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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Estudo da função de AP1y2 e Alix no direcionamento de proteínas para degradação em lisossomos ou liberação em vesículas extracelulares / Study of AP1y2 and Alix function in the targeting of proteins for degradation in lysosomes or release in extracellular vesicles

Januário, Mara Elisama da Silva 21 June 2017 (has links)
A degradação lisossomal de proteínas de membrana endocitadas ocorre por meio do direcionamento destas proteínas para vesículas intralumenais (ILVs), formadas no lúmen dos corpos multivesiculares (MVBs), e subsequente fusão dos MVBs com lisossomos. Apesar de sua importância na degradação de proteínas transmembrana, os MVBs possuem outra importante função, a de produzir e liberar vesículas extracelulares (EVs). Neste processo os MVBs não se fundem com lisossomos, mas sim com a membrana plasmática o que resulta na liberação das vesículas residentes no interior dos MVBs para o meio extracelular. Diversas proteínas participam do direcionamento de cargas para os MVBs. Os estudos que delinearam a via de tráfego mediada por AP1 concentraram-se nos complexos contendo a subunidade ?1 que medeia o transporte de proteínas entre a rede trans-Golgi (TGN) e endossomos. Contudo, o genoma humano codifica uma segunda isoforma desta subunidade, denominada ?2, e evidências presentes na literatura e também observadas por nosso grupo indicam que AP1?2 pode regular uma via de tráfego distinta da via classicamente atribuída a AP1. Utilizando ensaios de uptake de EGF em condições onde foi realizado o KD de ?1 ou ?2, foi observado que o silenciamento de ?2 prejudica a degradação de EGF internalizado por seu receptor. Efeito também observado para o próprio receptor de EGF (EGFR) em ensaios de biotinilação da superfície celular. Demonstrando que a degradação lisossomal do complexo EGF-EGFR pela via canônica dos MVBs requer o complexo AP1?2, mas não AP1?1. Em conjunto com este estudo também foi analisado o mecanismo molecular de direcionamento da proteína Nef do HIV-1 para os MVBs associados a liberação de EVs. A proteína Nef do HIV é determinante na modulação do ambiente intracelular favorecendo a replicação do vírus e progressão à AIDS. Nef é ativamente secretado em EVs e sua liberação pode levar a apoptose de células vizinhas aceptoras dessas vesículas. Nef também medeia a redução dos níveis de CD4 e moléculas de MHC-I em EVs. Ainda não é conhecido o mecanismo molecular utilizado por Nef para ser exportado em EVs, mas sabe-se que Nef interage fisicamente com a proteína II acessória da maquinaria ESCRT, Alix, importante no processo de formação das ILVs e seleção das cargas que serão internalizadas nos MVBs. EVs coletadas de células HeLa e linfócitos T CD4+ silenciados para Alix demostraram reduções significativas na liberação de Nef. Estes resultados indicam que Nef requer Alix para sua eficiente liberação em EVs. / Lysosomal degradation of endocytosed membrane proteins occurs through the targeting of these proteins to intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), formed in the multivesicular bodies (MVBs) lumen, and the subsequent fusion of MVBs with lysosomes. Despite its importance in the degradation of transmembrane proteins, MVBs have another important function, the production and release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this process, the MVBs do not fuse with lysosomes, but fuse with the plasma membrane resulting in the release of these vesicles that reside within MVBs to the extracellular environment. Several proteins regulate the targeting of cargo to MVBs. Studies that delineated the functions of AP1 in protein trafficking, focused on complexes containing the ?1 subunit, which mediates transport between trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. However, the human genome encodes a second isoform of this subunit, named ?2. Evidences from the literature, as well as results from our research group, indicate that AP1?2 regulates transport pathways that are distinct from the pathways classically attributed to AP1. By performing EGF-uptake assays under ?1 or ?2 knockdown (KD) conditions, it was observed that ?2 is required for degradation of internalized EGF, effect also observed for the EGF receptor (EGFR) using cell surface biotinylation assays. These results demonstrate that the lysosomal degradation of the EGFEGFR complexes via the canonical MVBs pathway requires the AP1?2 complex, but not AP1?1. In parallel with this study, we also analyzed the molecular mechanism of HIV-1 Nef targeting to MVBs associated with the EVs release. Nef is an important determinant in the modulation of the intracellular environment for efficient HIV replication and progression to AIDS. Nef is actively secreted via EVs and its release may lead to apoptosis of bystander acceptor cells. Moreover, Nef reduces the levels of CD4 and MHC-I molecules in EVs. Despite the importance of Nef release in EVs, the molecular mechanism used by Nef to be exported via EVs is unknown. Nef physically interacts with the ESCRT machinery accessory protein Alix, an important player in the process of ILVs formation and cargo selection. EVs released from HeLa cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes under Alix KD conditions demonstrated a significant IV reduction in Nef release via EVs. These results indicate that Nef requires Alix for its efficient release in EVs.
42

Exploration et modulation du récepteur à l’EGF au cours du développement de l’athérosclérose / Modulation of epidermal growth factor-receptor during atherosclerosis development

