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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Credit Risk, Fraud Risk, and Corporate Bond Spreads

Zhang, QI 01 May 2013 (has links)
Exploring the main factors that determine bond spreads with respect to Treasury rates is one of the most critical issues in the corporate debt market. Credit risk has long been perceived as the most important determinant of bond spreads (Fisher, 1959). One of the most critical parameters in credit risk models is asset volatility, which includes idiosyncratic and systematic components. However, these models do not distinguish between them. Chapter 2 investigates the impact of idiosyncratic volatility on bond portfolio spreads between 2000 and 2010. While the prediction of traditional asset pricing models is that firm-specific risk should be diversified away at aggregate level, I find idiosyncratic volatility plays an incremental role in explaining bond portfolio spreads beyond the market factors. Recovery is an important measurement of credit risk additional to default probability. Chapter 3 focuses on the estimation of firm recovery after bankruptcy using the Leland and Toft (1996) model. Using a large sample of Chapter 11 filings from 1996 to 2007, I find that the recovery derived from the Leland and Toft model has strong explanatory power on the debt recovery observed in the market. Recent literature finds that all extant credit risk models significantly underestimate bond spreads, especially for investment grade bonds of short maturity. Chapter 4 identifies a heretofore ignored component, perceived accounting misstatement, by regressing bond spreads on the proxy of accounting misstatement propensity, while controlling for issuers’ default risk and bond illiquidity risk between January 1994 and June 2002. My thesis deepens the understanding of bond price discovery mechanisms and presents an important challenge for future research to incorporate the strong empirical relationship between idiosyncratic volatility and bond yields in asset pricing models. My thesis also sheds light on the accurate prediction of debt recovery, which is important to the valuation and hedging of risky debt and credit derivatives. Furthermore, my thesis assists in solving the credit spread puzzle by identifying a new risk factor. Overall, my thesis provides new insights into research on the corporate debt market and has important implications for academic scholars and market practitioners. / Thesis (Ph.D, Management) -- Queen's University, 2013-05-01 07:43:17.718
2

Analysis of farm-to-retail price spreads for whole and two percent milk in seven selected cities

Dickerson, Marla Lashea 30 September 2004 (has links)
The objectives of this study were threefold: (1) to determine a suitable model for defining the farm-retail price spread for two percent and whole milk in seven cities (Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Dallas, Hartford, Seattle, St. Louis); (2) to discover the determinants that contribute significantly to the price spreads of two percent and whole milk in seven selected cities, and (3) to calculate the elasticity of price transmission for whole and two percent milk in the seven cities. The work of Wohlgenant and Mullen in -Modeling the Farm-Retail Price Spread for Beef" was followed in order to determine a suitable model. The two specifications considered were the markup pricing model and the relative price spread model. Factors considered to affect the farm-to-retail price spread of whole and two percent milk were the retail price for whole and two percent milk, marketing costs such as fuel and labor costs, milk production, seasonality, and structural change. Monthly data were collected over a 106 month period from January 1994 through October 2002 for the selected cities in this investigation. Principal findings from the analysis are the following. The markup pricing model was determined to be the better model for both products throughout the seven cities through the examination of the Schwarz and Akaike criteria of model selection. The driving forces of the farm-to-retail price spread for whole and two percent milk in most cites were retail price and seasonality. In addition, the price spreads in the Northeast were significantly lower before and during the implementation of the Northeast Dairy Compact compared to the period corresponding to the termination of the program. The price spreads of both whole and two percent milk were highest in the third quarter and lowest in the fourth quarter. Elasticities of price transmission, measures of the sensitivity of retail prices to changes in farm prices, were higher in all regions for two percent milk compared to whole milk. The range of the elasticities of transmission for whole milk was from 0.37 (Hartford) to 2.54 (Dallas) and from 0.39 (Hartford) to 3.66 (Dallas) for two percent milk.
3

Liquidity and yield spreads of corporate bonds

Tishchenko, Sergei Ivanovich 12 October 2004 (has links)
No description available.
4

