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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Scanning Probe Microscopy of Graphene and Carbon Nanotubes

Xue, Jiamin January 2012 (has links)
This dissertation presents research on scanning probe microscopy and spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes. In total three experiments will be discussed. The first experiment uses a scanning tunneling microscope (STM) to study the topographic and spectroscopic properties of graphene on hexagonal boron nitride (hBN). Graphene was first isolated and identified on SiO₂ substrates, which was later found to be the source of graphene quality degradation, e.g. large surface roughness, increased resistivity and random doping etc. Researchers have been trying to replace SiO₂ with other materials and hBN is by far the most successful one. Our STM study shows an order of magnitude reduction in surface roughness and electrostatic potential variation compared with graphene on SiO₂.The second experiment shows a novel quantum interference effect of electron waves in graphene, loosely referred to as "Friedel oscillations." These arise when incident electron waves interfere with waves scattered from defects in the sample. This interference pattern shows up as a spatial variation in the local density of states, which can be probed by the STM. We measured such Friedel oscillations in graphene near step edges of hBN. Due to its peculiar band structure, the oscillations in graphene have a faster decay rate and their wavelength is an order of magnitude longer than similar oscillations previously observed on noble metal surfaces. By measuring the dependence of the Friedel oscillations on electron energy, we map out the band structure of graphene. The last experiment studies a different system: carbon nanotube quantum dots. By combining scanning probe microscopy and transport measurements, we obtain spatial information about quantum dots formed in a carbon nanotube field effect transistor. We also demonstrate the ability to tune the coupling strength between two quantum dots in series.
2

Electron interactions in mesoscopic physics : Scanning Gate Microscopy and interferometry at a quantum point contact / Interactions électroniques en physique mésoscopique, microscopie à effet de grille local et interférométrie sur un contact ponctuel quantique

Brun, Boris 17 October 2014 (has links)
Au cours de cette thèse nous avons étudié les effets des interactions entre électrons dansles contacts ponctuels quantiques (QPCs). Les contacts ponctuels quantiques sont des petitscanaux quasi-unidimensionnels, définis à partir de gaz électroniques bidimensionnelsde haute mobilité (2DEG). Une tension négative appliquée sur des grilles métalliques audessus de la surface permet d’ouvrir ou fermer le QPC. Lorsqu’un QPC s’ouvre, de plusen plus de modes électroniques peuvent traverser le QPC, et sa conductance augmente parpas discrets, séparés par un quantum de conductance 2e2/h. On peut le comprendre parle transport unidimensionnel d’une seule particule, car chaque mode transverse contribuepour un quantum de conductance.Mais depuis leurs premières réalisations, les QPCs ont montré des déviations par rapportà ce modèle à une particule. Les plus connues sont un épaulement sous le premier plateau,autour de 0.7×2e2/h, appelé "l’anomalie 0.7", et un pic dans la conductance différentiellequi apparaît à basse température: l’anomalie à zéro polarisation (ZBA).L’instrument que nous avons utilisé pour étudier ces effets d’interactions est un microscopeà effet de grille local (SGM). Cette technique consiste à modifier localement le potentield’un dispositif à l’aide d’une pointe de microscope à force atomique (AFM) chargée négativement,et enregistrer les modifications de la conductance en fonction de la position dela pointe. En utilisant cette technique à très basse température, nous avons montré quenous pouvons moduler les anomalies de conductance du QPC. Nous avons interprété nosrésultats comme la signature d’un cristal d’électrons se formant spontanément à bassedensité dans le QPC à cause de la répulsion Coulombienne: un cristal de Wigner. Onpeut modifier le nombre d’électrons cristallisés en approchant la pointe, et obtenir dessignatures de la parité du nombre d’électrons localisés dans le transport électronique.En fonction de cette parité, le cristal de Wigner présente un état de spin différent, etl’écrantage de ce spin par les électrons de conduction au travers d’un mécanisme appeléeffet Kondo donne une anomalie à zéro polarisation formant alternativement un simplepic ou un double pic. Cette découverte apporte une avancée significative à ce domaine,qui a concentré les efforts de plusieurs groupes importants ces 15 dernières années.Nous avons ensuite réalisé des mesures interférométriques à l’aide du microscope SGM,en créant in situ des interféromètres dans le gaz 2D. Nous avons obtenu les signaturesd’un déphasage supplémentaire dans le régime de la ZBA. Nous attribuons cet effet audéphasage universel accumulé par les électrons à la traversée d’un singulet Kondo, ce quirenforce le fait que la ZBA trouve son origine dans les phénomènes Kondo.Enfin, nous avons adapté la technique SGM au transport thermoélectrique dans les QPCs,et avons imagé pour la première fois les interférences d’électrons se déplaçant sous l’effetd’une différence de température. / In this thesis, we studied the effect of electron electron interactions in quantum pointcontacts (QPCs). Quantum point contacts are small quasi-one dimensional channels,designed on a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). A negative voltageapplied on a pair of metallic split gates above the sample surface allows to open or closethe QPC. As a QPC opens, more and more electronic modes are allowed to cross theQPC, and its conductance increases by discrete steps, separated by a conductance quantum2e2/h. This can be understood from a single-particle picture in one-dimensionaltransport, as each transverse mode carries a conductance quantum.But from their first realization 25 years ago, quantum point contacts have shown deviationsfrom this picture, attributed to electron electron interactions. The most well knownare a shoulder below the first plateau, around 0.7×2e2/h, called the "0.7 anomaly", and apeak in the differential conductance that arises at low temperature: the zero bias anomaly(ZBA).The tool we used to study these interaction effects is a scanning gate microscope (SGM).It consists by changing locally the device’s potential with the polarized tip of an atomicforce microscope (AFM), and record the changes in conductance as a function of the tipposition. By performing this technique at very low temperature, we showed that we canmodulate the conductance anomalies of QPCs. We interpret our result as the signatureof a small electrons crystal forming spontaneously at low density in the QPC due to theCoulomb repulsion: a Wigner crystal. We can modify the number of crystallized electronsby approaching the tip, and obtain signatures of the parity of the localized electrons numberin transport features. Depending on this parity, the Wigner crystal has a differentspin state, and screening of this spin by the surrounding electrons through the so-calledKondo effect leads alternatively to a single peak or a split ZBA. This discovery bringsa significant advance in this field, that has attracted research efforts of many importantgroups in the world over the past 15 years.We then performed interferometric measurements thanks to the scanning gate microscopeby creating in-situ interferometers in the 2DEG. We obtained signatures of an additionalphase shift accumulated by the electrons in the ZBA regime. We attribute this effect tothe universal phase shift that electrons accumulate when crossing a Kondo singlet, reinforcingthat the debated origin of the ZBA lies in Kondo physics.Finally, we adapted the SGM technique to the study of thermoelectric transport in QPCs,and for the first time imaged interferences of electrons driven by a temperature difference.
3

