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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
51

Čínská iniciativa pro jeden pás a jednu cestu a její potenciál pro cestovní ruch v Africe, Asii a Evropě: přístup založený na gravitačním modelu / China's One Belt and One Road Initiative and its potential for the tourism industries in Africa, Asia and Europe: a gravity model approach

Jannaschk-Schmitz, Patrick January 2019 (has links)
In 2013, China presented the idea of the infrastructure project One Belt One Road. The thesis aims to analyse the potential effects of the initiative, and how its attempt to improve transport infrastructure will impact EU-tourist flows to participating countries. A closer look to the effects on the tourism industry is justified because of the importance of the touristic sector for the global economy. For instance, the direct contribution of the touristic sector accounted for 2.3 trillion USD worldwide in 2016. A gravity model approach is used in the following paper to examine the significance of road, railway, air service as well as port infrastructure for tourists from the European Union. Afterwards, an OBOR simulation is carried out that forecasts a potential change for EU-tourist inflows. The results go in line with previous gravity model studies regarding the positive relationship of the GDP and the inverse influence of the distance on tourism flows. Furthermore, the findings suggest a significant impact of well-developed road, railway and air service networks. However, the quality of ports did not meet the expectations and is somewhat contra productive for the decision making of EU tourists. The simulation for the improvement of transport infrastructure implies that countries with an under-...
52

The causal relationship between road transport infrastructure development and economic growth in Namibia (1990-2014)

Mungendje, Louis January 2018 (has links)
The major aim of the study was to examine the short and long-run relationships and directional causality flow between road transport infrastructure development and economic growth in Namibia for the period 1990-2014. To achieve this objective, the study adopted the auto regression distributive lag (ARDL) Bounds testing approach to co-integration, to examine the short-run and long-run relationship between economic growth and transportation infrastructure in Namibia. The data was sourced from the World Bank Database on GDP from 1990 to 2014, the Namibia National Planning Commission MTEF (Medium-Term Expenditure Framework from 1990-2015) and the Roads Authority Annual Reports from 1999 to 2014, which were imported into the E-view tool to run quarterly regressions from 1990 - 2014. The results confirm a relationship among the variables. The Bounds test results indicated that there exists a long-run relationship among the variables under study. The estimated long-run model showed that there is a statistically insignificant positive relationship between expenditure on road transport and economic growth as well as between information communication technology and economic growth in Namibia. However, the short-run model revealed a positive and statistically significant relationship between expenditure on road transport and economic growth. Conversely, both the long-run and short-run estimates showed a statistically insignificant and negative relationship between foreign direct investment and economic growth. Lastly, the Granger causality test results showed no causality between expenditure on road transport and economic growth in Namibia. The present study offers fresh insights to policy makers on crafting appropriate policies to regulate tax consolidation revenue and infrastructure levies collection; secondly, to boost public sector borrowing on international capital markets through bond issues, infrastructure funds and revenue bonds; thirdly, to develop partner financing business models through sector budget support; fourthly, to secure private sector financing through a private debt, private equity or capital structure leveraging business model; and lastly, implementing fast-tightened fiscal and monetary policy measures on foreign direct investment which currently severely affect Namibian capital outflows.
53

Impediments for cycling infrastructure funding : The case of Sweden

Rensvala, Emil January 2020 (has links)
Increasing cycling and making it safer has been a policy at the national level in Sweden for nearly two decades. However, the policy has yielded limited success. Insufficient funding for safe and attractive bicycle infrastructure have been singled out as a key factor. The aim of this study is to examine the intersection where the policy at the national level in Sweden is to be translated into transport planning budgeting and the impediments for the allocation of funds. The method consists of analysing key texts and performing 28 interviews with government officials and national and regional planners to examine professionals’ views on budgeting prac-tices. Actor-network theory (ANT) is applied for the analysis. Impediments are found in disappearing funds, responsibility-delegation to municipalities, unbeneficial cost-benefit methods and organisational hypocrisy. The national transport planning system, as it is enacted in terms of legislation, objectives and practices, is in some aspects rigged in disfavour of cycling investments.
54

Connecting and Constructing Neighborhoods : Mental maps for seeing the role of transport infrastructure to neighborhoods in Stockholm

Lindskog, Magnus January 2022 (has links)
How are the neighborhoods of Aspudden, Telefonplan and Älvsjö perceived by the local population? And what role does transport infrastructure play in the construction of these neighborhoods? With modern-day planning ideals focusing on sustainable mobility and human-centered living environments, this thesis examines the subjective perception of the physical landscape and how neighborhoods are felt and experienced. By conducting qualitative mental mapping interviews, I aim to highlight and comprehend landscapes of everyday life. As this thesis studies what is considered important for the subjectively defined and constructed neighborhoods, and also what elements the neighborhoods consist of in terms of transport infrastructure and how these are perceived, a larger understanding of what qualities an area possess or lacks can be given. In relation to this thesis’ theoretical framework, I argue that mental mapping interviews provide good knowledge on how a neighborhood is constructed, both physically and socially. The created maps are compared to topological landscapes where focus is put on certain highlighted elements put in relation to each other, making neighborhoods flexible. Additionally, the results also point to the importance of transport infrastructure and of how it contributes to a mobile understanding and creation of neighborhoods. Large emphasis is put on the delineating characteristics of large-scale transport infrastructure but equally much on how the neighborhood is constructed through the relationship to other geographical locations. This thesis therefore contributes to the research field by shedding light on subjective understandings of the neighborhood impacts of transport infrastructure.
55