Riesgo país y spreads de bonos corporativos: evidencia de Europa

Miranda Montecinos, Camilo Javier January 2015 (has links)
Ingeniero Civil Industrial / La reciente crisis financiera y los altos niveles de deuda de los países Europeos, afectaron fuertemente al mercado de deuda internacional y produjeron un gran aumento en los spreads de crédito. Dado que los spreads de bonos corporativos son una manifestación del costo de financiamiento para el sector privado, estos pueden afectar las decisiones de inversión de distintas compañías y con ello, afectar al crecimiento económico. Por lo tanto es crucial entender los principales determinantes de los spreads de bonos corporativos. Ferri y Liu (2002) y Borensztein, Cowan y Valenzuela (2013), muestran que el riesgo de crédito soberano es uno de los principales factores que afectan al costo de financiamiento privado. La evidencia muestra que la relación entre el riesgo de crédito corporativo y el soberano es más fuerte en el sector financiero, porque firmas que pertenecen a este rubro invierten gran cantidad de dinero en bonos soberanos. Usando una base de datos a nivel de bonos para el periodo 2004-2009, este estudio explora el impacto del riesgo soberano sobre los spreads de bonos corporativos emitidos en el mercado internacional por firmas de países Europeos. La base de datos final consta de 266 bonos emitidos por 73 firmas, localizadas en 13 países europeos. Este trabajo muestra que el riesgo de crédito soberano es un determinante importante de los spreads de bonos corporativos y un incremento en estos, está asociado a un incremento de los spreads de bonos soberanos. Este efecto es más fuerte en periodos de inestabilidad financiera y en firmas pertenecientes al sector financiero. Estos resultados son robustos a distintos test. Son robustos controlando por los principales determinantes de los spreads de bonos corporativos de acuerdo a los modelos estructurales de riesgo de crédito (Merton, 1974). Son robustos controlando por diferentes efectos fijos: efecto fijo país, efecto fijo industria, efecto fijo tiempo y efecto fijo por bono. Finalmente, los resultados son robustos a especificaciones alternativas. Los resultados de este trabajo tienen importantes implicancias para los inversionistas que necesitan predecir los spreads de bonos corporativos. También ayudan a los directivos de empresas que necesitan conocer los principales factores que afectan al costo de financiamiento de sus empresas. Finalmente, son relevantes para los políticos que necesitan diseñar políticas públicas para hacer que el mercado financiero sea menos vulnerable ante episodios de inestabilidad financiera global.
5

Impacto del riesgo de refinanciamiento y del efectivo disponible sobre los Spread de bonos corporativos

Torres Inostroza, Rita Alejandra January 2015 (has links)
Ingeniero Civil Industrial / Conforme a la literatura existente sobre el riesgo de crédito corporativo, los principales determinantes de los spreads crediticio son el riesgo de incumplimiento y el riesgo de liquidez. Sin embargo, la reciente crisis de 2007-2009 destacó la importancia del riesgo de refinanciamiento y del efectivo disponible como factores importantes a considerar en la valorización de bonos corporativos. Recientes investigaciones presentan que mayor proporción de deuda de corto plazo incrementa los spreads de bonos corporativos a través del riesgo de refinanciamiento (Valenzuela (2013); Gopalan, Song, and Yerramilli (2013)). Además, existe evidencia de una correlación positiva y estadísticamente significativa entre el efectivo disponible y los spreads de bonos corporativos, lo cual es consistente con la hipótesis precautoria de ahorrar dinero, pero no con un efecto causal del efectivo disponible al spread. Usando una base de datos a nivel de bonos, con datos trimestrales, para el periodo de enero 2004 a junio 2009, este estudio explora el impacto de la estructura del vencimiento de la deuda de las firmas sobre los spreads de créditos y si este efecto se atenúa en firmas con un mayor ratio de efectivo disponible sobre el total de la deuda. Los principales hallazgos de este trabajo es que el efectivo disponible reduce el impacto del riesgo de refinanciamiento de los spreads de bonos corporativos. Específicamente, este estudio muestra que el efecto de la proporción de la deuda de corto plazo sobre los spreads de bonos corporativos es positivo en firmas que presentan un nivel de efectivo disponible menor a 0.685. Sin embargo, este efecto desaparece o incluso llega a hacer negativo en firmas con mayor nivel de efectivo disponible. Los principales resultados de este trabajo son significativos incluso después de controlar directamente por los determinantes estándar de spreads de bonos corporativos de acuerdo a los modelos de riesgo de crédito estructurales (Merton, 1974). Además, estos resultados son robustos al controlar por efectos fijos por bonos, país-tiempo y rating de la firma; y a diferentes sub-muestras, es decir, sub-muestras de las firmas con bajo nivel de efectivo disponible y por una sub-muestras que sólo considera el periodo de inestabilidad financiera. Este paper contribuye a la literatura sobre los determinantes de los spreads de bonos corporativos en diversas dimensiones. Primero, explora los determinantes estándar de los spreads de bonos corporativos usando una nueva base de datos de bonos emitidos en mercados internacionales. Segundo, explora los efectos del riesgo de refinanciamiento y efectivo disponible sobre los spreads de bonos corporativos. Tercero, examina la interacción entre la estructura del vencimiento de la deuda de las firmas y el efectivo disponible; y hasta ahora los estudios recientes han tratado estas variables como determinantes independientes de los spreads de bonos corporativos. Los principales resultados de este trabajo son útiles para inversores, directores de empresas y para los responsables de las políticas públicas. Además, los resultados mejoran el entendimiento del riesgo de refinanciamiento y del efectivo disponible sobre los spreads de bonos corporativos.
6

