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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Histórias da vivência sexual de mulheres submetidas à cirurgia da obesidade / Histories from the sexual being of women submitted to the obesity surgery.

Godoy, Érica Helena Martins de 09 February 2009 (has links)
O corpo da pós-modernidade tem sido aprisionado por um padrão de estética extremamente magro. Este corpo atual exige o reconhecimento do outro e sofre ao ser excluído, por não se adequar aos padrões impostos pela sociedade. Sendo assim, nos questionamos sobre o sofrimento daqueles que não se enquadram nesta sociedade como os obesos. Atualmente a obesidade tem sido considerada uma grave questão para a saúde pública. Sua expressão mais severa, a obesidade grau III, pressupõe um Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC) acima de 40 kg/m² e tem como indicação de tratamento a cirurgia bariátrica. O emagrecimento provocado por este procedimento gera uma modificação na imagem corporal e em diversos fatores da vida do indivíduo, dentre os quais destacamos os relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais. Partindo dessa premissa, realizamos esta pesquisa com dez mulheres adultas submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica, há pelo menos seis meses, objetivando compreender que sentido e significado a mulher obesa atribui à sua vida afetivo-sexual no decorrer de sua existência, em especial com a nova imagem corporal proporcionada, no período pós-operatório. Utilizamos a metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa fenomenológica, centrada na redução fenomenológica, o que nos permite o retorno ao mundo da experiência vivida pelas colaboradoras. Como estratégia de coleta de dados, utilizamos a entrevista fenomenológica compreensiva mediada pela seguinte questão: \"Fale a respeito de sua vida, como foi sua infância, sua adolescência, sua vida adulta, relacionando com aspectos da obesidade e de sua vida afetivo-sexual. Os depoimentos foram analisados de acordo com os seguintes passos: leitura e releitura das entrevistas; discriminação das unidades de significados; elaboração de categorias e identificação das divergências e convergências nos discursos. Destacaram-se as seguintes categorias construídas a partir das unidades de significado: 1) Nos horizontes da infância; 2) A temporalidade da adolescência; 3) A temporalidade da vida adulta; 4) Vivência após a cirurgia bariátrica; 5) Nos horizontes dos projetos de vida. A análise compreensivo-interpretativa, utilizando o referencial psicanalítico, desvelou uma vivência repleta de sucessivos fracassos, além de histórias familiares marcadas por perdas reais ou simbólicas de pessoas queridas sentidas como abandono, ou então doenças físicas graves que afetaram a utilização de defesas neuróticas. A adicção pelo alimento, independentemente da estruturação psíquica, pode ter surgido como tentativa de cura de si mesmas, diante do conflito interno ou vazio simbólico. A melhora nos relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais, após o procedimento cirúrgico, foi referendada pelas colaboradoras que possuíam um corpo simbólico e não depositavam no corpo físico o peso de sua existência marcada pelo drama da alteridade. Esta pesquisa nos permite concluir que a realização da cirurgia transforma o corpo externamente contribuindo para a melhora na Qualidade de Vida, mas não proporciona mudanças na elaboração psíquica dos acontecimentos, na erogeneização do corpo, permitindo que ocorram problemas na veiculação erótica desse novo corpo, sendo que a busca pelo preenchimento do objeto faltante continue. Assim, se faz necessário destacar a importância do tratamento multiprofissional no pré e no pós-operatório da cirurgia bariátrica, para que o indivíduo possa refletir sobre suas vivências afetivo-sexuais e aprecie uma melhora de dentro para fora. / The post modernity body has been confined by an extremely thin esthetic standard. This present body claims the recognition by the other and suffers for being excluded, for not being adapted to the standards imposed by the society. So, we ask ourselves about the suffering from the ones who dont fit at this society, like the obeses. Nowadays, the obesity has been considered a serious question to the public health. Her more severe expression, the obesity step III, presupposes a corporal mass rate (CMR) above 40 kg/m2 and it has like a treatment indication the bariatric surgery. The thinning provoked by this proceeding generates a modification in the corporal image and in different factors of the individuals life, among which we detach the affective-sexual relationships. Setting from this premises, we made this research with ten thousands adult women, submitted to the bariatric surgery, in, at least, six months, objectifying understand what sense and meaning the obese woman attributes to their sexual life in the course of their lives, specially with the new corporal image proportioned, in the post operating period. We used the phenomenological qualitative researchs methodology, centered in the phenomenological reduction, what allow us the return to the world of the experience lived by the co-workers. Like givens collect strategy, we used the phenomenological understanding interview mediated by the following question: Tell us about your life, how was your childhood, your adolescence, your adult life, relating with obesity aspects and your affective-sexual life. The testimonies were analyzed under the following steps: reading and rereading of the interviews; meanings unities discrimination; categories´s elaboration and divergences and convergences´s identification in the discourse. The following categories were detached from de meaning unities: 1) In the childhoods horizon; 2) The adolescences temporality; 3) The adult lifes temporality; 4) Being after the bariatric surgery; 5) In the lifes projects horizons. The analysis understanding-interpretative, using the psychoanalytical referential disclosed a being full of successive failures, in addition to familiar histories marked by real or symbolic looses of dear people, felled like abandonment, or grave physic diseases, that affected the neurotic defenses utilization. The addition by the food, independently of the psychic structuring, may be arise like an essay of cure of themselves, in front of the intern conflict or symbolic emptiness. The improvement in the affective-sexual relationships, after the surgical proceeding, was countersigned by the coworkers that used to have a symbolic body and didnt deposit on the physic body the weight of their existence marked by the drama feeling the others qualities. This research allow us conclude that surgery´s realization transforms the body externally, contributing to the improvement in the Lifes Quality, but it doesnt proportionate changes on the occurrences psychics elaboration, on the bodys erogenezation, allowing that it occur problems on the erotics propagation of this new body, being that the search by the missing objects accomplishment continues. So, it is necessary detach the multiprofessional treatments importance in the bariatric surgerys before and after-operating, in order to that the individual may ponder about his affective-sexual beings and appreciate an improvement from inside to outside.
32