Método de estimação de impedância utilizando a injeção de pequenos sinais

Monteiro, Henrique Luis Moreira 04 April 2018 (has links)
Submitted by Geandra Rodrigues (geandrar@gmail.com) on 2018-07-12T11:34:57Z No. of bitstreams: 1 henriqueluismoreiramonteiro.pdf: 6497394 bytes, checksum: e4ba6289e2d5a09f203b42d5461ff1b1 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Adriana Oliveira (adriana.oliveira@ufjf.edu.br) on 2018-07-17T11:53:38Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 henriqueluismoreiramonteiro.pdf: 6497394 bytes, checksum: e4ba6289e2d5a09f203b42d5461ff1b1 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-07-17T11:53:38Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 henriqueluismoreiramonteiro.pdf: 6497394 bytes, checksum: e4ba6289e2d5a09f203b42d5461ff1b1 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-04-04 / CAPES - Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Neste trabalho é proposto um método para estimar a impedância de maneira invasiva, utilizando uma estrutura com controle de distúrbio, filtro para eliminar os componentes harmônicos contidos na rede e um interpolador em caso de variação de frequência. A impedância é um parâmetro importante para a análise da estabilidade de uma rede elétrica, pois através de sua estimação pode-se verificar, por exemplo, se há a presença de ressonância. Para provocar os distúrbios nos sinais de tensão e corrente utiliza-se o Sinal da Gaussiana Modulada (SGM), que pode ter seu decaimento controlado pelos parâmetros da função. Em relação à presença dos componentes harmônicos de fundo, que influenciam na estimação da impedância, é proposta uma versão do filtro Sliding Window Recursive Discrete Fourier Transform (SWRDFT), para estimar e eli-minar esses componentes, com o objetivo de permanecer somente o sinal de distúrbio. Sobre o desvio de frequência, outra questão que compromete a estimação da impedância, é proposta uma estrutura de interpolação, utilizando o método de Lagrange. A função da interpolação é estabelecer a sincronização dos sinais de corrente e tensão antes de serem processados para determinar o valor da impedância. Para validar os resultados, são realizados testes em redes no Simulink, RTDS, dSPACE e utilizando em um circuito experimental. Para os resultados são considerados Sistemas Elétricos com ressonância, com presença de componentes harmônicos de fundo e com variação de frequência. Para todos os casos a estimação obteve resultados satisfatórios. / This work proposes a method to estimate the power grid impedance in an invasive form, using a disturbance control structure, a filter to eliminate the harmonic components contained in the power grid and an interpolator in case of frequency variation. The impedance is an important parameter for the power grid stability analysis because through its estimation it can be verified, for example, if there is the presence of resonance. To insert the disturbances in the voltage and current signals, the Gaussian Modulated Signal (GMS) is used, which may have its decay controlled by the function parameters. Regarding the presence of the harmonic components, which influence the estimation of impedance, a version of the Sliding Window Recursive Discrete Fourier Transform (SWRDFT) is proposed to estimate and eliminate these components in order to remain only the disturbance signal. Regarding the frequency deviation, another issue that affects the impedance estimation, an interpolation structure is proposed, using the Lagrange method. The function of the interpolation is to establish the synchronization of the current and voltage signals before being processed to determine the impedance value. To validate the results, tests with grids on Simulink, RTDS, dSpace and using an experimental circuit are performed. Results consider Electrical Systems with resonance, with the presence of background harmonic components and frequency variation. For all cases, the estimation results were satisfactory.
4

The Social and Cultural Conditions for Sexual and Gender Minority (SGM) Students in a Rural Community: A Case Study of Educators’ Perspectives

Kelly, Wade B Unknown Date
No description available.

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