Transport infrastructure: making more sustainable decisions for noise reduction

Oltean-Dumbrava, Crina, Watts, Gregory R., Miah, Abdul H.S. January 2013 (has links)
There is a global and growing sustainability agenda for surface transport yet there are no specific means of assessing the relative sustainability of infrastructure equipment. Transport noise reduction devices are a significant part of the surface transport infrastructure: they specifically address environmental and social needs, have a high economic impact, and involve a wide range of raw materials raising multiple technical issues. The paper presents an account of the bespoke tool developed for assessing the sustainability of transport noise reduction devices. Regulatory standards for noise reduction devices and the relevant sustainability assessment tools and procedures adopted worldwide were reviewed in order to produce a set of pertinent sustainability criteria and indicators for NRDs projects, which were reviewed and edited during a stakeholder engagement process. A decision making process for assessing the relative sustainability of noise reduction devices was formulated following the review of the literature. Two key stages were identified: (1) collection of data for criteria fulfillment evaluation and (2) multi-criteria analysis for assessing the sustainability of noise reduction devices. Appropriate tools and methods for achieving both objectives are recommended.
56

Medfinansieringsersättning - och dess tillämpning / Co-financing Compensation – and its applicability

Karlsson, Niklas, Puskas, Mikael January 2018 (has links)
Det finns betydande behov av att utveckla befintlig och ny transportinfrastruktur i Sverige. Dessa projekt är ekonomiskt utmanande och begränsas ofta av offentliga budgetar. I avsikt att utöka finansieringskapaciteten har värdeåterförande metoder införts som fördelar ansvaret på fler parter. Det senaste tillskottet är medfinansieringsersättning som innebär att en kommun som medfinansierar statlig eller landstingskommunal transportinfrastruktur i sin tur får förhandla med fastighetsägare och exploatörer om att frivilligt ersätta kommunen för deras bidrag. Ersättningen kan aktualiseras förutsatt att en kommun medfinansierar, fastigheter antas öka i värde och kommunen har riktlinjer för tillämpningen.  Medfinansieringsersättning regleras sedan april 2017 i plan- och bygglagen. I lagstiftningen finns tolkningsutrymme för det praktiska utförandet, varför arbetet belyser hur kommuner tillämpar och kan tillämpa ersättningen. Studien sammanställer bl.a. nio Stockholmskommuners förhållningssätt, baserat på intervjuer och kommunala handlingar. Resultaten visar att en övervägande del av kommunerna har börjat eller ska börja använda medfinansieringsersättning. Det finns noterbara skillnader i tillämpningen som beror på skilda förutsättningar avseende exempelvis stadsbild, markägoförhållande eller politisk vilja. Inom vilka geografiska områden som avtalande om ersättning blir aktuell framgår av kommunens influensområden som definieras utifrån transportinfrastrukturens värdepåverkan. Generellt betalas ersättningen som ett belopp per kvadratmeter byggrätt vid exploatering av bostäder och kontor inom 1 000 meter från stationslägen. I influensområdena kan ersättningsnivån variera med faktorer som exempelvis avstånd till station eller tid till driftstart.  Ersättningen motsvarar ungefär 5 % av byggrättsvärdet, men nivån kan variera mellan ca 0-10 % beroende på kommunens antaganden och förhållningsätt. Flertalet kommuner bestämmer ersättningsnivån genom att fördela medfinansieringsbidraget på planerat antal byggrätter istället för att utgå från en värdering av värdeökningen. Orsaken är att kvantifiering av värdeförändringen bedöms för oklar och svårbestämd. Samtidigt är det få som ifrågasätter att transportinfrastruktur medför värdepåverkan. I varje enskilt fall där värdeökningen kan antas större än ersättningen bör därför överenskommelse vara möjlig. Medfinansieringsersättning kan inte anses vara så förhandlingsbart och frivilligt som lagstiftaren hade intentioner om. Att nå en frivillig överenskommelse begränsas av att parterna inte är jämnstarka till följd av kommunens planmonopol samt att likabehandling, transparens och förutsägbarhet ska upprätthållas. Erläggande av ersättningen kan snarare ses som en förutsättning för att få en detaljplan inom influensområdet. / There is a considerable need to develop new and existing transport infrastructure in Sweden. These projects are economically challenging and often limited by public budgets. To expand the financial resources, methods of land value capture have been introduced to allocate responsibility to more parties. The latest addition is “co-financing compensation”, which means that a municipality that co-finances transport infrastructure can negotiate with a property owner or developer to voluntarily compensate the municipality for their contribution. The compensation can be actualized provided that a municipality co-finances, the real estate is assumed to increase in value and that the municipality has guidelines for its application. Co-financing compensation was introduced in the Planning and Building Act in April 2017. The legislation is relatively vague, which creates opportunities for interpretation of the practical implementations. Therefore, the work sheds light on current and potential ways for municipalities to apply this compensation. The study compiles how nine municipalities within the Stockholm region use the compensation, based on interviews and municipal documents. The results show that a majority of the municipalities have begun or will begin to use co-financing compensation. There are notable differences in the application due to conditions such as cityscape, landownership or political intention. The catchment area, defined by the municipality, shows which areas are eligible for the compensation and depends on how the transport infrastructure impacts the monetary land value. In general, the compensation is paid as an amount per square meter of the building rights when developing buildings within 1 000 meters from train stations. Furthermore, in the catchment areas, the compensation level may vary with factors such as distance to station or time to station opening of the transport infrastructure. The co-financing compensation corresponds to approximately 5 % of the building right value, but the level may vary between 0-10 % depending on the municipality's adoptions and approaches. Most municipalities determine the level of compensation by allocating the co-financing contribution to a planned number of building rights instead of appraising the value increase. The reason is that quantification of the change in value is considered to be unclear and difficult. At the same time, not many people questions the notion of transport infrastructures impact on property values. In each case where the increase in value can be assumed to be greater than the compensation, an agreement should be reachable.
57