Discourse and power in the self-perceptions of incarcerated South African female sexual offenders.

Kramer, Sherianne 10 August 2010 (has links)
Female sexual offenders have recently become the subject of increased medical, legal and public attention. However, the medical and legal systems insist that female sex crimes are rare regardless of the fact that when sexual victimization experiences are surveyed, the incidence of female perpetrated sex crimes is often higher than expected. Additionally, lay discourses concerning female sexual perpetration remain charged with expressions of disbelief and the vast majority of attention on sexual crimes therefore remains focused on male offenders. As a result, female sexual offenders are understood and treated differently to their male counterparts in the media and medico-legal contexts. In light of the continued denial of female sexual perpetration, this research explored how such beliefs around female sexuality shape the self-knowledge of female sexual offenders. By doing so, this investigation aimed to illuminate how disciplinary power acts to produce self-knowledge that, in turn, leads to the discursive coordinates by which female sexual offenders come to define themselves. This was achieved by interviewing female sexual perpetrators and thereafter drawing on critical discourse analysis in order to interpret the transcriptions of these interviews. The results demonstrated that the participants’ subjective experiences as agents and non-agents in the perpetration of sex crimes relied on social constructions of men, women, motherhood, sexuality and religion. All of the offenders constructed themselves as characteristically female- maternal, passive, vulnerable, victimised and innately virtuous. Their responses drew discernibly on rationalising discourse, gendered discourse, inversions of their femaleness, perceptions of the legal and correctional systems, institutionalised discourse, discourse on rehabilitation and expressions of morality and docility. Most of these discursive patterns, as both instruments and effects of power, simultaneously replicate and reproduce broader social discursive practices that imply that women are harmless, nurturing and incapable of female sexual perpetration. The availability of medical, academic and legal discourse on gender and sexuality allowed the participants to draw on victim discourse, histories of abuse and claims of psychological ailments to justify their crimes. These rationalisations also worked in conjunction with gendered discursive strategies that implied that men are aggressive perpetrators whilst women are harmless victims. As such, the perceived responsibility for the participants’ crimes was most often displaced onto their male accomplices. In this way, the participants upheld their subjective innocence as well as assisted in the maintenance of the construction of the female sexual perpetrator as an unfathomable and impossible construct. This was further emphasised by the fact that not a single participant believed she was guilty of a crime. Such a belief is in line with gendered constructions of criminality as a predominantly male activity. As such, the participants’ reproductions of traditional sexual scripts foreclosed alternative understandings of female sexual perpetration. While dominant patriarchal structures utilise discourse as a means to transmit, produce and reinforce power, this study drew on discourse as a means to resist traditional gendered understandings of sexual offending and to create new configurations of knowledge power by offering counter-knowledge of sex crimes. In doing so, academics, policy makers and the general public have access to a different and novel understanding of female sexuality in light of sexual offending. This has practical implications for the acknowledgement and awareness of female sexual perpetration as well as for future preventative efforts.
33

