• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 40
  • 28
  • 12
  • 9
  • 9
  • 8
  • 4
  • 3
  • 2
  • 2
  • 2
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 133
  • 133
  • 47
  • 35
  • 29
  • 24
  • 24
  • 21
  • 18
  • 17
  • 16
  • 15
  • 14
  • 14
  • 13
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Risk–based capital measures for operational risk management / Snyman P.

Snyman, Philippus January 2011 (has links)
Basel II provides banks with four options that may be used to calculate regulatory capital for operational risk. Each of these options (except the most basic approach) requires an underlying risk measurement and management system, with increasing complexity and more refined capital calculations under the more advanced approaches. Approaches available are BIA, TSA, ASA and AMA. The most advanced and complex option under Basel II is the AMA. This approach allows a bank to calculate its regulatory and economic capital requirements (using internal models) based on internal risk variables and profiles, rather than exposure proxies like gross income. This is the only risk–sensitive approach allowed by and described in Basel II. Accompanying internal models, complex and sophisticated measurement instruments, risk management processes and frameworks, as well as a robust governance structure need to be implemented. This study focuses on the practical design and implementation of an AMA capital model. This includes a beginning–to–end solution for capital modelling and covers all elements of data analysis, capital calculation and capital allocation. The proposed capital model is completely risk–based, leading to risk–sensitive capital calculations and allocations for all business lines in a bank. The model was constructed to comply fully with all Basel II requirements and standards. The proposed model was subsequently applied to one South African bank’s operational risk data, i.e. risk scenario and internal loss data of the bank were used as inputs into the proposed capital model. Regulatory capital requirements were calculated for all business lines in the bank and for the bank as a whole on a group level. Total capital requirements were also allocated to all business lines in the bank. For regulatory capital purposes, this equated to the stand–alone capital requirement of each business line. Calculations excluded the modelling and incorporation of insurance, expected loss offsets and correlation. These capital mitigation techniques were, however, proposed as part of the comprehensive capital model. AMA based capital calculations for the bank’s business lines resulted in significant capital movements compared to TSA capital requirements for the same calculation periods. The retail banking business line was allocated less capital compared to corresponding TSA estimates. This is mainly attributable to lower levels of tail risk exposure given high income levels (which are the bases for TSA capital calculations). AMA–based capital for the investment banking business line was higher than corresponding TSA estimates, due to high levels of extreme risk exposure relative to income generated. Employing capital modelling results in operational risk management and performance measurement was discussed and proposals made. This included the use of capital requirements (modelling results) in day–to–day operational risk management and in strategic decision making processes and strategic risk management. Proposals were also made on how to use modelling results and capital allocations in performance measurement. It was proposed that operational risk capital costs should be included in risk–adjusted performance measures, which can in turn be linked to remuneration principles and processes. Ultimately this would incentivise sound operational risk management practices and also satisfy the Basel II use test requirements with regards to model outputs, i.e. model outputs are actively used in risk management and performance measurement. / Thesis (Ph.D. (Risk management))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2012.
42

Current practices and guidelines for classifying credit risk boundary events : a South African approach / Steenkamp J.