Um estudo empírico sobre a estruturação da taxa pré-fixada da cédula de produto rural financeira de milho no período jul 2003 a jul 2004

Henrique Morais de Freitas, José January 2005 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-12T17:20:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 arquivo5965_1.pdf: 1126896 bytes, checksum: b8ab2c3db0f815c313eb4cefe3a6c507 (MD5) license.txt: 1748 bytes, checksum: 8a4605be74aa9ea9d79846c1fba20a33 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2005 / A CPR Cédula do Produto Rural foi criada pela Lei 8.929/94, integrando a lista dos títulos rurais, como a cédula de crédito rural; a nota de crédito rural e a duplicata rural. Com a sua criação, há de salientar pelo menos um ponto específico em sua condição implícita de permitir aos produtores rurais a venda de sua produção a termo, cujo significado representa o recebimento pela venda no ato contra o compromisso da entrega futura de acordo com as disposições contratuais. Inicialmente a Cédula de Produto Rural foi instituída para ser cumprida exclusivamente pela entrega de produto rural explícito no artigo 4º da lei, mas, em virtude de alteração oferecida pela Lei 10.200, de 14 de fevereiro de 2001, passou também a considerar a possibilidade de liquidação financeira, criando assim a intitulada CPRF Cédula do Produto Rural Financeira. Dentro desses aspectos, evidenciamos uma necessidade de realizar um estudo empírico no sentido de verificar a formação da taxa de juros pré-fixada das CPRFs especificamente da commodity milho. O objetivo geral do trabalho visa proporcionar tanto aos produtores agrícolas como aos investidores, a identificação e a importância relativa dos componentes que determinam o custo/rendimentos daqueles papéis, além de também poder proporcionar ferramentas para uma melhor tomada de decisão quanto a financiamentos/investimentos no mercado agrofinanceiro. A mensuração das taxas implícitas; spreads nos leilões de CPRF assim como prêmios pagos sobre os vértices da curva da taxa de juros no mercado futuro, se constituem como parte de um grupo de pontos considerados como objetivos específicos. O método de coleta e análise consistiu em um levantamento sistemático de dados pertinentes a negociação de CPRF de milho nos leilões do Banco do Brasil no período de julho de 2003 a julho de 2004, com a conseqüente aplicação de modelos financeiros de capitalização. Como um dos principais resultados, destacamos dentro dos 877 negócios analisados, um predominante rendimento abaixo do vértice da curva da taxa do DI (Depósito Interbancário) futuro. O rendimento crescente do agronegócio associado à perda de espaço dos títulos públicos com a redução da taxa de juros básica da economia, a SELIC (Sistema Especial de Liquidação e Custódia) meta, deverão conjuntamente contribuírem para a melhora da performance dos rendimentos da CPRF
7

As taxas de juros praticadas nas operações de microcrédito : um dos elementos da inadimplência e inviabilidade do segmento das microfinanças

José Bezerra Neto, Joaquim January 2006 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-12T18:35:24Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 arquivo7848_1.pdf: 1091832 bytes, checksum: 6c6e53869de0ce1397882edd49cfdeac (MD5) license.txt: 1748 bytes, checksum: 8a4605be74aa9ea9d79846c1fba20a33 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2006 / Objetivou-se com esta dissertação, demonstrar a relação existente entre as taxas de juros praticadas nas operações de concessões do microcrédito e aquelas praticadas pelo mercado financeiro do crédito livre, destinada as operações de crédito direto ao consumidor, contas-garantidas das pessoas jurídicas e com cheques especiais das pessoas físicas, no sentido de confirmar a contribuição dessas taxas de juros como um fator de inviabilidade das operações de microcredito, bem como para o aumento da inadimplência nas mesmas operações. O foco do estudo foi dirigido para o mercado de crédito e para as diversas instituições de microcredito existentes no Brasil. Para o intento, focalizou -se as operações de crédito realizadas no período dos dois últimos anos disponibilizadas pelo Banco Central do Brasil, contemplando uma análise comparativa entre as taxas atuais praticadas pelas instituições bancárias comerciais, no crédito livre, e as instituições de microcredito que atuam no Brasil, subordinadas ou não as regras do Sistema Financeiro Nacional de responsabilidade do Banco Central do Brasil. Do conjunto de dados analisados, concluiu-se pela inadequabilidade das dimensões das taxas de juros praticas no microcredito no Brasil e, por via de conseqüência, confirmou-se ser esta a principal condicionante da inadimplência e insolvência de pequenos empreendimentos no país, além de obstaculizar que o crédito cumpra o seu papel de agente de desenvolvimento social
8