Histórias da vivência sexual de mulheres submetidas à cirurgia da obesidade / Histories from the sexual being of women submitted to the obesity surgery.

Érica Helena Martins de Godoy 09 February 2009 (has links)
O corpo da pós-modernidade tem sido aprisionado por um padrão de estética extremamente magro. Este corpo atual exige o reconhecimento do outro e sofre ao ser excluído, por não se adequar aos padrões impostos pela sociedade. Sendo assim, nos questionamos sobre o sofrimento daqueles que não se enquadram nesta sociedade como os obesos. Atualmente a obesidade tem sido considerada uma grave questão para a saúde pública. Sua expressão mais severa, a obesidade grau III, pressupõe um Índice de Massa Corpórea (IMC) acima de 40 kg/m² e tem como indicação de tratamento a cirurgia bariátrica. O emagrecimento provocado por este procedimento gera uma modificação na imagem corporal e em diversos fatores da vida do indivíduo, dentre os quais destacamos os relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais. Partindo dessa premissa, realizamos esta pesquisa com dez mulheres adultas submetidas à cirurgia bariátrica, há pelo menos seis meses, objetivando compreender que sentido e significado a mulher obesa atribui à sua vida afetivo-sexual no decorrer de sua existência, em especial com a nova imagem corporal proporcionada, no período pós-operatório. Utilizamos a metodologia de pesquisa qualitativa fenomenológica, centrada na redução fenomenológica, o que nos permite o retorno ao mundo da experiência vivida pelas colaboradoras. Como estratégia de coleta de dados, utilizamos a entrevista fenomenológica compreensiva mediada pela seguinte questão: \"Fale a respeito de sua vida, como foi sua infância, sua adolescência, sua vida adulta, relacionando com aspectos da obesidade e de sua vida afetivo-sexual. Os depoimentos foram analisados de acordo com os seguintes passos: leitura e releitura das entrevistas; discriminação das unidades de significados; elaboração de categorias e identificação das divergências e convergências nos discursos. Destacaram-se as seguintes categorias construídas a partir das unidades de significado: 1) Nos horizontes da infância; 2) A temporalidade da adolescência; 3) A temporalidade da vida adulta; 4) Vivência após a cirurgia bariátrica; 5) Nos horizontes dos projetos de vida. A análise compreensivo-interpretativa, utilizando o referencial psicanalítico, desvelou uma vivência repleta de sucessivos fracassos, além de histórias familiares marcadas por perdas reais ou simbólicas de pessoas queridas sentidas como abandono, ou então doenças físicas graves que afetaram a utilização de defesas neuróticas. A adicção pelo alimento, independentemente da estruturação psíquica, pode ter surgido como tentativa de cura de si mesmas, diante do conflito interno ou vazio simbólico. A melhora nos relacionamentos afetivo-sexuais, após o procedimento cirúrgico, foi referendada pelas colaboradoras que possuíam um corpo simbólico e não depositavam no corpo físico o peso de sua existência marcada pelo drama da alteridade. Esta pesquisa nos permite concluir que a realização da cirurgia transforma o corpo externamente contribuindo para a melhora na Qualidade de Vida, mas não proporciona mudanças na elaboração psíquica dos acontecimentos, na erogeneização do corpo, permitindo que ocorram problemas na veiculação erótica desse novo corpo, sendo que a busca pelo preenchimento do objeto faltante continue. Assim, se faz necessário destacar a importância do tratamento multiprofissional no pré e no pós-operatório da cirurgia bariátrica, para que o indivíduo possa refletir sobre suas vivências afetivo-sexuais e aprecie uma melhora de dentro para fora. / The post modernity body has been confined by an extremely thin esthetic standard. This present body claims the recognition by the other and suffers for being excluded, for not being adapted to the standards imposed by the society. So, we ask ourselves about the suffering from the ones who dont fit at this society, like the obeses. Nowadays, the obesity has been considered a serious question to the public health. Her more severe expression, the obesity step III, presupposes a corporal mass rate (CMR) above 40 kg/m2 and it has like a treatment indication the bariatric surgery. The thinning provoked by this proceeding generates a modification in the corporal image and in different factors of the individuals life, among which we detach the affective-sexual relationships. Setting from this premises, we made this research with ten thousands adult women, submitted to the bariatric surgery, in, at least, six months, objectifying understand what sense and meaning the obese woman attributes to their sexual life in the course of their lives, specially with the new corporal image proportioned, in the post operating period. We used the phenomenological qualitative researchs methodology, centered in the phenomenological reduction, what allow us the return to the world of the experience lived by the co-workers. Like givens collect strategy, we used the phenomenological understanding interview mediated by the following question: Tell us about your life, how was your childhood, your adolescence, your adult life, relating with obesity aspects and your affective-sexual life. The testimonies were analyzed under the following steps: reading and rereading of the interviews; meanings unities discrimination; categories´s elaboration and divergences and convergences´s identification in the discourse. The following categories were detached from de meaning unities: 1) In the childhoods horizon; 2) The adolescences temporality; 3) The adult lifes temporality; 4) Being after the bariatric surgery; 5) In the lifes projects horizons. The analysis understanding-interpretative, using the psychoanalytical referential disclosed a being full of successive failures, in addition to familiar histories marked by real or symbolic looses of dear people, felled like abandonment, or grave physic diseases, that affected the neurotic defenses utilization. The addition by the food, independently of the psychic structuring, may be arise like an essay of cure of themselves, in front of the intern conflict or symbolic emptiness. The improvement in the affective-sexual relationships, after the surgical proceeding, was countersigned by the coworkers that used to have a symbolic body and didnt deposit on the physic body the weight of their existence marked by the drama feeling the others qualities. This research allow us conclude that surgery´s realization transforms the body externally, contributing to the improvement in the Lifes Quality, but it doesnt proportionate changes on the occurrences psychics elaboration, on the bodys erogenezation, allowing that it occur problems on the erotics propagation of this new body, being that the search by the missing objects accomplishment continues. So, it is necessary detach the multiprofessional treatments importance in the bariatric surgerys before and after-operating, in order to that the individual may ponder about his affective-sexual beings and appreciate an improvement from inside to outside.
34