Erhaltung kommunaler Verkehrsinfrastruktur: Herausforderungen und Perspektiven am Beispiel des Freistaates Sachsen

Diesener, Christoph, Kilian, Maike 19 June 2018 (has links)
Die Verkehrsanlagen sächsischer Gebietskörperschaften stellen einen großen Anteil des kommunalen Gesamtvermögens dar. Dieses Vermögen muss nach geltenden gesetzlichen Bestimmungen pfleglich behandelt, effizient bewirtschaftet und für zukünftige Generatio-nen erhalten werden. Die Herausforderungen für die kommunalen Baulasstträger sind enorm, denn der allgemeine Zustand der Straßenverkehrsinfrastruktur verschlechtert sich, die finanziellen Mittel für Investitionen und Erhaltung sind und bleiben wohl auch künftig knapp. Zusätzlich ist mit der Einführung des neuen Kommunalen Haushalts- und Rechnungs-wesens (Kommunale Doppik) ein neuer, ressourcenorientierter Ansatz in der Bewirtschaf-tung des kommunalen Vermögens gefordert. Eine Möglichkeit, dieses Ziel mit Hilfe eines professionellen Erhaltungsmanagements zu erreichen, wird in diesem Beitrag ausführlich vorgestellt. Ferner wird im Detail auf die bedeutsame Unterscheidung zwischen Ausgaben für Investitionen und Ausgaben für Erhaltung im Rahmen der Doppik eingegangen. Am Schluss der Betrachtung steht ein knapper Abriss über derzeitige und zukünftige mögliche Finanzierung im Bereich der kommunalen Verkehrsinfrastruktur.
58

Srovnání MHD v Praze a Sydney / Comparison of public transport systems in Prague and Sydney

Kameníčková, Andrea January 2012 (has links)
The Diploma Thesis is focused on description of public transport systems in Prague and Sydney and their final comparison. Theoretical part is describing development of transport, transport infrastructure, public transport priority, system of tariffs, means of transport etc. In practical part both systems are described in detail with focus on organization and functionality. Final comparison is focused on confrontation from many points of view to capture the most of identical or different aspects.
59

Komparace dopravní infrastruktury vybraných států / Comparison of transport infrastructure of selected states

Tlachnová, Tereza January 2015 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is the comparison of transport infrastructure in the Czech and Slovak Republics, focusing on road and rail transport. Work includes a description and analysis of the current state in terms of quality, structure and length of road and rail networks. The performance indicators of passenger and freight transport are evaluated and compared, including their expected development. Conclusions are made on the basis of data from the last 5 years. The current situation is also evaluated using a SWOT analysis, which highlights the most important strengths and weaknesses and also significant opportunities and threats. In conclusion, based on the comparison and SWOT analysis priorities and recommendation are set to improve the current situation in order to create a quality and competitive transport network.
60

Fondovní hospodaření / Financial management of funds

Dolejská, Lenka January 2016 (has links)
Financial management of funds The theme of this thesis is analysis and evaluation of financial management of funds as a possible way of financing certain areas of public sector. The focus of this thesis is primarily on general conception of public funds, their legal basis, structure and characteristic. More specifically it deals with State funds in the Czech Republic and the analysis of the budget of particular fund and its income and expenses. Special attention is paid to the State Transport Infrastructure Fund. The text is structured into three main parts, which are then subdivided into chapters and subchapters. Brief definition of the theme, motivation for its selecting, main goals of the thesis and resources that have been used are mentioned in the introduction. The first part of the thesis deals with general characteristic of financial management of funds, discusses the basic concepts, definitions and structure of funds, followed by analysis of selected public funds on the state level, level of local self- governing units and on European level. The second part of the work analyses the management of State funds in the Czech Republic in detail. The introduction characterises State funds in general, their legal regulations and common elements of these funds. In further subchapters are analysed...

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