hanteer kan word in toekomstige vertalings van die Bybel in Afrikaans.
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