This thesis provides an introduction to the subject of Delivery Performance and its measurement. The review shows that non-price factors, especially delivery performance, have become recognised as of major importance in manufacturing business success. Attention is given to the reasons why UK manufacturing companies have such a poor delivery record and the adverse effects which result.
Zkrácení celkové průběžné doby u automobilového výrobce v zájmu zvýšení jeho konkurenceschopnosti. Možný přínos řešení na úrovni Supply Chain Škoda Auto a.s. / Shortening of lead times by an automobile producer in order to increase its competitiveness. Prospective benefit for Skoda Auto Supply Chain.Paclt, Ondřej January 2008 (has links)
Master Thesis studies integrated Supply Chains and their particularities in the automotive industry and searches for ways how to rationalize them. It aims to find means how to make the lead times shorter, with the focus on an automobile producer in an effort to increase its competitiveness. It is geared to identify points in its Supply Chain, where flaws and errors or delays in the process of customer order fulfillment might occur. It also concentrates on the possibility of managing customer demand. The Thesis then investigates circumstances that especially in the automotive do play a role and influence the lead time. Based on the established information and facts it proposes measures that resolve this problem with regard to current trends in the industry and also consider the requirements and expectations of customers buying a new car.
We present and study the current research trends and advances for optimizing assemble-to-order systems with stochastic lead times. Assemble-to-order systems are widely used in several industries, where end products consist of multiple components and are customizable. Manufacturers can offer greater flexibility to their customers by delaying the assembly of the components until after the order is placed. This means they do not keep an inventory of end-products. Only components can be kept in the inventory and assembled upon demand. We compare and contrast different formulations and the features of assemble-to-order systems studied in the literature including system configuration, replenishment policy, lead time type, and demand distribution. Single-period systems, periodic-review systems, and continuous-review systems are considered. Current assumptions, formulations, solutions, and challenges are discussed. / Thesis / Master of Science (MSc)
Comparing waiting times of different stages and grades of bladder cancer in the fast-track at Örebro University HospitalSjöberg, Jonna January 2020 (has links)
Background Waiting times of the fast-track of bladder cancer in Sweden are prolonged compared with set lead times.Aim To investigate if stage and grade of tumor affects waiting times.Method Retrospective single center observational study, Örebro University Hospital, Sweden. All patients who underwent resection of tumor or cystoscopy with biopsy via the fast-track between July 1st 2017 and December 31st 2018 were included, n=119.Result The waiting times of muscle invasive tumors were in general longer than for non-invasive tumors. Referral to TURBT - twelve days (p=0.047), referral to information of diagnosis to patient - seven days (p=0.04) and cystoscopy to TURBT - eleven days (p=0.041.Conclusion MIBC had longer waiting times to most steps of the fast-track. There are conflicting results in previous studies regarding whether extended waiting times result in worse outcomes in those with higher stage and grade of tumors or not. It is known that long waiting times results in higher mortality and psychological stress among the patients why reorganizations at the department should take place.
Over many years the housing industry has been criticised concerning its performance related to factors such as quality and cost. Together with the challenge of improving its capability in meeting individual customers’ needs, by means of effective production, this has resulted in a situation where companies look at other industries, such as manufacturing, in order to industrialise their products and processes. Swedish housing producers are today working towards finding more commonality in products and processes at the same time as the ability to deliver customized product and services is maintained or improved. In some cases this means an increase in central control of the design work carried out in project groups. This thesis presents a study of the design process for housing at a Swedish property developer, JM AB. Interviews have been conducted with three main groups of actors (project leaders, architects and sellers) connected to ten housing developments. A survey has also been sent out to these individuals as well as to other important actors. The main objectives of these investigations were to find out major actors’ attitudes towards the increase in central control of the design work, in general terms as well as in relation to specific design objects (windows, floor plans, bathrooms and basic structure) for the housing projects. The results show that the trend towards more industrialised processes by more structuring and standardising concerning design has had an effect on the design work carried out in project groups. There are positive as well as negative aspects, as well as similarities and differences in attitudes. These differences can be related to different roles as well as to geographical differences. Within this work a triangle has been developed for measuring and comparing different actors’ attitudes. The work further shows that adapting a more holistic view of the design process, by considering it as part of a firm’s product realisation process, could be a base for further developments / QC 20101129
<p>Over many years the housing industry has been criticised concerning its performance related to factors such as quality and cost. Together with the challenge of improving its capability in meeting individual customers’ needs, by means of effective production, this has resulted in a situation where companies look at other industries, such as manufacturing, in order to<i> industrialise</i> their products and processes. Swedish housing producers are today working towards finding more commonality in products and processes at the same time as the ability to deliver customized product and services is maintained or improved. In some cases this means an increase in central control of the design work carried out in project groups.</p><p>This thesis presents a study of the design process for housing at a Swedish property developer, JM AB. Interviews have been conducted with three main groups of actors (project leaders, architects and sellers) connected to ten housing developments. A survey has also been sent out to these individuals as well as to other important actors. The main objectives of these investigations were to find out major actors’ attitudes towards the increase in central control of the design work, in general terms as well as in relation to specific design objects (windows, floor plans, bathrooms and basic structure) for the housing projects.</p><p>The results show that the trend towards more industrialised processes by more structuring and standardising concerning design has had an effect on the design work carried out in project groups. There are positive as well as negative aspects, as well as similarities and differences in attitudes. These differences can be related to different roles as well as to geographical differences. Within this work a <i>triangle</i> has been developed for measuring and comparing different actors’ attitudes. The work further shows that adapting a more holistic view of the design process, by considering it as part of a firm’s product realisation process, could be a base for further developments</p>
01 January 2008
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In this thesis, two-echelon systems with exogenous and endogenous lead times are studied for the orders placed by the retailer(s) from the supplier. The retailer(s) employ periodic-review base-stock policy, namely (R,S) policy. For the case the demand during review period is i.i.d. and the probability distribution is Normal for each review period, a new method is proposed for exogenous lead time case under stationary policy. The results of the proposed method is then compared with the results of the existing methods in the literature and it is concluded that the proposed method provides service levels sufficiently close to target levels whereas the existing methods do not necessarily provide target levels. We use the simulation to study the endogenous replenishment lead time case. The proposed method is modified when the retailer employs stationary policy and it is seen that the proposed method gives no-stockout probabilities close to target levels. Moreover, the impacts of using adaptive policy on the performance of the retailer are studied for endogenous replenishment lead time case. It is concluded that updating of the order-up-to-level deteriorates the performance of the retailer. Finally, it is questioned whether it is beneficial for a retailer to use adaptive policy in a supply chain with two retailers. Simulation results show that the deterioration in the performance of the retailer handling stationary policy is larger compared to the other retailer handling adaptive policy and the deteriorations get larger in the case of an increase in update frequency or in utilization of the supplier.