The Social Construction of Sexuality: Personal Meanings, Perceptions of Sexual Experience,and Females' Sexuality in Puerto Rico

Villanueva, María Isabel Martinó 06 May 1997 (has links)
A qualitative study on a sample of 12 Puerto Rican women was conducted in Puerto Rico. The purpose of this study was to explore the various ways in which sexual meanings are created, changed, and modified as the nature of social discourse and personal experience changes. The two theoretical frameworks that guided the methodology and analysis of the data were social constructionism and feminism. I assumed that sexuality is socially constructed, shaped by social, political, and economic influences, and modified throughout life. Feminist theories assisted in documenting the ways in which females' sexuality in Puerto Rico is shaped by culture and by institutions that disadvantage females and other oppressed groups by silencing their voices. The theories guided the discussion of the contradicting messages about women's sexualities and their experiences, as these women fought, conformed to, and even colluded with their oppression. Analysis of the participants' written and oral narratives produced the overarching theme of sexual meanings/scripts, along with three interrelated sub-themes: sources and nature of sexual scripts, determining experiences, and social discourses of female sexuality. Participants reported three institutional sources of sexual messages: family, religion-culture, and institutions of education. Their determining experiences follow a common thread that weaves a common story line: the life-long struggle with the incongruencies between the social constructions of female sexuality and the realities of these women's sexual experiences. Sexuality is defined as being challenged and modified through the participants' lives. Four social discourses of female sexuality emerged from the analysis of the data: source of guilt and shame, vulnerability and sexual victimization, ambivalence, and empowerment. A theory of ambivalence was developed from the data as a means to understand the participants' process of developing the paradigms for their own sexuality. / Ph. D.
35