Zeboudj, Lynda 29 November 2017 (has links)
Le récepteur à l’EGF (Epidermal Growth Factor) est exprimé, entre autres, par les cellules inflammatoires et vasculaires. Il est impliqué dans la survie et la migration cellulaire. L’EGF-R et ses ligand sont exprimés dans les plaques d’athérosclérose. L’objectif de cette étude est d’évaluer les effets de l’inhibition de l’EGF-R sur les fonctions des lymphocytes T CD4+ et sur les macrophages au cours du développement de l’athérosclérose expérimentale. L’EGFR est exprimé par les lymphocytes T CD4+, ainsi que par les macrophages au sein des plaques d’athérosclérose murines. L’inhibition pharmacologique de l’EGFR (Erlotinib) chez des souris Ldlr-/- sous régime riche en matières grasses réduit le développement et la progression des lésions athéromateuses. Afin d’étudier le rôle spécifique de l’EGFR dans les lymphocytes T CD4+, nous avons généré des souris Cd4Cre Egfrlox/lox. Des souris Ldlr-/- ont été irradiées et retransplantées avec une moelle Cd4Cre Egf-r+/+ ou Cd4Cre Egf-rlox/lox puis mise sous régime riche en matières grasses. L’invalidation spécifique de l’EGFR dans les lymphocytes T CD4+ induit une diminution de la prolifération lymphocytaire T CD4+ in vitro et in vivo, une diminution de la production d’IFN-γ, d’IL-4 et d’IL-2. La transplantation de la moelle Cd4Cre Egf-rlox/lox induit une réduction de la taille des lésions d’athérosclérose sans différence concernant la cholestérolémie, et une diminution de l’infiltration lymphocytaire T dans les plaques. Nous avons ensuite généré des souris LysMCre Egf-rlox/lox pour étudier le rôle spécifique de l’EGF-R exprimé par les cellules myéloides. Des souris Ldlr-/- ont été irradiées et retransplantées avec une moelle LysMCre-Egf-rlox/lox ou LysMCre+Egfrlox/lox. La transplantation de la moelle LysMCre+Egf-rlox/lox induit une réduction de la taille des lésions après 4, 7 et 12 semaines de régime riche en matière grasses. Les plaques des souris chimères Ldlr-/-/LysMCre+Egf rlox/lox sont caractérisées par une diminution significative de l’infiltration macrophagique ainsi qu’une diminution de la taille du noyau nécrotique. L’invalidation génétique de l’EGFR dans la lignée myéloide réduit significativement la production du TNF-α et d’IL-6. Par ailleurs, l’inhibition pharmacologique et l’invalidation génétique d’EGFR réduit la formation des cellules spumeuses par une « down-régulation » du CD36. L’inhibition pharmacologique l’EGF-R diminue l’activité pro-inflammatoire pro-athérogène des lymphocytes T CD4+ et des macrophages, et in fine réduit le développement et la progression de l’athérosclérose expérimentale. Nos résultats suggèrent que l’inhibition de l’EGFR pourrait être une nouvelle stratégie thérapeutique pour le traitement de l’athérosclérose. / Background: Several Epidermal Growth Factor receptor (EGF-R) inhibitors have been successfully developed for the treatment of cancer, inhibiting tumor cell survival, proliferation and migration. EGF-R is expressed by leucocytes, but little is known about its role in the modulation of the immune response. The first part of the projet is to determine whether EGFR expressed on myeloid cells is functional, and to address the consequences of EGFR inhibition specifically in myeloid cells on atherosclerosis. The second part is to explore the expression of EGF-R on CD4+ T cells, and to study the effects of the specific EGF-R invalidation on CD4+ T cells during atherosclerosis development. Methods and results: Ldlr-/- mice were orally treated with a specific EGFR inhibitor (Erlotinib, 15mg/kg) for 6 weeks, under a high fat diet. EGFR pharmacological inhibition reduced T cell infiltration, decreases macrophage accumulation within atherosclerotic lesions, and thus, protected against atherosclerosis development in the aortic sinus. In parallel, we generated chimeric Ldlr-/- mice. Ldlr-/- mice were lethally irradiated and reconstituted with LysMCre+ EgfrLox/lox or LysM Cre- EgfrLox/lox bone marrow cells. In addition, irradiated Ldlr-/- mice were also reconstituted with bone marrow from Cd4Cre Egfrlox/lox , or Cd4Cre Egfr+/+ and put under a high fat diet. Animal weight and cholesterolemia were not different between groups. We observed a decrease of atherosclerosis plaque size in the aortic sinus in chimeric Ldlr-/-/LysMCre+ EgfrLox/lox and Ldlr-/-Cd4Cre Egfrlox/lox mice in comparison with chimeric Ldlr-/-/LysMCre- EgfrLox/lox, and Ldlr-/-Cd4Cre Egfr+/+ respectively. Myeloid invalidation of EGFR and pharmacological inhibition using AG-1478, a specific tyrosine kinase inhibitor, affected cytoskeleton reorganization limiting macrophage adhesion, spreading and migration. EGF-R blockage significantly reduced lipid uptake and foam cell formation through the down-regulation of CD36 expression. Selective deletion of Egfr in CD4+ T cells resulted in decreased T cell proliferation and activation both in vitro and in vivo, as well as reduced IFN-γ, IL-17A, IL-4 and IL-10 production. Finally, human blood T cells expressed EGFR and EGFR inhibition reduced T cell proliferation both in vivo and in vitro. Conclusion. EGFR is expressed by human and mouse CD4+ T cells. EGFR pharmacological inhibition or genetic invalidation induced T cell anergy in vitro and in vivo, blocked macrophage activity, and limited atherosclerosis initiation and progression. Our results suggest that targeting EGFR may be a novel strategy to combat atherosclerosis.
43

