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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Koncepce vícenásobné diskriminace v právní úpravě Evropské unie / The conception of multiple discrimination in the legal regulation of the European Union

Tóthová, Tímea January 2011 (has links)
Resumé The conception of multiple discrimination in the legal regulation of the European Union To ensure the equality of individuals in society is one of the most marvelous human ideals. It is generally admitted that the same treatment of people with regard to the acceptance of diversity and between-group differences should be the cornerstone of any modern society. However, is it possible to achieve full equality in society? And what does equality truely mean? Treating everyone in the same way or taking into account the different starting points of individuals? Nowadays we become witnesses that the initial large openness to multiculturalism related to the continuing process of globalization is replaced by a more cautious approach to the different minority groups. As a result, certain groups are exposed to a greater risk of disadvantage mainly due to a combination of different socio-cultural, ethnic, economic and other factors. The aim of my essay is to shed light on the question of equal treatment and non- discrimination law through the relatively new, but in Czech and Central European literature still rarely discussed concept of multiple discrimination. After highlighting the definition of discrimination, the various approaches to equality and other theoretical aspects of discrimination, I am also trying...
2

The Discrimination in Workplaces : A Critical Discourse Analysis of the European Court of Justice Judgment about the Islamic Veil Prohibition

Dabbagh, Zahran January 2017 (has links)
The issue of the Islamic headscarf has been in the centre of the political debate whether it fits into the Western culture or not. Several member-states in the European Union have issued laws and regulations that impose restrictions on wearing the Islamic headscarf in the public sphere. Even some EU courts have ruled such restrictions imposed by member-states. Recently, this issue has been discussed in the context of the occupational life. In a dispute before the European Court of Justice, the ban was considered as legitimate. In this research, I analyse the judgment from a socio-legal perspective and analyse the intersectional identity of Mrs. Achbita who is a party in the dispute, considering that she belongs to the social category of veiled working Muslim women.
3

La perception et la mesure des discriminations racistes et sexistes / Perception and measurement of racist and sexist discriminations

Lesné, Maud 24 November 2015 (has links)
Les discriminations se sont finalement imposées comme l’un des mécanismes de production des inégalités qui jalonnent la société française et participent à la constitution de groupes de populations minorisés. Cette thèse aborde la question de la perception, de l’identification et de la dénonciation des discriminations racistes et sexistes sous un angle méthodologique à partir des données de l’enquête Trajectoires et Origines (TeO). Il n’existe pas de correspondance automatique entre les discriminations telles qu’elles se produisent et leurs déclarations. Cette thèse invalide les soupçons de sur déclaration des discriminations racistes qu’implique leur enregistrement massif et confirme l’existence d’une sous-déclaration des discriminations sexistes qui les fait apparaître comme un phénomène marginal. L’enquête TeO parvient à contourner les obstacles qui limitent les déclarations de discriminations racistes que sont le doute, le rejet d’un positionnement victimaire, la valorisation du mérite, la résignation mais ne parvient pas à pallier les mécanismes qui inhibent les déclarations de discriminations sexistes. Le déficit de sensibilisation des femmes, le discrédit du féminisme, leur intériorisation associée à leur caractère principalement systémique rendent les discriminations sexistes insaisissables. De plus, l’analyse intersectionnelle met au jour comment le croisement d’une situation de dominant liée au sexe à une situation de dominé liée à la prétendue race place les hommes racisés au cœur d’une intersection génératrice de tensions qui rendent les discriminations à leur encontre plus manifestes que celles subies par les femmes racisées. / Discrimination has finally been acknowledged as one of the mechanisms behind the inequality that pervades French society and contributes to the formation of minoritized population groups. The present doctoral thesis explores the perception, identification and reporting of racial and sexist discrimination from a methodological perspective, drawing on data from the Trajectories and Origins (TeO) survey. There is no automatic correspondence between occurrences of discrimination and their reporting. This thesis refutes the suspicion that racial discrimination is over-reported, fed by the huge volume of recorded cases, and confirms the massive under-reporting of sexist discrimination, which makes it appear a marginal phenomenon. While the TeO survey successfully circumvented the obstacles that traditionally deter respondents from reporting racial discrimination, namely doubt, resignation, a refusal of victimhood and a belief in merit, it could not overcome the mechanisms that inhibit the reporting of sexist discrimination. The latter’s largely systemic nature has led to its internalization, while women’s lack of awareness and the discrediting of feminism in France have also helped to make sexist discrimination difficult – if not impossible to measure. Moreover, the use of an intersectional approach revealed that being dominant in relation to sex, but dominated with regard to so-called race, places racialized men at a tension-charged intersection that makes discrimination against them more visible than that experienced by racialized women.
4

Diskrimineringslagen : Ett tillräckligt skydd mot diskriminering?