The Interpersonal Lives of Young Adult Women: A Study of Passionate Friendship

Glover, Jenna Ann 01 May 2009 (has links)
This study was designed to further understand passionate friendships in a sample of heterosexual and lesbian, bisexual, and questioning (LBQ) women. Previous research has established that LBQ women engage in same-sex passionate friendships (unusually intense friendships that are similar to romantic relationships but devoid of sexual intimacy), but no systematic classification system has been established to identify these relationships in a general sample of women. A new quantitative measure, the Passionate Friendship Survey, was developed to measure passionate friendship experiences in women across adolescence and young adulthood. Qualitative interviews were also conducted to understand the subjective experience of passionate friendships in heterosexual and LBQ women.
36

“It's More Important That I Serve Someone Else's Needs. Or That I Just Don't Become the Problem”: Emerging Adult Women on Sexual Communication

January 2019 (has links)
abstract: Sexual satisfaction has been positively linked to both individual and relational wellbeing (Christopher & Sprecher, 2000; Davison, Bell, LaChina, Holden, & Davis, 2009). Further, sexual communication has demonstrated positive impacts on sexual satisfaction (Byers, 2005); yet, research by MacNeil and Byers (2009) found that most people in romantic relationships do not share their sexual preferences with their partner. According to Tolman (2002), women seem to be especially reluctant to communicate sexually, due to the particular societal restrictions placed on expressions of female sexuality and desire. This study aims to understand how emerging adult women communicate with their sexual partners in order to increase pleasure, what barriers exist to sexual communication for these women, and how gendered social norms are expressed in the process. Based on interviews with 19 women between the ages of 20-29, the findings of this study suggest that emerging women often place more weight on social expectations of appropriate female sexual expression than relational context when choosing whether or not and/or how to sexually self-disclose. Further, the women in this study were at varying stages of renegotiating their internalization of the prioritization of male sexual pleasure over female pleasure. / Dissertation/Thesis / Masters Thesis Communication Studies 2019
37

Differences between primary and secondaryprovoked vestibulodynia

Ågren, Karolina January 2020 (has links)
Introduction: Provoked vestibulodynia is a common life impacting disease. Research hasshown higher pain intensity and anxiety levels in primary (pain present since first penetrativeattempt) provoked vestibulodynia (PVD1) compared to secondary provoked vestibulodynia(PVD2) and mixed results regarding age and female sexual functioning when comparing thegroups.Aim: The aim of this study was to further investigate the differences between PVD1 andPVD2 regarding pain intensity, sexual functioning, age and anxiety levels. The secondary aimwas to analyze how PVD group, age, anxiety and pain intensity associates with sexualfunctioning.Method: A total of 57 women from the Netherlands and Sweden were recruited via socialmedia, advertisement and regional caregivers. This study was part of a larger study oncognitive behavioral group therapy for women with provoked vestibulodynia. Data wasextracted from a survey assessing intensity of pain, sexual functioning, age and anxiety levels.A t-test was used to compare the PVD1 and PVD2 groups and a multivariate regressionanalysis was used to analyze the variables association with sexual functioning.Results: No statistically significant differences were found regarding pain intensity, sexualfunctioning, age and anxiety levels between PVD1 and PVD2. Decreased sexual functioningwas significantly related to higher age and pain intensity.Conclusion: We found no significant differences between PVD1 and PVD2. Increased ageand higher pain intensity seems to associate with lower sexual functioning. Longitudinalstudies with a greater sample size are needed for further investigation.
38

Histórias de vida : o lazer como forma de expressar a sexualidade das mulheres com deficiência física /