Steenkamp, Jolene January 2011 (has links)
The financial crisis turmoil has exposed notable weakness in the risk management processes of the financial services industry. It has also led to a critical look at the scope of the various risk types as well as the classification of loss events. More importantly, the effects that incorrect risk classification might have on capital requirements are now also examined and taken into account. Boundary events between credit risk and operational risk continue to be a significant source of concern for regulators and the industry in general. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision (BCBS) requires that boundary events should be treated as credit risk for the purposes of calculating minimum regulatory capital under the Basel II Framework. Such losses will, therefore, not be subject to any operational risk capital charges. However, for the purposes of internal operational risk management, banks are required to identify all material operational risk losses. Boundary events should be flagged separately within a bank’s internal operational risk database. The Basel II Framework does not provide any further guidelines as to what constitutes boundary events and, therefore, consistent guiding principles that banks can follow for accurately classifying and subsequently flagging such events do not exist. The potential exists that actual boundary events might be classified as purely credit risk, and correctly be included in the credit risk capital charge, but not be flagged separately within the bank’s internal operational risk database. Alternatively, boundary events might be classified as operational risk and, therefore, be subject to the operational risk capital charge, instead of the credit risk capital charge. The former instance might give rise to an operational risk manager not being completely informed of the operational risks that the business is facing. The emphasis should always be on the management of risks and for this reason it is important that a financial institution indicates and flags all boundary events in their operational risk systems. To remedy this lack of guidance on the boundary event issue, guidelines are provided that banks can utilise within their risk classification processes. The approach utilised is to consider mechanisms and tools for classification, guidance from the Operational Risk Data Exchange (ORX) and the BCBS, as well as the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB). By compiling and submitting questionnaires to five South African banks, an investigation is conducted in order to obtain a view of the current mechanisms, tools and approaches that South African Advanced Measurement Approach (AMA) banks currently utilise within their classification processes. The effectiveness of boundary event classification is assessed by analysing the percentage of losses classified as boundary. In addition, the degree of uniformity or disparity in the classification of typical boundary event scenarios is considered. This analysis is performed by providing respondents with a total of 16 typical boundary event risk descriptions, and requesting the respondents to classify each of the losses in the scenarios as credit risk, operational risk or boundary event type. / Thesis (M.Com. (Risk management))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2012.
43

Risk–based capital measures for operational risk management / Snyman P.

Snyman, Philippus January 2011 (has links)
Basel II provides banks with four options that may be used to calculate regulatory capital for operational risk. Each of these options (except the most basic approach) requires an underlying risk measurement and management system, with increasing complexity and more refined capital calculations under the more advanced approaches. Approaches available are BIA, TSA, ASA and AMA. The most advanced and complex option under Basel II is the AMA. This approach allows a bank to calculate its regulatory and economic capital requirements (using internal models) based on internal risk variables and profiles, rather than exposure proxies like gross income. This is the only risk–sensitive approach allowed by and described in Basel II. Accompanying internal models, complex and sophisticated measurement instruments, risk management processes and frameworks, as well as a robust governance structure need to be implemented. This study focuses on the practical design and implementation of an AMA capital model. This includes a beginning–to–end solution for capital modelling and covers all elements of data analysis, capital calculation and capital allocation. The proposed capital model is completely risk–based, leading to risk–sensitive capital calculations and allocations for all business lines in a bank. The model was constructed to comply fully with all Basel II requirements and standards. The proposed model was subsequently applied to one South African bank’s operational risk data, i.e. risk scenario and internal loss data of the bank were used as inputs into the proposed capital model. Regulatory capital requirements were calculated for all business lines in the bank and for the bank as a whole on a group level. Total capital requirements were also allocated to all business lines in the bank. For regulatory capital purposes, this equated to the stand–alone capital requirement of each business line. Calculations excluded the modelling and incorporation of insurance, expected loss offsets and correlation. These capital mitigation techniques were, however, proposed as part of the comprehensive capital model. AMA based capital calculations for the bank’s business lines resulted in significant capital movements compared to TSA capital requirements for the same calculation periods. The retail banking business line was allocated less capital compared to corresponding TSA estimates. This is mainly attributable to lower levels of tail risk exposure given high income levels (which are the bases for TSA capital calculations). AMA–based capital for the investment banking business line was higher than corresponding TSA estimates, due to high levels of extreme risk exposure relative to income generated. Employing capital modelling results in operational risk management and performance measurement was discussed and proposals made. This included the use of capital requirements (modelling results) in day–to–day operational risk management and in strategic decision making processes and strategic risk management. Proposals were also made on how to use modelling results and capital allocations in performance measurement. It was proposed that operational risk capital costs should be included in risk–adjusted performance measures, which can in turn be linked to remuneration principles and processes. Ultimately this would incentivise sound operational risk management practices and also satisfy the Basel II use test requirements with regards to model outputs, i.e. model outputs are actively used in risk management and performance measurement. / Thesis (Ph.D. (Risk management))--North-West University, Potchefstroom Campus, 2012.
44

IS risks and operational risk management in banks /

Wolf, Elke. January 2005 (has links)
Thesis (doctoral)--Universität zu Köln, 2005. / Includes bibliographical references (p. 359-416).
45