Stensson, Erica January 2014 (has links)
Abstrakt Studien ifrågasätter huruvida diskrimineringslagens är tillräcklig eller inte. Internationella granskningsrapporter om diskrimineringssituationen i Sverige har undersökts så väl som rättsfall och forskning i Sverige. I analysen lyfts de argument fram som de internationella granskningsorganen belyst i sina rapporter. Dessa argument behandlas tillsammans med den socialkonstruktivistiska och den intersektionella teorin. Undersökningen har visat att de internationella granskningskommittéerna ser viss betydande diskriminering i samhället. Det är bland annat genom medias rapportering, genom stereotypifiering av grupper så som etniska eller religiösa minoriteter, funktionsnedsattaeller som på annat sätt utmanar den heterosexuella normen i samhället. Granskningsorganen har samstämmigt lyft upp kritik mot den hatpropaganda som finns i samhället och som Sverige uppmanas reglera i lag. Andra problem som påtalas gäller segregationen och den sociala exkluderingen. Undersökningen fokuserar på att lyfta upp det intersektionella perspektivet och framhäver anläggandet av detta helhetsperspektiv. Mer uppmärksamhet borde ges den utsattes situation som problematiseras kopplat till bevisbördan. Lagen försvårar möjligheten att hävda multipel diskriminering vilket ofta förekommer då grunder samverkar till diskriminering. Slutsatsen dras om behovet av utredning för att införa utökande av grunder eller en öppen lista samt ett generellt diskrimineringsförbud. Detta framförallt för att Sveriges lagstiftning ska vara överensstämmande med de internationella konventioner som Sverige förbundit sig till. Det visas också på behov av vidare forskning gällande domstolarnas hantering av diskrimineringsfall kopplat till deras kompetens samt möjligheten till ett mer intersektionellt perspektiv på rätten. / Abstract The study question aim at investigate whether the Swedish discrimination law is sufficient or not. International monitoring reports on Sweden was examined, as well as Swedish legal cases and academic literature. The analysis focused the attention to the arguments that was highlighted in the monitoring reports. These arguments were analyzed together with the Social Constructivist Theory and the Intersectional Theory and compared with the results from the study of the legal cases of discrimination. This was done to bring on a broader perspective on the issue. The study has shown some significant discrimination in the society for example in the way that media reports and perform stereotypes of some groups. The monitoring reports of the UN, the Council of Europe and the EU has brought critic on the matter of hate speech and recommend Sweden to forbid this. Other problems being highlighted is segregation and social exclusion. The study aims at focus on the Intersectional Theory and the study concludes that more attention should be raised towards the person in an exposed situation and this also in relation to the burden of proof. The laws obstruct the ability to argue multiple discrimination which is commonly interacting in the creation of discrimination. There is a need for investigation of the establishment on further grounds of discrimination to be able to conform to international conventions and articulate rules to support people that are discriminated in the society today. The study also call for some further research on how the court manage the discrimination cases applying the burden of proof, the sufficiency of competence on discrimination and the ability to measure multiple discrimination.
5

"Višestruka diskriminacija žena u Srbiji i odabranim državama Evropske unije: uporedna analiza" / "Multiple Discrimination Against Women in Serbia and Selected EU Countries: a Comparative Analysis"