Maturana, Maria Fernanda Sanchez January 2020 (has links)
Orientador: Fátima Elisabeth Denari / Resumo: Esta pesquisa tem como objetivo analisar histórias de vida de mulheres com deficiência física que fazem parte de um grupo social do noroeste paulista e a influência de espaços propícios ao lazer nas relações sociais e na qualidade de vida das mesmas. O Grupo é específico para encontros mensais de pessoas com deficiência física no qual trocam experiências em espaços lúdicos. A História de Vida, ao ser definida como um aporte teórico, possibilitou estabelecer um meio no qual as pessoas puderam, através do diálogo lúdico reviver fatos, experiências e acontecimentos ligados à sexualidade, identificando caminhos, olhares, prazeres e sensibilidades impressas por meio de corpos com deficiência. A coleta de dados aconteceu por meio de entrevistas abertas (gravadas em áudio) sem roteiros preestabelecidos, com duas participantes do grupo. As entrevistas foram desenvolvidas até atingirem um ponto de saturação (esgotar os assuntos) e em seguida, transcritas para a análise dos dados. Os resultados demonstraram que o Grupo e os encontros lúdicos que ele proporciona são muito relevantes nas histórias de vida das entrevistadas, nos quais, vivenciam momentos de lazer e de aprendizado por meio das experiências que trocam com os demais participantes. As entrevistadas declararam que esses encontros tornam-nas mais motivadas e confiantes diante de seus problemas sociais e sexuais advindos da deficiência, desta forma, fica explícita a importância do lazer na melhora da qualidade de vida e nas hist... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: This research aims to analyze the life stories of women with physical disabilities who are part of a social group in the northwest of São Paulo and the influence of spaces conducive to leisure in their social relationships and their quality of life. The Group is specific for monthly meetings of people with physical disabilities in which they exchange experiences in recreational spaces. Life History, when defined as a theoretical contribution, made it possible to establish a means in which people could, through playful dialogue, relive facts, experiences and events related to sexuality, identifying ways, looks, pleasures and sensitivities printed through bodies with disabilities. Data collection took place through open interviews (recorded in audio) without pre-established scripts, with two participants in the group. The interviews were developed until they reached a saturation point (exhausting the subjects) and then transcribed for data analysis. The results showed that the Group and the recreational meetings that it provides are very relevant in the life stories of the interviewees, in which they experience moments of leisure and learning through the experiences they exchange with the other participants. The interviewees declared that these meetings make them more motivated and confident in the face of their social and sexual problems arising from disability, thus, the importance of leisure in improving their quality of life and their life histories is explicit. / Mestre
39

The Quest for Female Sexual Agency: An Analysis and Application of Beyoncé Knowles’s Career

Sparks, Haley Lillian 01 January 2015 (has links)
This paper is an in-depth analysis of music artist Beyoncé Knowles's career in relation to female autonomy and sexuality. It delves into the symbolic annihilation of an accurate portrayal of female sexuality in the media and how that translates to young women being misinformed about their own sexual pleasure and satisfaction. This misinformation and its effects on the sexual experiences of college-aged women are demonstrated through a series of original creative short stories.
40

Μελέτη των πολυμορφισμών των γονιδίων του υποδοχέα της βαζοπρεσίνης και του υποδοχέα ανδρογόνων και συσχέτισή τους με τη σεξουαλική συμπεριφορά και γενετική προδιάθεση σε γυναίκες με σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών / The study of genetic polymorhisms of the androgen and vasopressin receptor genes and their correlation with sexual behaviour and genetic predisposition in women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome

Δαμιανάκη, Αικατερίνη 03 December 2014 (has links)
Η συμμετοχή της γενετικής, έναντι της περιβαλλοντικής επίδρασης στη συμπεριφορά αποτελεί θεμελιώδες ερώτημα για τις νευροεπιστήμες και αποτελεί πεδίο έντονου ερευνητικού ενδιαφέροντος. Η σεξουαλικότητα είναι μια σύνθετη αλληλεπίδραση πολλαπλών παραγόντων, συμπεριλαμβανομένων ανατομικών, φυσιολογικών, ψυχολογικών, αναπτυξιακών, πολιτιστικών και σχεσιακών παραγόντων. Παρά την υψηλή συχνότητα εμφάνισης της γυναικείας σεξουαλικής δυσλειτουργίας, λιγότερη έμφαση έχει δοθεί στη μελέτη της από την επιστημονική κοινότητα. Το βιολογικό και ψυχολογικό υπόβαθρό της παραμένει ένα υποσχόμενο πεδίο έρευνας καθώς οι διαθέσιμες θεραπείες είναι πολύ λιγότερες συγκριτικά με την ανδρική σεξουαλική δυσλειτουργία. Η σεξουαλική λειτουργία των γυναικών έχει μελετηθεί κατά καιρούς στο σύνδρομο των πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών, λαμβάνοντας υπόψη ερωτηματολόγια σεξουαλικής δραστηριότητας και επίπεδα φυλετικών ορμονών αλλά όχι τους γενετικούς πολυμορφισμούς που μπορεί να εμπλέκονται και να δημιουργούν συγκεκριμένο βιολογικό υπόβαθρο. Η αλληλεπίδραση ορμονών, νευροδιαβιβαστών και περιβαλλοντικών παραγόντων είναι ευρέως αποδεκτή στη διαμόρφωση του υποστρώματος της γυναικείας σεξουαλικότητας αλλά οι τρόποι παραμένουν ακόμα ασαφείς. Για το λόγο αυτό, ο σκοπός της παρούσας μελέτης ήταν η συσχέτιση των πολυμορφισμών του ανδρογονικού υποδοχέα και του υποδοχέα της βαζοπρεσίνης με τη γυναικεία σεξουαλικότητα στις γυναίκες με σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών. Η επίδραση των ανδρογόνων στη γυναικεία σεξουαλικότητα αποτελεί πεδίο έντονου ερευνητικού ενδιαφέροντος καθώς οι μηχανισμοί αλληλεπίδρασης είναι ιδιαίτερα πολύπλοκοι. Τα ανδρογόνα ασκούν τη δράση τους μέσω πρόσδεσης και ενεργοποίησης των ανδρογονικών υποδοχέων. Το γονίδιο του υποδοχέα των ανδρογόνων αποτελείται από δύο μοτίβα πολυμορφικών επαναλήψεων CAG & GGN που κωδικοποιούν ποικίλου μήκους πολυγλουταμινικών και πολυγλυκινικών περιοχών αντίστοιχα. Έχει επίσης φανεί ότι το αυξημένο μήκος της CAG επαναληπτικής αλληλουχίας πιθανόν να σχετίζεται με μειωμένη δραστικότητα του AR και ως εκ τούτου και με διαταραχές που σχετίζονται με μειωμένη δράση ανδρογόνων Διάφορα νευροπεπτίδια όπως η βαζοπρεσίνη, η αδενοκορτικοτροπίνη, η ωκυτοκίνη κ.α. επιδρούν στην ενήλικο σεξουαλική συμπεριφορά διαφόρων οργανισμών. Η βαζοπρεσίνη και ο υποδοχέας της αποτέλεσαν αντικείμενο μελέτης για την ερμηνεία της ανθρώπινης κοινωνικής και σεξουαλικής συμπεριφοράς. Οι πολυμορφισμοι του AVPR έχουν επίσης σχετιστεί με αλτρουισμό, με μονογαμία και ανάπτυξη σχέσεων δεσμού, γνώση μουσικής και χορού που αντανακλούν αρχέγονες κοινωνικές αλληλεπιδράσεις όπως ιεροτελεστικές κινήσεις και επικοινωνία μέσω ήχων. Το γονίδιο του υποδοχέα της βαζοπρεσίνης διαθέτει τέσσερα μικροδορυφορικά μοτίβα. Ακολουθώντας τις μελέτες στον αρουραίο του αγρού (vole), η προσοχή έχει κυρίως επικεντρωθεί στις μικροδορυφoρικές επαναλήψεις στην περιοχή του υποκινητή. Πρόκειται για τις RS1 {(GATA)14} και RS3 {(CT)4-TT-(CT)8-(GT)24}, που είναι εξαιρετικά πολυμορφικές. Σκοπός της παρούσας εργασίας είναι η διερεύνηση της συσχέτισης της πολυμορφικής CAG περιοχής του ανδρογονικού υποδοχέα και του RS1 πολυμορφισμού του υποδοχέα της βαζοπρεσίνης με την γυναικεία σεξουαλική συμπεριφορά στο σύνδρομο των πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών. Για το λόγο αυτό η παρούσα μελέτη συμπεριέλαβε 40 γυναίκες με σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών και 94 υγιείς γυναίκες, στις οποίες διενεργήθηκαν ορμονικοί προσδιορισμοί, ψυχομετρικά τεστ για αξιολόγηση της σεξουαλικής λειτουργίας τους και διερεύνηση της συσχέτισης με τα γονοτυπικά τους χαρακτηριστικά (αριθμός επαναλήψεων των πολυμορφικών μοτίβων στα αλληλόμορφά τους). Τα αποτελέσματα της παρούσας εργασίας έδειξαν ότι στην κατηγορία των γυναικών με PCOS η ενεργότητα του υποδοχέα συσχετίστηκε με μειωμένα επίπεδα oιστρογόνων και με αυξημένη ικανοποίηση, γεγονός που υποδηλώνει ότι σε καθεστώς περίσσειας ανδρογονικού ερεθίσματος η γυναικεία σεξουαλικότητα επάγεται. Επίσης στην