Zytokinabhängige Expression von EGF und VEGF und ihrer Rezeptoren EGFR und VEGFR-1 im Tumormikromilieu des kolorektalen Karzinoms / Cytokine-dependent gene expression of EGF, VEGF and their receptors EGFR and VEGFR-1 in the microenvironment of colorectal carcinoma

Sattler, Florentine 08 July 2014 (has links)
No description available.
44

Sensibilité environnementale du réseau de développement de la vulve de C. elegans / Environmental sensitivity of the C. elegans vulval signalling network

Grimbert, Stéphanie 10 April 2014 (has links)
Comprendre comment les facteurs génétiques et environnementaux interagissent au cours du développement est une question fondamentale en biologie. Je me suis intéressée à cette question en utilisant le réseau de développement de la vulve du nématode C. elegans comme système modèle. L’objectif de mon projet était une étude quantitative de la modulation par l’environnement des voies de signalisation impliquées dans ce processus telles que, Ras, Delta-Notch et Wnt. J’ai tout d’abord analysé comment un facteur environnemental spécifique (la carence nutritionnelle) modifie les activités et les interactions entre les voies de signalisation sous-jacentes au développement vulvaire chez C. elegans. J’ai ainsi mis en évidence que l’augmentation de l’induction vulvaire par la carence passe par une augmentation de l’activité de la voie Ras et est indépendante de la voie Wnt. Cet effet de l’environnement est assuré par la détection de la diminution de l’apport en nutriments, probablement par l’action de la voie TOR, et affecte l’induction vulvaire en parallèle ou en amont du récepteur à l’EGF. J’ai ensuite examiné la sensibilité environnementale du système de développement de la vulve de Caenorhabditis dans une perspective évolutive et ce, grâce à l'analyse comparative de différents isolats. J’ai pu observer que l’exposition à des températures extrêmes induit des variants et des défauts de manière fortement dépendante de la souche et de l’espèce. L’occurrence de certains défauts développementaux induits par la température révèlent en outre que certaines cellules précurseurs de la vulve et les voies de signalisation associées présentent une sensibilité environnementale différente. / How genetic and environmental factors interact during development is a key question in current biology, yet little is known about how molecular and cellular processes integrate environmental information. In my PhD research I aimed to address this problem using the network of C. elegans vulval signalling pathways as a model system. The principal objective of my project was to quantitatively examine how involved major signalling pathways, EGF-Ras-MAPK, Wnt and Delta-Notch, are modulated by specific environmental signals. First, I analysed how a specific environmental factor (starvation) alters activities and interplay of signalling pathways underlying C. elegans vulval cell fate patterning. I found that starvation consistently increased vulval induction through upregulation of the EGF-Ras-MAPK pathway activity independent of the Wnt pathway. This environmental effect is mediated by internal sensing of nutrient deprivation, likely acting through the TOR pathway, and affects vulval induction at the level or upstream of the EGF receptor. Second, I examined the environmental sensitivity of the Caenorhabditis vulval developmental system from an evolutionary perspective through comparative analysis of different C. elegans and C. briggsae isolates. I found that extreme temperature induced diverse developmental variants and defects, which were strongly genotype- and species-dependent. The occurrence of certain developmental defects induced by temperature extremes further revealed that vulval precursor cells and associated fates differ in temperature sensitivity, and this cell-specific sensitivity shows evolutionary variation.
45

A função do óxido nítrico no processo de angiogênese através do controle da atividade do receptor de EGF / A critical role for NO-mediated, epidermal growth factor receptor-dependent angiogenesis in endothelial cells

