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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.

Expert-novice interaction in problematizing a complex environmental science issue using web-based information and analysis tools

Schroeder, Carolyn M. 16 August 2006 (has links)
Solving complex problems is integral to science. Despite the importance of this type of problem solving, little research has been done on how collaborative teams of expert scientists and teams of informed novices solve problems in environmental science and how experiences of this type affect the novices’ understandings of the nature of science (NOS) and the novices’ teaching. This study addresses these questions: (1) how do collaborative teams of scientists with distributed expertise and teams of informed novices with various levels of distributed expertise solve complex environmental science issues using web-based information and information technology (IT) analysis tools? and, (2) how does working in a collaborative scientific team improve informed novices’ understandings of the nature of authentic scientific inquiry and impact their classroom inquiry products? This study was conducted during Cohort II of the Information Technology in Science project within the Sustainable Coastal Margins scientific group. Over two summers, four environmental scientists from various disciplines led ten science teacher and graduate student participants in learning how each discipline approaches and solves environmental problems. Participants were also instructed about NOS by science educators and designed an inquiry project for use in their classroom. After performing a pilot study of the project, they revised it during the second summer and the entire experience culminated with diverse teams problematizing and solving environmental issues. Data were analyzed using statistical and qualitative techniques. Analysis included evaluation of participants’ responses to a NOS pre- and posttest, their inquiry projects, interviews, and final projects. Results indicate that scientists with distributed expertise approach solving environmental problems differently depending on their backgrounds, but that informed novice and expert teams used similar problem-solving processes and had similar difficulties. As a result of the project, I developed a model of distributed group problem solving for environmental science. Participants’ understandings of NOS improved and matured after instruction and experience working with scientists. The level of most instructional products was “guided inquiry.” The implications are that working with scientists along with direct NOS instruction is beneficial for teachers and science graduate students for their understanding of scientific problem solving, but that much more work needs to be done to achieve authentic inquiry in science classrooms at both secondary and post-secondary levels.

The influence of contextual teaching with the problem solving method on students' knowledge and attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school

Whitcher, Carrie Lynn 30 October 2006 (has links)
Adolescence is marked with many changes in the development of higher order thinking skills. As students enter high school they are expected to utilize these skills to solve problems, become abstract thinkers, and contribute to society. The goal of this study was to assess horticultural science knowledge achievement and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school in high school agriculture students. There were approximately 240 high school students in the sample including both experimental and control groups from California and Washington. Students in the experimental group participated in an educational program called “Hands-On Hortscience” which emphasized problem solving in investigation and experimentation activities with greenhouse plants, soilless media, and fertilizers. Students in the control group were taught by the subject matter method. The activities included in the Hands-On Hortscience curriculum were created to reinforce teaching the scientific method through the context of horticulture. The objectives included evaluating whether the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience experimental group benefited in the areas of science literacy, data acquisition and analysis, and attitude toward horticulture, science, and school. Pre-tests were administered in both the experimental and control groups prior to the research activities and post-tests were administered after completion. The survey questionnaire included a biographical section and attitude survey. Significant increases in hortscience achievement were found from pre-test to post-test in both control and experimental study groups. The experimental treatment group had statistically higher achievement scores than the control group in the two areas tested: scientific method (p=0.0016) and horticulture plant nutrition (p=0.0004). In addition, the students participating in the Hands-On Hortscience activities had more positive attitudes toward horticulture, science, and school (p=0.0033). Students who were more actively involved in hands-on projects had higher attitude scores compared to students who were taught traditional methods alone. In demographic comparisons, females had more positive attitudes toward horticulture science than males; and students from varying ethnic backgrounds had statistically different achievement (p=0.0001). Ethnicity was determined with few students in each background, 8 in one ethnicity and 10 students in another. Youth organization membership such as FFA or 4-H had no significant bearing on achievement or attitude.

An analysis of incubation effects in problem solving using a computer-administered assessment tool

Yoo, Sung Ae 15 May 2009 (has links)
An insightful solution to a problem may be promoted by temporarily being away from the problem at hand and engaging in other tasks or problems. Wallas (1926) conceptualized such an interruption period between problem solving activities as an incubation period. The present study examines the effect of such activities that are provided as an incubation period in computer-based problem solving tasks. In addition, this study explores the potential interaction between the type of problems and the type of interruption tasks involving two types of problems (verbal and spatial) and two types of interruption activities (verbal and spatial). One hundred eighty five undergraduate volunteers participated. The participants were randomly assigned to one of the six conditions, Spatial Problems: No-Interruption Task, Spatial Problems: Verbal Interruption Task, Spatial Problems: Spatial Interruption Task, Verbal Problems (Anagrams): No-Interruption Task, Verbal Problems (Anagrams): Verbal Interruption Task, and Verbal Problems (Anagrams): Spatial Interruption Task. A computerized technique was developed and incorporated for data collection and material presentation. This technique was considered to have advantages over the conventional data collection format because of its ability to (1) standardize the presentation and assessment of problem solving tasks, (2) allow subjects to manipulate the problem components as they desire, simulating real world problem solving approaches, and (3) monitor the subjects’ on-going interactions through the use of intricate, covert, data collection techniques. Regression analyses were employed to analyze the data collected using this computerized technique. The findings from the present study partially support the view that problem solvers can benefit from a temporary interruption task in a problem solving sequence. The participants resolved the problems more quickly when distracted by an intervening simple cognitive task than when allowed to work continuously. It was implied that a problem solver could benefit from an interruption that involves stimuli changing visually and spatially and that also demands some degree of cognitive involvement. Although the present study did not demonstrate effects of interaction between the problem types and interruption types, the findings suggested that in the case of spatial problems, engaging in an incubation activity is likely to result in more efficient performance.