ίδια ομάδα γυναικών φάνηκε συσχέτιση μεταξύ των υψηλών επιπέδων FSH και των υψηλών αριθμών επαναλήψεων του RS1 πολυμορφισμού, υποδεικνύοντας έναν κεντρικό ρόλο του AVPR στη ρύθμιση της ωοθυλακιορρηξίας των γυναικών με σύνδρομο πολυκυστικών ωοθηκών. / The contribution of genetic versus environmental influence in behavioral analysis is a fundamental question for neuroscience and it is also an area of strong research interest, Sexuality is distinguished by a complex interaction between anatomic, physiologic, psychological, developmental, relational and cultural factors. Despite the high frequency of sexuality disorders in women, scientists have not placed emphasis on this. The biological and psychological background of women’s sexuality disorder still remains a promising field of research, since the available therapies are fewer than those that are used in male sexual dysfunction. Female sexuality has been studied frequently in women with PCOS and has been based on questionnaires of female’s sexual functionality and serum levels of sex steroid hormones. These studies didn’t take account of the genetic polymorphisms which can be involved in a specific biological background. The interaction of hormones, neurotransmitters and environmental factors is widely accepted in the composition of female’s sexual function but the ways that this interaction happens are still unclear. Thus, the aim of our study was to consider the possible association between the genetic polymorphism of androgen receptor gene and vasopressin receptor gene and female sexuality in women with PCOS. The influence of androgens in female sexuality is a field of intense interest in the scientific community, but the ways this interaction occurs are very complicated. Androgens bind and activate androgen receptors.The androgen receptor gene consists of eight exons and encodes a protein with 919 amino acid residues. Exon 1 of the gene consists of two polymorphic repeat (CAG and GGN) motifs, encoding variable lengths of polyglutamine and polyglycine stretches, respectively. Also, it has been proposed that that the increased length of the CAG repeat should associate with decreased AR activity and hence the disorders related to the reduced androgen actions. Many neuropeptides such as vasopressin, oxytocin, adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) etc, affect sexual behavior in many species. Vasopressin and it’s receptor has been well studied in order to interpret human social and sexual behavior. The genetic polymorphisms of the vasopressin receptor gene has been also associated with altruism, monogamy, pair bonding, musical and dancing ability. The latter reflects primitive social interactions such as ritual movements and vocalization. Vasopressin receptor gene is distinguished by three microsatellites in the 5’ flanking region and a fourth in the single intron. Following the vole studies, attention has been primarily focused on two microsatellites in the promoter region, RS1 {{GATA)14} and RS3 {(CT)4-TT-(CT)8-(GT)24}, which are highly polymorphic. The aim of our study is to investigate the association between the polymorphic CAG region of androgen receptor gene and RS1 polymorphism of vasopressin receptor gene with sexual behavior in women with PCOS. Thus, our study included 40 women with PCOS and 94 healthy women. We performed hormonal analysis, psychometric tests to evaluate their sexual functionality and looked into the association with their genetic characteristics (the number of repeats of polymorphic motifs in their alleles). Our results showed that androgen receptor’s activity is associated with low estrogen levels and high sexual satisfaction in women with PCOS. This indicates that in a state of androgen excess, female sexuality is induced. In the same group of women, we noted an association between high levels of FSH and a high number of repeats of RS1 polymorphism. This suggests a central role of vasopressin receptor in the regulation of ovulation in women with PCOS.

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