Miriam Santos de Moraes 26 June 2008 (has links)
Óxido nítrico (NO) obtido a partir de fonts exógenas estimula a via de sinalização Ras/MAP cinases ERK1/2 em células endoteliais de coelho (RAEC). A ativação desta via também envolve a transativação do receptor de EGF (EGFR) mediada por ERK1/2 (Oliveira, 2003). Agora, nós avaliamos os efeitos de NO gerado endogenamente por bradicinina e \"shear stress\" sobre a fosforilação de resíduos de tirosina em EGFR e no processo de angiogênese; Nós encontramos que após estímulo com bradicinina (1 M) ou \"shear stress\" (16 dynes/cm2) a isoforma endotelial de NO sintetase (eNOS) foi ativada em células RAEC e HUVEC. Além disso, o aumento na produção de NO correlaciona-se com um aumento na fosforilação em resíduos de tirosina de EGFR conforme verificado por imunoprecipitação e western blot. Para determinar a capacidade angiogênica da via de sinalização NO-EGFR, nós usamos um ensaio in vitro baseado em Matrigel®. Em adição nós analisamos as vias de sinalização envolvidas no processo. Nós mostramos que bradicina e \"shear stress\" induz a formação de estruturas semelhantes a capilares em células HUVEC cultivadas em Matrigel®. Células HUVEC expressando um mutante de EGFR com atividade de tirosina cinase defective não forma estruturas semelhantes a capilares após estímulo com bradicinina ou \"shear stress\". Reunidos, estes achados nos sugerem que a ativação da via de NO e EGFR é necessária na promoção de angiogênese em células HUVEC / Nitric oxide (NO) obtained from exogenous sources stimulated the Ras/MAP kinases ERK1/2 signaling pathway in rabbit endothelial cells (RAEC). Activation of this pathway also involved the transactivation of the EGF receptor (EGF-R) mediated by ERK1/2 (FRBM 35:381; 2003). Now, we evaluate the effects of endogenously generated NO elicited by bradykinin and fluid laminar \"shear stress\" on tyrosine phosphorylation of the EGF receptor and in the process of angiogenesis. We found that upon stimulation with bradykinin (1 M) or under shear stress conditions (16 dynes/cm2) the endothelial isoform of NO synthase was activated in RAEC and in human endothelial cells (HUVEC). Furthermore, increase in NO production correlated with enhanced phosphorylation of tyrosine residues of the EGF-R as seen by immunoprecipitation and western blot analysis. To determine the importance of the NO-EGFR signaling pathway in angiogenesis, we used the Matrigel®-based in vitro assay for angiogenesis. In addition, we analyzed the signaling pathway involved in the process. We showed that bradykinin and shear stress induced the formation of capillary-like structures in HUVEC cultures grown in Matrigel®. HUVEC expressing a mutant of the EGF-R lacking tyrosine kinase activity did not form capillary-like structures upon stimulation with bradykinin or shear stress conditions. Taken together, these findings suggest that the activation of the NO-EGFR signaling pathway is necessary to promote angiogenesis in HUVEC
46

Estudo da função de AP1y2 e Alix no direcionamento de proteínas para degradação em lisossomos ou liberação em vesículas extracelulares / Study of AP1y2 and Alix function in the targeting of proteins for degradation in lysosomes or release in extracellular vesicles

Mara Elisama da Silva Januário 21 June 2017 (has links)
A degradação lisossomal de proteínas de membrana endocitadas ocorre por meio do direcionamento destas proteínas para vesículas intralumenais (ILVs), formadas no lúmen dos corpos multivesiculares (MVBs), e subsequente fusão dos MVBs com lisossomos. Apesar de sua importância na degradação de proteínas transmembrana, os MVBs possuem outra importante função, a de produzir e liberar vesículas extracelulares (EVs). Neste processo os MVBs não se fundem com lisossomos, mas sim com a membrana plasmática o que resulta na liberação das vesículas residentes no interior dos MVBs para o meio extracelular. Diversas proteínas participam do direcionamento de cargas para os MVBs. Os estudos que delinearam a via de tráfego mediada por AP1 concentraram-se nos complexos contendo a subunidade ?1 que medeia o transporte de proteínas entre a rede trans-Golgi (TGN) e endossomos. Contudo, o genoma humano codifica uma segunda isoforma desta subunidade, denominada ?2, e evidências presentes na literatura e também observadas por nosso grupo indicam que AP1?2 pode regular uma via de tráfego distinta da via classicamente atribuída a AP1. Utilizando ensaios de uptake de EGF em condições onde foi realizado o KD de ?1 ou ?2, foi observado que o silenciamento de ?2 prejudica a degradação de EGF internalizado por seu receptor. Efeito também observado para o próprio receptor de EGF (EGFR) em ensaios de biotinilação da superfície celular. Demonstrando que a degradação lisossomal do complexo EGF-EGFR pela via canônica dos MVBs requer o complexo AP1?2, mas não AP1?1. Em conjunto com este estudo também foi analisado o mecanismo molecular de direcionamento da proteína Nef do HIV-1 para os MVBs associados a liberação de EVs. A proteína Nef do HIV é determinante na modulação do ambiente intracelular favorecendo a replicação do vírus e progressão à AIDS. Nef é ativamente secretado em EVs e sua liberação pode levar a apoptose de células vizinhas aceptoras dessas vesículas. Nef também medeia a redução dos níveis de CD4 e moléculas de MHC-I em EVs. Ainda não é conhecido o mecanismo molecular utilizado por Nef para ser exportado em EVs, mas sabe-se que Nef interage fisicamente com a proteína II acessória da maquinaria ESCRT, Alix, importante no processo de formação das ILVs e seleção das cargas que serão internalizadas nos MVBs. EVs coletadas de células HeLa e linfócitos T CD4+ silenciados para Alix demostraram reduções significativas na liberação de Nef. Estes resultados indicam que Nef requer Alix para sua eficiente liberação em EVs. / Lysosomal degradation of endocytosed membrane proteins occurs through the targeting of these proteins to intraluminal vesicles (ILVs), formed in the multivesicular bodies (MVBs) lumen, and the subsequent fusion of MVBs with lysosomes. Despite its importance in the degradation of transmembrane proteins, MVBs have another important function, the production and release of extracellular vesicles (EVs). In this process, the MVBs do not fuse with lysosomes, but fuse with the plasma membrane resulting in the release of these vesicles that reside within MVBs to the extracellular environment. Several proteins regulate the targeting of cargo to MVBs. Studies that delineated the functions of AP1 in protein trafficking, focused on complexes containing the ?1 subunit, which mediates transport between trans-Golgi network (TGN) and endosomes. However, the human genome encodes a second isoform of this subunit, named ?2. Evidences from the literature, as well as results from our research group, indicate that AP1?2 regulates transport pathways that are distinct from the pathways classically attributed to AP1. By performing EGF-uptake assays under ?1 or ?2 knockdown (KD) conditions, it was observed that ?2 is required for degradation of internalized EGF, effect also observed for the EGF receptor (EGFR) using cell surface biotinylation assays. These results demonstrate that the lysosomal degradation of the EGFEGFR complexes via the canonical MVBs pathway requires the AP1?2 complex, but not AP1?1. In parallel with this study, we also analyzed the molecular mechanism of HIV-1 Nef targeting to MVBs associated with the EVs release. Nef is an important determinant in the modulation of the intracellular environment for efficient HIV replication and progression to AIDS. Nef is actively secreted via EVs and its release may lead to apoptosis of bystander acceptor cells. Moreover, Nef reduces the levels of CD4 and MHC-I molecules in EVs. Despite the importance of Nef release in EVs, the molecular mechanism used by Nef to be exported via EVs is unknown. Nef physically interacts with the ESCRT machinery accessory protein Alix, an important player in the process of ILVs formation and cargo selection. EVs released from HeLa cells and CD4+ T lymphocytes under Alix KD conditions demonstrated a significant IV reduction in Nef release via EVs. These results indicate that Nef requires Alix for its efficient release in EVs.
47