Riscos operacionais em basileia II : estudo aplicado às financeiras do Rio Grande do Sul

Silva, Edeni Malta da 28 November 2013 (has links)
O desenvolvimento econômico de um país tem, entre seus pilares, o consumo das famílias como fomento à atividade econômica. Desse modo, a atividade de intermediação financeira, típica da atividade bancária, executa o papel de aproximar o crédito do consumo, portanto contribuindo para o crescimento da economia. Com o tempo, as atividades financeiras tornaram-se complexas e riscos se originam associados a este cenário, entre os quais, o risco operacional. O risco operacional, por definição, resulta da perda em processos internos organizacionais, de falhas de pessoas, de sistemas inadequados ou de fraudes. Assim, para regular o ambiente de riscos e manter a saúde financeira das instituições financeiras, o Acordo de Basileia II, editado em 2004, trouxe parâmetros que definem premissas e modelos para o gerenciamento dos riscos e, em particular, do risco operacional. O Brasil, por sua vez, aderiu ao Basileia II e estabeleceu o primeiro semestre de 2013 para que as exigências de capital, para cobertura de riscos operacionais, passassem a vigorar. Nessa linha, este estudo apresenta uma pesquisa exploratória, aplicada a um caso múltiplo nas Financeiras do Rio Grande do Sul, com a utilização de técnicas estatísticas (descritiva, séries temporais e cálculos de probabilidades), combinadas com equações dos modelos de Basileia, onde identificam-se as estruturas de gerenciamentos de riscos operacionais, as perdas de natureza operacional e os Modelos de Basileia utilizados pelas Financeiras do RS; bem como, os respectivos resultados da combinação das perdas operacionais com os volumes alocados de capital. Por fim, conclui que os Modelos de Basileia utilizados, pelas Financeiras pesquisadas, estão em desacordo com as realidades de perdas operacionais experimentadas, portanto, sugerindo recomendações e melhorias em trabalhos futuros. / Submitted by Marcelo Teixeira (mvteixeira@ucs.br) on 2014-05-06T13:02:12Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertacao Edeni Malta da Silva.pdf: 1717259 bytes, checksum: 03b2871965612692c230202c9cfb5668 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2014-05-06T13:02:12Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertacao Edeni Malta da Silva.pdf: 1717259 bytes, checksum: 03b2871965612692c230202c9cfb5668 (MD5) / The economic development of a country has, among its pillars, household consumption as encouraging economic activity. Thus, the financial intermediation activity, typical of banking, performs the role of bringing the credit consumption, thus contributing to the economy growth. Over time, financial activities have become complex and associated risks arise from this scenario, including the operational risk. Operational risk , by definition, results in loss of internal organizational processes, failure of people, inadequate systems or frauds. Thus, to regulate risk environment and maintain the financial health of the financial institutions, the Basel II Accord, published in 2004, brought parameters that define assumptions and models for risk management and, in particular, the operational risk . Brazil joined the Basel II and established the first half of 2013 for the capital requirements to cover operational risk. So, this study presents an exploratory research applied to multiple case, on the Financeiras of the Rio Grande do Sul, with the use of statistical techniques (descriptive, time series and probability calculations) combined with Basel models equations, that identified: the structures of operational risk management, the loss operational and the Basel models used by Financeiras RS, as well as the results of the combination of operating losses with volumes allocated capital. Finally, it concludes that the Basel models used by the financial surveyed, are at odds with the realities of experienced operating losses, thus suggesting improvements and recommendations for future work.
46

Catch me if you can - En studie om operativ risk i svenska försäkringsföretag / Catch me if you can – A study about operational risk in Swedish insurance companies