COST AND ACCESS TO CREDIT IN BRAZIL

Viana, Daniel M. 12 September 2006 (has links)
No description available.
9

Le rôle des Credit Default Swaps dans les crises de la dette souveraine. Une application au cas de la zone euro / The role of Credit Default Swaps in sovereign debt crisis. An application to the case of the euro area

El cheikh, Samah 16 July 2019 (has links)
Cette thèse porte sur l'étude des facteurs sous-jacents au risque du défaut souverain, tel que mesuré par les spreads des CDS souverains, au cours de la crise de la dette souveraine en Europe. En analysant les données mensuelles de janvier 2007 à septembre 2015 en utilisant un modèle à correction d'erreur (VECM), nous constatons que le risque de défaut souverain européen répond en partie à un environnement macroéconomique caractérisé par de mauvaises politiques budgétaires et une détérioration des facteurs économiques. Plus précisément, la hausse du taux de chômage, le niveau d'endettement et la réduction des soldes de la balance courante ont accru les spreads des CDS souverains. Ces résultats ne permettent pas de rejeter l’hypothèse selon laquelle le défaut souverain a été motivé par des fondamentaux économiques faibles. Mais l'importance relative de ces facteurs change avec le temps et le groupe de pays. La présence et l'absence de la Grèce ont joué un rôle clé dans l'évolution des spreads dans les pays de la zone euro. La dégradation des notations en Grèce et l'aversion accrue pour le risque de la part des Européens ont contribué à une augmentation significative des spreads de CDS des pays de la zone euro et des autres pays. Notre analyse VECM met en évidence des retombées directes de la Grèce vers la périphérie de la zone euro via des canaux non fondamentaux. Enfin, nos résultats suggèrent que l’émergence de la crise de la dette a été causée par des fondamentaux faibles, mais a également un caractère auto-réalisateur. / This thesis attempts to identify the factors behind the sovereign default risk, as measured by sovereign CDS spreads, during the sovereign debt crisis in Europe. By analyzing monthly data from January 2007 to September 2015 using vector error correction model with panel data, we find that European sovereign default risk is partly a response to a macroeconomic environment characterized by poor fiscal policies and deteriorating economic factors. Specifically, higher unemployment rate, debt levels and lower current account balances have increased the sovereign CDS spreads. These results do not allow us to reject the hypothesis that the sovereign default was driven by weak economic fundamentals. But the relative importance of these factors changes over time and group of countries. The presence and absence of Greece have played a key role in the developments of the spreads in the euro area countries. The rating downgrades in Greece and the higher European risk aversion had contributed to a significant rise in the CDS spreads of euro and non-euro area countries. Our VECM analysis does suggest direct spillovers from Greece to Euro area periphery via non-fundamental channels. Finally, our results suggest that the emergence of the debt crisis was caused by weak fundamentals but has also a self-fulfilling character.
10

Food scientist’s guide to fats and oils for margarine and spreads development

Morlok, Kathleen M. January 1900 (has links)
Master of Science / Food Science Institute - Animal Science & Industry / Kelly J. K. Getty / Fats and oils are an important topic in the margarine and spreads industry. The selection of these ingredients can be based on many factors including flavor, functionality, cost, and health aspects. In general, fat is an important component of a healthy diet. Fat or oil provides nine calories per gram of energy, transports essential vitamins, and is necessary in cellular structure. Major shifts in consumption of fats and oils through history have been driven by consumer demand. An example is the decline in animal fat consumption due to consumers’ concern over saturated fats. Also, consumers’ concern over the obesity epidemic and coronary heart disease has driven demand for new, lower calorie, nutrient-rich spreads products. Fats and oils can be separated into many different subgroups. “Fats” generally refer to lipids that are solid at room temperature while “oils” refer to those that are liquid. Fatty acids can be either saturated or unsaturated. If they are unsaturated, they can be either mono-, di-, or poly-unsaturated. Also, unsaturated bonds can be in the cis or trans conformation. A triglyceride, which is three fatty acids esterified to a glycerol backbone, can have any combination of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Triglycerides are the primary components of animal and vegetable fats and oils. The ratio of saturated to unsaturated fatty acids in these fats and oils has a great impact on their functionality. Common fats and oils include butterfat, beef tallow, fish oils, soybean oil, rapeseed (canola) oil, corn oil, cottonseed oil, olive oil, sunflower oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil, coconut oil, linseed (flax) oil, and safflower oil. Typical fat and oil modification techniques include hydrogenation, interesterification, alternative hydrogenation, fractionation, blending, farm/field practices and genetic modification, and the use of fat replacers. There are many processing techniques that can be utilized in margarine and spreads production. The process can be optimized for each margarine or spreads product. There are many fats and oils in margarine and spreads formulations. Familiarity with commonly used fats and oils in regards to availability, cost, nutrition, chemistry, and functionality are important when creating a cost-effective, functional margarine or spreads product.

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