Rôles des facteurs de croissance dans la prolifération de la cellule β-pancréatique en réponse à un excès de nutriments : étude du facteur de croissance HB-EGF et du récepteur à l’EGF

Benterki, Isma 04 1900 (has links)
Le diabète de type 2 (DT2) résulte d’une résistance à l’insuline par les tissus périphériques et par un défaut de sécrétion de l’insuline par les cellules β-pancréatiques. Au fil du temps, la compensation des îlots de cellules β pour la résistance à l’insuline échoue et entraine par conséquent une baisse progressive de la fonction des cellules β. Plusieurs facteurs peuvent contribuer à la compensation de la cellule β. Toutefois, la compréhension des mécanismes cellulaires et moléculaires sous-jacents à la compensation de la masse de la cellule β reste à ce jour inconnue. Le but de ce mémoire était d’identifier précisément quel mécanisme pouvait amener à la compensation de la cellule β en réponse à un excès de nutriments et plus précisément à l’augmentation de sa prolifération et de sa masse. Ainsi, avec l’augmentation de la résistance à l’insuline et des facteurs circulants chez les rats de six mois perfusés avec du glucose et de l’intralipide, l’hypothèse a été émise et confirmée lors de notre étude que le facteur de croissance HB-EGF active le récepteur de l’EGF et des voies de signalisations subséquentes telles que mTOR et FoxM1 impliquées dans la prolifération de la cellule β-pancréatique. Collectivement, ces résultats nous permettent de mieux comprendre les mécanismes moléculaires impliqués dans la compensation de la masse de la cellule β dans un état de résistance à l’insuline et peuvent servir de nouvelles approches thérapeutiques pour prévenir ou ralentir le développement du DT2. / Type 2 diabetes (T2D) results from insulin resistance in peripheral tissues and impaired insulin secretion from the pancreatic β-cell. Over the time, compensation of the β cell islets for insulin resistance fails, and therefore leads to a gradual decline in β-cell function. Several factors may contribute to β-cell compensation. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying β-cell compensation remain unknown. The purpose of this thesis was to identify what mechanism could lead to β cell compensation in response to nutrients excess and specifically the increase in proliferation and β-cell mass. Thus, with increasing insulin resistance and circulating factors in the 6 month rats infused with glucose + intralipid, the hypothesis was made and confirmed in our study that the growth factor HB-EGF would activate the EGF receptor, and subsequent signaling pathways such as mTOR and FoxM1, both involved in the proliferation of the pancreatic beta-cell. Collectively, these results allow us to understand better the molecular mechanisms involved in the β cell compensation in the insulin resistance state and may serve as a potential new therapeutic approach to prevent or delay T2D development.
48

"Análise da expressão e mecanismos de ação da proteína AKt em células cultivadas de carcinoma epidermóide bucal humano" / Analysis of the expression and pathways of Akt protein in human squamous cell carcinoma cultured cells