Davaine, Tristan January 2018 (has links)
Bakgrund: Operativ risk är ett begrepp som har tilltagit i betydelse genom uppdagandet av skandaler och konkurser inom den finansiella sektorn. Varje svenskt försäkringsföretag är skyldigt att hantera operativa risker, men eftersom det är omöjligt att normalisera dess innebörd, åligger det företagen själva att avgöra dess omfång. Många ansträngningar har gjorts vad gäller att rama in och beskriva denna kategori för ”allmän rädsla”, en uppgift som fortsatt lider av brist på konsensus. Syfte: Syftet med denna studie är att fördjupa kunskapen om den operativa risken, sett ur de svenska försäkringsföretagens perspektiv, och sättet till vilket ett givet förhållningssätt inverkar på riskhanteringsprocessen. Metod: Studien har genomförts i två steg. Den första delen har utgjorts av en dokumentstudie, vilken sedermera har fördjupats genom två fallstudier. Slutsats: Studien visar att det finns en mängd tolkningar av operativ risk, vilka sträcker sig från väldigt enklar till väldigt komplexa. Studien visar också att vissa företag inte hanterar sina risker med utgångspunkt i konceptet ”operativ risk”, utan antar en mer pragmatisk inställning till verksamheternas risker. Detta innebär att det finns ett gap förhållande till god praxis kring hanteringen av operativ risk, vilket kompenseras för genom en ökad verksamhetsförståelse och tillämpningen av metoder som inte nödvändigtvis associeras med riskhantering. / Background: Operational risk is a notion that has gained a lot of notoriety due to a number of scandals and bankruptcies within the financial sector. Every Swedish insurance company is obliged to manage its operational risks, and due to the impossibility of normalizing its specific content, it is up to the companies themselves to judge its extent. Many efforts have been made to conceptualize and explain this “fear category”, an effort that in many respects still lacks in consensus. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to increase the knowledge of what constitutes operational risk, from the perspective of Swedish insurance companies, and the way in which a particular view affects the risk management process.  Methods: This study has been conducted in two parts. The first part constitutes a cross-sectional study, which has further been expanded on by conducting a multiple case study, encompassing two insurance companies. Conclusion: This study shows that there are many interpretations of operational risk, ranging from very simple to very complex. This study also shows that some companies do not manage risks based on the concepts of “operational risk”, but from a pragmatic approach towards the business, meaning that some of the foundational good practices are not applied. However, this is mitigated by an increased understanding of the business, as well as the application of methods not necessarily associated with risk management.
47

An investigation into operational risk mitigation in the United Arab Emirates commercial banking industry : case study approach

Shamieh, Jamal Mousa Salim January 2011 (has links)
This study researches a rapidly growing area of interest in the financial services industry, that is,operational hsk management, with special focus on the mitigation phase. Operational risk management has accelerated in importance in the financial services over the last two decades for many reasons, not least of which is the well-known catastrophic failure of large banks such as BCCI, Barings and Indymac, as well as the recent Global Financial Crisis. One of the main drivers behind such bank failures was the failure of the banks' managements to manage effectively and efficiently their operational risk exposure. The focus of this study is operational risk mitigation in the United Arab Emirates Commercial banking industry. A controversial issue with operational risk was deciding on an agreed and accepted definition within the financial services industry. It has been defined by Basel Committee on Banking Supervision as "the risk of loss resulting from inadequate or failed internal processes, people and systems or from external events. This definition includes legal risk, but excludes strategic and reputational risk." This definition captures a wide spectrum of risk categories such as fraud risks, people risks, legal risks and compliance risks, to name a few. Basel Committee on Banking Supervision, a Committee of banking supervisory authorities established by the central bank Governors of the Group often countries in 1974, published in June 2006 a document called the "International Convergence of Capital Measurement and Capital Standards - A Revised Framework Comprehensive Version" known as Basel II Accord, which requires banks, among many other things, to sustain capital adequacy to cover their operational risk exposures. This Accord was the result of a number of consultative documents issued by the same Committee which focused increasing attention on the need for operational risk adequate and efficient management. Bank managements are facing increasing pressure to ensure that operational risk exposures are being managed effectively and efficiently. This extended the main momentum for the study, being the first independently sponsored study of how the UAE commercial banks have developed their operational risk management frameworks as a basis for mitigating the range of operational risk exposures they encounter. The operational risks that prompted the current Financial Crisis and how they were mitigated in the context of the UAE commercial banks gave further momentum to the research. The study addresses the various key players in operational risk management and is, therefore, interdisciplinary. The foundations from which the field work was undertaken were based on theoretical propositions in the area of decision making since the process of mitigating an operational risk is rooted in making a decision. Multiple case studies were used in the design for the research to answer the research question and establish the practices in operational risk mitigation in the UAE commercial banking industry. Leading UAE commercial banks were carefully chosen as representatives of this industry. The findings of the research are in line with the conclusions of Basel Commiltee on Banking Supervision that the main responsibility for operational risk management, and therefore mitigation, is vested in operational managers. The analysis demonstrates that (hey do not do this independently, but are supported by other experienced people in this field. A model and check-lists of operational risk management, and therefore mitigation, is proposed demonstrating the complexity of the whole process due to the nature and the scale of operational risks. The thesis concludes by discussing some further potential research suggestions in this ever-growing area of interest.
48