An analysis of various aspects of the traveling saleman problem /

Akl, Selim G. January 1978 (has links)
No description available.

The meaning of transformative dreams

Biela, Pamela M. 11 1900 (has links)
The purpose of this interdisciplinary study was to answer the question, "What is the meaning of the transformative dream for people who do not experience resolution of their problem immediately upon awakening?". Existential-phenomenology from the perspective of a story was used to describe the meaning of the experience for ten individuals, nine women and one man, whose ages ranged from 23 to 48. From transcripts of the interviews, ten individual accounts of the experience were constructed. These accounts included a construction of the structure of each dream story and its relationship to the person’s description of the experience. Significant statements of the experience were also extracted from the transcripts and formulated into twenty common themes which were then woven into a common story. Each person checked and validated the transcript, individual account, common themes, and common story for any omissions or distortions. The study also included responses to a questionnaire given to psychology students, asking them if they had ever had a dream which revealed a solution to a problem. Out of 305 students, 103 (34%) had experienced one of these dreams. Forty-three (42%) knew the answer immediately, 58 (56%) found the answer later, and two were not sure. These results suggest that the prevalence of dreams which reveal solutions to problems could be much higher than expected. The findings support the general contention that these dreams are preceded by a desire for resolution and a search for answers. The dreams were vivid and emotional with the dreamer alert and actively participating in the drama. People experienced a felt sense of change without understanding the meaning of the dream. The dreams were complete stories with a beginning, middle, and end. The findings demonstrate that viewing these dreams within the context of people's lives is essential in order to understand the meaning of the experience. The description is a beginning and can become the basis for future research on dreams which resolve problems.

An analysis of children's problem solving in a graphics oriented computer programming environment /

Chait, Sharnee Ethel. January 1978 (has links)
No description available.

Effects of active play and passive observation on problem solving in four-year-old children

Wong, Maggie Leung January 1984 (has links)
Object play is widely considered a primary medium through which children develop cognitive skills. In an attempt to examine the relative importance of different types of play experience and selected play components on children's subsequent approach to problem solving, 31 four-year-olds (19 boys, 12 girls) were matched on sex and PPVT-R raw score, and were then assigned to one of the three treatment groups. Seven triplets (5 male, 2 female) and five pairs (2 male, 3 female) of children were formed. Children in each group were exposed to a different type of experience relative to task-relevant materials (active play, passive observation of play, and no involvement) and subsequently given a lure-retrieval task. The solution to this task involved the joining of the two longest sticks with a block to produce a tool to retrieve a lure. Subjects were compared on their problem-solving performance as measured by solution time and specific object play components obtained in Cheyne and Rubin's (1983) study were replicated in this study. Examination of additional components in play indicated that problem solution was enhanced not only by frequent use of long double-stick construction, but also by double-stick constructions with any stick length. Problem-solving performance of the three groups of children were not significantly different. However, a Treatment x Sex interaction was noted among children in the active and passive groups; passive girls spent more time and tended to require more assistance to task solution than active girls, active boys, and passive boys. Factors which may have contributed to this finding are discussed.

Transfer of information : is relational processing the answer? / Running title: Spontaneous transfer / Spontaneous transfer.

Krug, Damon Brian January 1990 (has links)
The present research focused on the transfer of information from a learning situation to a problem solving task. In particular, the effect of relational processing upon the transfer of information to the solution of insight problems was considered.The design of the study was a five by two factorial design. Within this design the independent variables were five levels of relational processing, ranging from full relational processing (essay) to individual item processing (deleted letter list) and two levels of instruction, informed and uninformed. The dependent measure was the number of insight problems correctly solved. The problems consisted of ten statements which did not make sense unless one part of the sentence was modified. The subject's task was to supply the necessary information needed to make sense of the sentence.The results showed no effect for type of instruction and there was no interaction between the type of instruction and level of relational processing. There was a significant effect due to level of relational processing. More specifically, the essay condition lead to the greatest amount and individually processed items lead to the lowest amount of information transfer. Further, it was suggested that the relationship between relational processing and the transfer of information was linear. These findings were interpreted as indicating that relational processing was a significant factor in explaining the transfer of information. / Department of Educational Psychology

An investigation of the construct validity of the behavioral index of troubled employess (BITE)

Bayer, Gregory A. January 1987 (has links)
There is no abstract available for this dissertation.

Resolving adversarial conflicts : an approach integrating case-based and analytical methods

Sycara, Ekaterini P. 08 1900 (has links)
No description available.

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