Salles, Felipe Torquato 16 September 2005 (has links)
Como neoplasia maligna que mais acomete a cavidade oral, o carcinoma epidermóide gera infinidade de estudos acerca de sua gênese e progressão. O variado perfil genético e protéico observado leva a freqüente insucesso nas terapias adotadas, contribuindo para pobres prognósticos. Este estudo visa compreender melhor o papel da proteína Akt, tida como chave para a proliferação de diversas neoplasias, frente ao estímulo das células derivadas de carcinoma epidermóide humano em cultura (HaCat, HN6, HN19, HN30, HN31) com EGF 10ng/ml e TGF β 5ng/ml. Para tanto, analisou-se a expressão de pAkt, ciclina D1, Bad, caspase-3 e PTEN, através de imunofluorescência, western-blot e imunoprecipitação. Os resultados mostraram aumento da expressão de pAkt e ciclina D1 frente ao tratamento com EGF, bem como diminuição de Bad e PTEN, com exceção de HN31. A imunoprecipitação revelou neste caso que pAkt previne a apoptose através de inativação direta de Bad. Já nas células tratadas com TGF β , obtivemos resultados diferentes do esperado para este supressor de tumor. A expressão de pAkt mostrou-se aumentada nas linhagens celulares, mas estável em HN19 e HN31. Ciclina D1 mostrou aumento em HN6 e HN30, manutenção em HaCat e HN19 e diminuição em HN31. HaCat mostrou queda dos níveis de caspase-3 e Bad, manutenção em HN6, aumento em HN30, aumento somente de Bad em HN31 e HN19 com níveis inalterados após o tratamento para ambas as proteínas. Estes achados sugerem o importante papel desempenhado pelo EGF nas linhagens de carcinoma epidermóide estudadas, e como esta via é importante candidata a ser visada em tratamentos quimioterápicos. A ação do TGF β mostrou discrepâncias, revelando seu comportamento dúbio frente os diversos tipos celulares, e sugerindo possível relação entre este receptor e a via do pAkt, o que requer estudos mais apropriados. A baixa ocorrência de apoptose também reforça esta possibilidade, mostrando como a via do Akt é essencial para a progressão neoplásica e pode estar relacionada a mais eventos celulares do que já sabido. / Squamous cell carcinoma raises a great interest regarding carcinogenesis and its proliferative pathways, due to the high incidence and poor prognosis. The broad genetic and proteic profiles contribute to this poor prognosis. The present study aims to better comprehend the role played by pAkt, key protein for the development of many neoplasms. Cell lines derived from oral squamous cell carcinoma (HaCat, HN6, HN19, HN30 and HN31) were induced with 10ng/ml EGF and 5ng/ml TGF β . The expressions of pAkt, cyclin D1, Bad, caspase-3 and PTEN were analyzed through immunofluorescence, western-blot and immunoprecipitation. Results showed higher pAkt and cyclin D1 expression after EGF treatment, as well as a decrease in Bad and PTEN levels, except for HN31. Immunoprecipitation revealed that pAkt prevents apoptosis through Bad direct inactivation. However, TGF β treatment revealed different results, from what expected for this tumor supressor. pAkt expression revealed to be increased in all cells lines, but stable for HN19 and HN31. HaCat exhibited decreased levels of caspase-3 and Bad, which were unaltered in HN6, augmented in HN30. HN31 revealed only Bad increased levels, and no alterations in HN19. These findings suggest the crucial role played by EGF stimulation in the studied cell lines, and a good candidate to be targeted by chemotherapeutical approaches. TGF β treatment showed discrepancies, revealing diverse behaviors in the different cell lines. An exhisting relation between TGF β receptors and pAkt pathway may not be discharged, requiring further studies. The low occurrence of apoptosis reinforces this possibility, showing how important is Akt and related pathways for neoplastic progression, and its possible relation to cellular events not described to date.
49

Expressão de genes homeobox em células de carcinoma epidermóide de boca estimuladas com EGF e TGF-beta / Expression of homeobox genes in oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, stimulated with EGF and TGF-beta