Análise do risco operacional na unidade de call center de uma instituição financeira

Moschos, Cristina January 2011 (has links)
O Risco Operacional nas instituições financeiras foi normatizado com a Resolução nº 3.380 em 29 de junho de 2006, emitida pelo Conselho Monetário Nacional. Desde então, entidades autorizadas a funcionar pelo Banco Central do Brasil tiveram de adequar suas estruturas e procedimentos com o intuito de aumentar os controles sobre eventos internos e externos à instituição, com a finalidade de reduzir perdas financeiras a partir da mitigação deste tipo de risco. Dessa forma, a presente dissertação tem como objetivo apresentar como um banco comercial precisa agir para adequar seus processos às novas exigências legais diante de um assunto com uma importância tão significativa. Este trabalho, além de apresentar os procedimentos de gestão de riscos em uma entidade, procura também elucidar como o risco operacional, no departamento de Call Center da instituição financeira escolhida, pode afetá-la, no caso da inobservância dos procedimentos a serem adotados com vistas à mitigação das falhas já identificadas e de possíveis ocorrências que possam comprometer a continuidade da organização. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que o banco em estudo, em relação a outras instituições financeiras pesquisadas, ainda apresenta-se em uma etapa de desenvolvimento da sua área de gestão de riscos, trabalhando em conformidade com a legislação vigente e buscando aperfeiçoar suas técnicas de identificação e mensuração dos riscos operacionais. / Operational risk in financial institutions was normalized with Resolution No. 3380 on June 29, 2006, issued by the National Monetary Council. Since then, entities authorized to operate by the Central Bank of Brazil had to adapt its structures and procedures in order to tighten controls on internal and external events to the institution, in order to reduce financial losses from this type of risk mitigation. Thus, this paper aims to present as a commercial bank must act to adjust its processes to the new legal requirements before a subject with a very significant importance. This paper, besides presenting the procedures for managing risks in an entity, also seeks to clarify how operational risk, the department's Call Center financial institution chosen may affect it, in the case of a failure of procedures to be adopted in order mitigating the flaws already identified and possible events that could endanger the continuity of the organization. The results obtained from the survey show that the bank under study in relation to other financial institutions surveyed, still comes in a stage of development of their area of risk management, working in accordance with current legislation and seeking to improve their techniques identification and measurement of operational risks.
49

Gerenciamento de risco: risco operacional em organizações financeiras : metodologias, técnicas e ferramentas para implantação e gerenciamento