Beker Kosana 07 July 2020 (has links)
<p>Poslednjih decenija intenzivno se na univerzionalnom i regionalnim nivoima razvija pravo ljudskih prava, uključujući pravo na ravnopravnost i pravo na slobodu od diskriminacije. To je doprinelo napretku u ostvarivanju prava žena i rodne ravnopravnosti. Ukinute su formalne zakonske prepreke za žene, zatim je zabranjena diskriminacija i garantovano je pravo na ravnopravnost, &scaron;to je omogućilo de iure ravnopravnost, a nakon toga se teži ostvarivanju de facto ravnopravnosti. Međutim, su&scaron;tinska ravnopravnost između žena i mu&scaron;karaca jo&scaron; uvek nije dostignuta. Žene &scaron;irom sveta i dalje su u nepovoljnijem položaju u poređenju sa mu&scaron;karcima, diskriminisane su u svim sferama javnog i privatnog života i izložene su nasilju. Pored toga, žene su veoma heterogena grupa, a pojedine grupe žena vi&scaron;estruko su marginalizovane i izložene su većem riziku od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije, pa je njihov položaj mnogo lo&scaron;iji u poređenju sa ženama i mu&scaron;karcima iz većinske populacije, kao i mu&scaron;karcima iz njihove manjinske grupe. Vi&scaron;estruka diskriminacija je složen dru&scaron;tveni fenomen, kojim se bave mnoge naučne discipline, zbog čega je bilo neophodno interdisciplinarno istraživanje.<br />U radu se bavim istraživanjem fenomena vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacijom žena, kao i dometima i ograničenjima pravne za&scaron;tite žena od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije u Republici Srbiji i Austriji, Bugarskoj, Hrvatskoj, Francuskoj i Nemačkoj, kao odabranim državama Evropske unije. Teorijski okvir ovog rada su feminističke teorije uop&scaron;te, a posebno feministička pravna teorija koju Marta Kamalas (Martha Chamallas) defini&scaron;e kao feminističku pravnu teoriju generacije kompleksnih identiteta, a Kler Dalton (Claire Dalton) kao fazu raznovrsnosti. Podele koje su one formulisale povezane su sa pravnim teorijama jednakosti i ravnopravnosti, koje su važan deo teorijskog okvira ovog rada jer je na osnovu njih zabranjena diskriminacija, odnosno, kako je to Sandra Fredman definisala, ukinute su formalne zakonske prepreke, direktna i indirektna diskriminacija zabranjena su u svim sferama i uvedeni su mehanizmi za promovisanje ravnopravnosti. Feministička teorija intersekcionalnosti, koju je uspostavila Kimberli Kren&scaron;o (Kimberl&eacute; Crenshaw) predstavlja važan deo teorijskog okvira ovog rada, jer je za razumevanje pojma vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije važno razumevanje vi&scaron;estrukosti identiteta i njihove međusobne zavisnosti i neodvojivosti. Teorija intersekcionalnosti nagla&scaron;ava da fokus mora da bude na jedinstvenom identitetu osobe, a obuhvata i nove koncepte u kojima se prevazilaze lična svojstva kao delovi identiteta i grupe koje se stvaraju na osnovu jednog ili vi&scaron;e ličnih svojstava, te kao sredi&scaron;no pitanje postavlja odnos moći koji deluje u odnosu na specifičan jedinstveni i nedeljivi identitet neke osobe. Predmet mog interesovanja bio je da li pravo ima odgovor na nedeljivost identiteta žena, &scaron;to znači da sam istraživala da li je u antidiskriminacionim postupcima prepoznata vi&scaron;estruka diskriminacija, kao i da li žene koje pripadaju vi&scaron;estruko marginalizovanim grupama imaju adekvatnu mogućnost efikasne i delotvorne za&scaron;tite od diskriminacije. U radu zastupam tezu da je zabrana vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije potreban, ali ne i dovoljan uslov za adekvatnu za&scaron;titu žena od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije, odnosno, da samo propisivanje zabrane vi&scaron;estruke nije dovoljno da bi žene dobile adekvatnu za&scaron;titu od diskriminacije. Takođe, zastupam tezu da prepreku ostvarivanju ravnopravnosti vi&scaron;estruko diskriminisanih žena predstavlja nedostatak su&scaron;tinskog razumevanja fenomena vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije među sudijama i advokatima, koji često odlučuju pod uticajem sopstvenih predrasuda i stereotipa, &scaron;to pravnu za&scaron;titu od diskriminacije čini nedelotvornom i dodatno marginalizuje žene. Zbog toga sam analizirala sudsku praksu i praksu nacionalnih tela za ravnopravnost u Srbiji i odabanim državama Evropske unije, kao i praksu Evropskog suda za ljudska prava i Suda pravde Evropske unije, u slučajevima vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije žena.<br />Rezultati istraživanja pokazuju da je broj postupaka za za&scaron;titu žena od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije veoma mali, kao i da postoje brojni izazovi u obezbeđivanju efikasne i delotvorne pravne za&scaron;tite od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije žena, koji između ostalog, uključuju i određene normativne nedostatke u pravnim sistemima država, su&scaron;tinsko nerazumevanje vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije žena, odlučivanje pod uticajem rodnih stereotipa i predrasuda, kao i te&scaron;koće u primeni pojedinih odredaba zakona.</p><p>Rad nudi uvid u prepreke i izazove u pravnoj za&scaron;titi žena od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije, koje je neophodno otkloniti kako bi se vi&scaron;estruko diskriminisanim ženama obezbedila efikasna i delotvorna za&scaron;tita od diskriminacije. Rezultati istraživanja mogu biti od koristi pravnim profesionalcima (sudijama i advokatima), kao i donosiocima odluka i op&scaron;toj javnosti, u cilju podizanja svesti, boljeg razumevanja fenomena vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije žena i pobolj&scaron;anja pravne za&scaron;tite žena od vi&scaron;estruke diskriminacije.