Campos, Marcia Sampaio 21 January 2008 (has links)
Genes homeobox, vitais para muitos aspectos relacionados com crescimento e diferenciação celular, têm sido descritos desregulados em alguns cânceres. Seu papel na carcinogênese, principalmente de carcinomas epidermóides de boca, permanence pouco claro e pobremente caracterizado. Desse modo, esse estudo objetivou avaliar, em cultura de células, o perfil de expressão de seis genes homeobox (ASH2L, HOXA7, HHEX, PKNOX1, PITX1, TGIF) selecionados dentre aqueles previamente identificados no Projeto Genoma Câncer de Cabeça e Pescoço (2001) sob estímulo de EGF e TGF-beta1. Para tal, linhagens celulares de carcinoma epidermóide de cabeça e pescoço primário (HN6) e metastático (HN31) e uma linhagem não-tumoral (HaCat) foram cultivadas sob condições-padrão. Após a confecção dos cDNAs de cada linhagem, por meio de RT-PCR, os transcritos foram amplificados e quantificados pela técnica de PCR em tempo real. Os dados foram normalizados com o gene HPRT e a quantificação relativa foi realizada seguindo o método do delta Ct. De acordo com os resultados foi possível verificar que o EGF produziu uma modulação variável da expressão dos genes avaliados em todas as linhagens celulares, enquanto que, em geral, o TGF-beta1 foi capaz de aumentar significantemente (ANOVA, p<0,05) a expressão dos transcritos de 5 genes homeobox (HOXA7, HHEX, PKNOX1, PITX1, TGIF). Particularmente transcritos dos genes PITX1 e TGIF foram signicantemente mais expressos nas linhagens tumorais (HN6 e HN31) frente à linhagem não-tumoral quando tratados com TGF-beta1. Desse modo, sugere-se que os genes homeobox estudados desempenhem diferentes funções na carcinoma epidermóide de boca, e que, especialmente PITX1 e TGIF atuem como oncogenes inibindo a resposta anti-proliferativa dependente de TGF-beta e levando a progressão tumoral. / Homeobox genes, vital to many aspects related with cellular growth and differentiation, had been described as deregulated in some cancers. Their role in carcinogenesis, mainly oral squamous cell carcinomas, remains unclear and poorly characterized. Thus, this study had the purpose to evaluate, in cell cultures, the expression profile of six homeobox genes (ASH2L, HOXA7, HHEX, PKNOX1, PITX1, TGIF) selected among genes previously identified in the Head and Neck Cancer Genoma Project (2001), under stimulation with EGF and TGF-beta1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines from primary tumour (HN6) and from methastasis (HN31), and a non-tumoral cell line (HaCat) were cultured under standard procedures. CDNAs were obtained by RT-PCR and the transcripts were amplified and quantified by real-time PCR. Data were normalized by HPRT gene and the relative quantification was made by the delta Ct method. According to the results, it was possible to observe that EGF produced a variable modulation of the analyzed genes, in all cell lines. Generally, TGF-beta1 was able to significantly increase (ANOVA, p<0,05) the expression of the transcripts of 5 homeobox genes (HOXA7, HHEX, PKNOX1, PITX1, TGIF). Transcripts of PITX1 and TGIF genes were particularly more expressed in the tumoral cell lines (HN6 e HN31), when compared to the non-tumoral cell line, when treated with TGF-beta1. It is suggested that the studied homeobox genes play different roles in oral squamous cell carcinoma and that, especially the PITX1 and TGIF act as oncogenes, inhibitting the TGF-dependent anti-proliferative response, leading to tumour progression.
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Avaliação de polimorfismos nos genes EGF e EGFR e a susceptibilidade à pré-eclâmpsia severa