Carvalho, Eduardo Jorge Lins de January 2003 (has links)
As organizações financeiras sempre dedicaram seus maiores e melhores esforços no tratamento dos riscos que julgavam mais importantes, como os de crédito e de mercado. Entretanto, pelos exemplos freqüentes de enormes perdas ou por exigência dos organismos reguladores, os riscos operacionais, até então tratados como "outros riscos", vêm recebendo merecida atenção. A presente dissertação tem o objetivo de apresentar uma suficiente conceituação dos diversos aspectos relacionados ao tema, incluindo a definição, a identificação dos fatores internos e externos de perdas operacionais e a identificação dos tipos de risco operacionais a que se expõe uma organização financeira. É apresentada uma árvore de internalização onde são mostrados os passos a serem dados e as estruturas organizacionais a serem revisadas. Esses elementos dão capacidade à organização para implantar, com seus próprios meios, um sistema de gestão de riscos operacionais que permeie toda a empresa. Também são apresentadas as ferramentas e instruções capazes de identificar, controlar e mitigar os seus riscos operacionais. A estrutura de gestão dos riscos operacionais apresentada inclui a construção de um fluxo de informações com ênfase na eliminação das perdas indesejadas e na demonstração das exposições a que está submetida a empresa ao realizar seus negócios, quer por novas operações, mudança na legislação ou por interesse em fusões ou aquisições. Essa estrutura também apóia a governança corporativa nas suas decisões estratégicas e oferece aos acionistas e clientes da organização elementos de escolha e preferências. Observa-se que construir um sistema de gestão dos riscos operacionais é uma tarefa de longo prazo e que envolve toda a empresa, sendo o ritmo ditado pelo nível de interesse da alta administração e dos recursos destinados para esse fim. / Financial institutions have always endeavored to manage what appeared to be their most important risks, such as credit and market risks. Recently, in face of frequent instances of large losses or of requirements from regulatory agencies, operational risks, so far confined to the lesser status of "other "risks", has begun to receive a more appropriated regard. One of the objectives of this dissertation is to define operational risk and highlight conceptual aspects related to this emerging theme, while identifying internal and external factors of operational risk to which a financial organization is exposed. It introduces an internalization tree diagram showing a step-by-step procedure for self-implementation of a company-wide operational risk management framework. In addition, it shows the tools and instructions required for the identification, control and mitigation of operational risks. The proposed framework includes the construction of an information network that can help reduce losses and clarify the risks to which an organization might be exposed in the course of changing operations, laws, regulations, and possible mergers or acquisitions. This framework could support corporate governance and strategic decision-making, while offering stockholders and clients evidences for choice and preference. Building an operational risk management system is a long-term project that involves all the organization. The speed of proper implementation is set by level of interest from top management and the quantity and quality of allocated resources. / Dissertação (mestrado profissionalizante) - Programa de Pós-Graduação em Administração das Faculdades Ibmec, Rio de Janeiro, 2003. / Bibliografia: p. 102-104.
50

Análise do risco operacional na unidade de call center de uma instituição financeira

Moschos, Cristina January 2011 (has links)
O Risco Operacional nas instituições financeiras foi normatizado com a Resolução nº 3.380 em 29 de junho de 2006, emitida pelo Conselho Monetário Nacional. Desde então, entidades autorizadas a funcionar pelo Banco Central do Brasil tiveram de adequar suas estruturas e procedimentos com o intuito de aumentar os controles sobre eventos internos e externos à instituição, com a finalidade de reduzir perdas financeiras a partir da mitigação deste tipo de risco. Dessa forma, a presente dissertação tem como objetivo apresentar como um banco comercial precisa agir para adequar seus processos às novas exigências legais diante de um assunto com uma importância tão significativa. Este trabalho, além de apresentar os procedimentos de gestão de riscos em uma entidade, procura também elucidar como o risco operacional, no departamento de Call Center da instituição financeira escolhida, pode afetá-la, no caso da inobservância dos procedimentos a serem adotados com vistas à mitigação das falhas já identificadas e de possíveis ocorrências que possam comprometer a continuidade da organização. Os resultados obtidos na pesquisa mostram que o banco em estudo, em relação a outras instituições financeiras pesquisadas, ainda apresenta-se em uma etapa de desenvolvimento da sua área de gestão de riscos, trabalhando em conformidade com a legislação vigente e buscando aperfeiçoar suas técnicas de identificação e mensuração dos riscos operacionais. / Operational risk in financial institutions was normalized with Resolution No. 3380 on June 29, 2006, issued by the National Monetary Council. Since then, entities authorized to operate by the Central Bank of Brazil had to adapt its structures and procedures in order to tighten controls on internal and external events to the institution, in order to reduce financial losses from this type of risk mitigation. Thus, this paper aims to present as a commercial bank must act to adjust its processes to the new legal requirements before a subject with a very significant importance. This paper, besides presenting the procedures for managing risks in an entity, also seeks to clarify how operational risk, the department's Call Center financial institution chosen may affect it, in the case of a failure of procedures to be adopted in order mitigating the flaws already identified and possible events that could endanger the continuity of the organization. The results obtained from the survey show that the bank under study in relation to other financial institutions surveyed, still comes in a stage of development of their area of risk management, working in accordance with current legislation and seeking to improve their techniques identification and measurement of operational risks.

Page generated in 0.2697 seconds