</p> / <p>In recent decades, human rights, including the right to equality and the right to freedom from discrimination, have been intensively developed at the universal and regional levels. This has contributed to progress in the realization of women&#39;s rights and gender equality. Formal legal barriers for women were abolished, discrimination was then banned and the right to equality was guaranteed, which enabled de iure equality, and subsequently sought to achieve de facto equality. However, substantive equality between women and men has not yet been achieved. Women around the world are still disadvantaged compared to men, discriminated against in all spheres of public and private life and subjected to violence. In addition, women are a very heterogeneous group, and some groups of women are marginalized and at higher risk of multiple discrimination, so their position is much worse compared to women and men in the majority population as well as men from their minority group. Multiple discrimination is a complex social phenomenon researched by many scientific disciplines, and interdisciplinary approach is necessary.</p><p>The dissertation deals with the phenomenon of multiple discrimination against women, as well as the scope and limitations of legal protection of women against multiple discrimination in the Republic of Serbia and Austria, Bulgaria, Croatia, France and Germany, as selected countries of the European Union. The theoretical framework of this paper is feminist theories in general, and feminist legal theory in particular, which Martha Chamallas defines as the feminist legal theory of the generation of complex identities, and Claire Dalton defines it as the phase of diversity. The divisions they formulate are linked to the legal theories of equity and equality, which are an important part of the theoretical framework of this dissertation because the prohibition of discrimination is based on those theories. Sandra Fredman defines it as follows: formal legal barriers are abolished, direct and indirect discrimination is prohibited in all spheres, and mechanisms have been introduced to promote equality. The feminist theory of intersectionality, founded by Kimberl&eacute; Crenshaw, is an important part of the theoretical framework of this dissertation because understanding the multiple identities and their interdependence and inseparability is important for understanding the concept of multiple discrimination. Intersectionality theory emphasizes that the focus must be on the unique identity of the person, and introduces new concepts in which separate parts of identities, and groups created on the basis of one or more personal traits should be overcame. In addition, the central question should be focused on power dynamics acting in relation to the specific unique and indivisible identity of a person. The subject of my interest was whether the legal systems have an answer to the indivisibility of women&#39;s identities, which means that I researched whether multiple discrimination was recognized in anti-discrimination proceedings, and whether women belonging to multiple marginalized groups had an adequate possibility to be efficiently and effectively protected against discrimination. In my dissertation, I argue that the prohibition of multiple discrimination is a necessary but not sufficient condition for adequate protection of women against multiple discrimination, that is, the mere introduction of a prohibition of multiple discrimination in legislation is not sufficient for women to obtain adequate protection against discrimination. I also argue that the barrier to achieving equality for multiple discriminated women is the lack of an essential understanding of the phenomenon of multiple discrimination among judges and lawyers, who often decide under the influence of their own prejudices and stereotypes, which renders legal protection against discrimination ineffective and further marginalizes women. Therefore, I have analyzed the case law and practice of national equality bodies in Serbia and selected European Union countries, as well as the practice of the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union in cases of multiple discrimination against women.<br />The results of the research show that the number of procedures for the protection of women from multiple discrimination is very small, and that there are numerous challenges in ensuring effective and effective legal protection against multiple discrimination against women, which include, among other things, certain regulatory deficiencies in the legal systems of the states, lack of understanding of multiple discrimination against women, decision making under the influence of gender stereotypes and prejudices, and difficulties in applying certain provisions of the law.</p><p>The dissertation offers insights into the obstacles and challenges in the legal protection of women against multiple discrimination, which need to be addressed in order to provide effective and efficient protection from multiple discriminated against women. The results of the research can be useful to legal professionals (judges and lawyers) as well as decision makers and the general public, with the aim of raising awareness, better understanding the phenomenon of multiple discrimination against women and improving the legal protection of women against multiple discrimination.</p>

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