Oliveira, Carolina Barbara Nogueira de, Penna, Ivan Andrade de Araújo, Saraiva, Antonio Marcos January 2012 (has links)
Submitted by Verônica Esteves (vevenesteves@gmail.com) on 2017-09-28T17:28:41Z No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 0 bytes, checksum: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e (MD5) Dissertação Carolina Barbara - AVALIAÇÃO DE POLIMORFISMOS NO.pdf: 2844302 bytes, checksum: d3ce9355ae4a9633c9b9e0c88ce683c5 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Verônica Esteves (vevenesteves@gmail.com) on 2017-09-28T17:29:03Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 0 bytes, checksum: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e (MD5) Dissertação Carolina Barbara - AVALIAÇÃO DE POLIMORFISMOS NO.pdf: 2844302 bytes, checksum: d3ce9355ae4a9633c9b9e0c88ce683c5 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2017-09-28T17:29:03Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 license_rdf: 0 bytes, checksum: d41d8cd98f00b204e9800998ecf8427e (MD5) Dissertação Carolina Barbara - AVALIAÇÃO DE POLIMORFISMOS NO.pdf: 2844302 bytes, checksum: d3ce9355ae4a9633c9b9e0c88ce683c5 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico / Fundação Carlos Chagas Filho de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Rio de Janeiro / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Fundação Oswaldo Cruz. Instituto Nacional de Controle de Qualidade em Saúde (INCQS-Fiocruz) / Cerca de 10-15% das causas de mortalidade e morbidade materna em países desenvolvidos e 37% das causas de morte obstétricas diretas no Brasil podem ser associadas à pré-eclâmpsia. A pré-eclâmpsia é uma patologia multissistêmica definida por uma hipertensão associada a uma proteinúria, após a 20ª semana de gestação. As manifestações clínicas desta doença podem se apresentar como uma síndrome materna ou fetal e de acordo com a gravidade podem ser classificadas em leve ou severa e de início precoce ou tardio. Apesar do conhecimento limitado sobre esta patologia, existem fortes evidências de envolvimento do componente genético na etiologia da pré-eclâmpsia. O fator de crescimento epidérmico (EGF) desempenha um papel importante na regulação do crescimento, proliferação e diferenciação celular, através da ligação ao seu receptor, o EGFR. Acredita-se que este fator esteja relacionado com a regulação do crescimento e da função placentária durante a gestação. Variações na sequência do DNA desses genes podem levar a uma alteração nos níveis de transcrição gênica e, como consequência, ser responsável por mudanças nos níveis de produção e/ou atividade desses fatores. O polimorfismo EGF +61 G>A está associado com a produção in vitro da proteína EGF e os polimorfismos EGFR -216 G>T e -191 C>A estão correlacionados a mudanças na atividade do promotor e na expressão de RNAm desse gene. O objetivo geral do nosso estudo foi avaliar uma possível associação entre polimorfismos funcionais nos genes EGF (+61 G>A) e EGFR (-216 G>T e -191 C>A) e a susceptibilidade à pré-eclâmpsia severa na população de gestantes do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, através de um estudo caso-controle. Como objetivos específicos, além de analisarmos uma possível interação entre os polimorfismos no desenvolvimento da pré-eclâmpsia severa, buscamos associar os polimorfismos ao histórico familiar da doença. O estudo foi composto por dois grupos, pareados por etnia: um grupo caso composto por 98 mulheres com pré-eclâmpsia severa e um grupo controle com 98 mulheres saudáveis. Os polimorfismos EGF (+61 G>A) e EGFR (-216 G>T e -191 C>A) foram avaliados pela reação em cadeia da polimerase seguida por análise de polimorfismos por tamanho de fragmentos de restrição (PCR-RFLP). As variáveis categóricas, frequências alélicas e genotípicas foram comparadas através do teste do exato de Fisher, e o teste t de Student foi utilizado para comparação das variáveis contínuas em cada grupo. Os resultados demonstram que o alelo A do polimorfismo -191 do gene EGFR está associado com a susceptibilidade à pré-eclâmpsia severa (p<0,05). Não houve associação significativa entre os outros polimorfismos (EGF +61 G>A e EGFR -216 G>T) e a susceptibilidade à pré-eclâmpsia severa (p>0,05), assim como também não foi encontrada relação entre a interação dos polimorfismos, histórico familiar e o desenvolvimento da pré-eclâmpsia severa. Além desses resultados, também foram encontradas diferenças significativas ao avaliarmos as características demográficas e clínicas entre os grupos. Este é o primeiro estudo a avaliar associações entre pré-eclâmpsia severa e os polimorfismos -216 G>T e -191C>A do gene EGFR e o primeiro estudo na população brasileira a investigar a associação do polimorfismo EGF +61 G>A e a doença. Com esse achado, podemos sugerir que o polimorfismo, o -191C>A do gene EGFR, possa ser o responsável por alguma regulação na produção do EGFR, e que através dessa regulação possa desempenhar algum papel importante na susceptibilidade à pré-eclâmpsia severa em mulheres do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. / About 10-15% of maternal deaths in development countries and approximately 37% of direct obstetrics deaths in Brazil can be assigned to preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is a multisystem disorder that usually occurs after 20 week of pregnancy and it is determined by the presence of hypertension associated with proteinuria. The clinical findings of preeclampsia can manifest as either a maternal syndrome or fetal syndrome. In addition, the preeclampsia can be classified as mild to severe, and in early or late-onset preeclampsia. Despite the limited knowledge of this pathology, there is a strong evidence of involvement of the genetic component in the etiology of preeclampsia. The epidermal growth factor (EGF) plays an important role in regulating cell growth, proliferation and differentiation, through binding its receptor, EGFR. Evidences suggest that this growth factor and its receptor are involved in growth regulation of placental function during the pregnancy. Variations in the DNA sequence in the EGF and EGFR genes can lead to an altered gene transcription and consequently can be responsible for changes in production and/or activity of these factors. The EGF +61 G>A polymorphism is significantly associated with in-vitro EGF protein production and the EGFR -216 G>T and -191 C>A polymorphisms are correlated with changes in promoter activity and expression of EGFR mRNA. The aim of this study was to verify the association between EGF +61 G>A, EGFR -216 G>T and -191 C>A polymorphisms and susceptibility to severe preeclampsia in the population of Rio de Janeiro through a case-control design. The specific objectives were to assess the association between these polymorphisms and the history family of preeclampsia, and also to analyze a possible interaction among these polymorphisms on the development of severe preeclampsia. The study was composed by two groups matched by ethnicity: the case group with 98 women with severe preeclampsia and the control group with 98 healthy women. Polymerase chain reaction restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses (PCR-RFLP) were performed to genotype EGF +61 G>A, EGFR -216 G>T and -191 C>A polymorphisms. Categorical variables, allelic and genotype frequencies were compared in each group applying Fisher´s exact test and a Student t test was used for continuous variables. The results showed that the A allele of the -191 C>A polymorphism of the EGFR gene is associated with susceptibility to severe preeclampsia (P<0,05). There were no significant association between severe preeclampsia and +61 G>A EGF and -216 G>T EGFR polymorphisms (P>0,05), as well as no correlation was found between the interaction of these polymorphisms, history family and the development of severe preeclampsia. We also found differences when we evaluated demographic and clinical characteristics between the two groups. This is the first study to assess the associations between -191 C>A and -216 G>T EGFR genetics polymorphisms and severe preeclampsia and the first study in Brazilian population to investigate the association between +61 G>A EGF polymorphism and severe preeclampsia. These findings suggest that the polymorphism-191C>A of the EGFR gene may be responsible for some regulation in the production of the EGFR, and that through this regulation this polymorphism might play an important role in the susceptibility to severe preeclampsia in women from Rio de Janeiro.

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