Hälsoekonomisk utvärdering av ett nytt arbetssätt för behandling av knäskador : En studie gjord på ortopedkliniken på Länssjukhuset i Kalmar / Health-economic evaluation of a new work procedure for treatment of knee injuries : A study at the orthopedic clinic at the County Hospital in KalmarLeku, Faton, Perikala, Louis January 2017 (has links)
Bakgrund: Kostnadsökningen inom hälso- och sjukvården har varit ett stort problem sedan 1980-talet och kommer att fortsätta vara ett problem i framtiden. Det har lett till en mer ansträngd ekonomisk situation som hälso- och sjukvården fått förhålla sig till. Därför är det av stor vikt att de disponibla medel som finns inom hälso- och sjukvården allokeras till de områden där de skapar som mest nytta. Syfte: Syftet med studien är att göra en hälsoekonomisk utvärdering av ett nytt arbetssätt för behandling av knäskador på ortopedkliniken på Länssjukhuset i Kalmar. Metodval: Studien är utformad som en utvärderingsstudie med en abduktiv utgångspunkt. Datainsamlingen har skett utifrån semistrukturerade intervjuer på LSK med personal som är involverad i projektet. Utöver de semistrukturerade intervjuerna har även numeriska data utgjort en del av studiens empiri. Slutsats: Efter genomförd studie kan vi konstatera att fler hälsoekonomiska utvärderingar behövs på icke-nationella nivåer för att stödja verksamheter inom hälso- och sjukvården. Det är viktigt att det aktivt arbetas med effektiviseringsarbeten inom offentliga verksamheter som främst finansieras av skattemedel. Vi kan även konstatera att det nya arbetssättet är mer lönsamt än det gamla både monetärt och icke-monetärt där förändringen bidragit med flera vinningar som exempelvis kortare ledtider, bättre samarbete och utökad kompetens. / Background: The cost increase in healthcare has been a major problem since the 1980s and will continue to be a problem in the future. This has led to a more strained economic situation for the healthcare sector. Therefore, it is of the utmost importance that the available funds in the healthcare sector are allocated to the areas where they are most beneficial. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to make a health-economic evaluation of a new work procedure for the treatment of knee injuries at the orthopedic clinic at Kalmar’s County Hospital. Method: The study is designed as an evaluation study with an abductive outset. The data collection has been based on semi-structured interviews at LSK with the staff that was involved in the project. In addition to the semi-structured interviews, numerical data has also been part of the study for the empirical data collection. Conclusion: After completion of the study, we can state that more health-economic evaluations are needed at non-national levels to support healthcare organisations. It is important to actively work with efficiency initiatives in public organisations that are primarily funded by tax assets. We can also state that the new work procedure is more profitable than the old one, both monetary and non-monetary, where the change of work procedure has resulted in several non-monetary gains, such as shorter lead times, better cooperation and increased competence.
Planification des réapprovisionnements sous incertitudes pour les systèmes d’assemblage à plusieurs niveaux / Replenishment planning under uncertainty for multi-level assembly systemsBen Ammar, Oussama 09 October 2014 (has links)
Dans le contexte actuel marqué par l’instabilité des marchés, les clients sont de plus en plus exigeants. un client qui n’est pas approvisionné à une date souhaitée peut soit remettre son achat à plus tard, soit aller chercher le produit chez un concurrent. de plus, l’entreprise doit faire face à de multiples imprévisibilités internes, de la concurrence ou d’événements extérieurs. ces aléas induisent de l'incertitude dans la planification de la production et génèrent des sources nombreuses de retard, de désynchronisation et de pertes de productivité. ce travail de thèse s’intègre dans la problématique de la planification de la production dans un environnement incertain. nous étudions des problèmes de la planification des réapprovisionnements pour un système d’assemblage à plusieurs niveaux, quand les délais d’approvisionnement sont incertains. nous avons choisi comme indicateur de performance l’espérance du coût total moyen qui est égal à la somme du coût de stockage des composants, le coût de rupture du produit fini et le coût de stockage du produit fini. des propriétés théoriques, des modèles analytiques ainsi que des méthodes d’optimisation ont été proposés. nous avons montré que la résolution du problème ne dépend pas seulement de la méthode de résolution et du nombre de niveaux, mais aussi du coût de rupture en produit fini et de la structure du système d’assemblage. / In the current industrial context, the offer is largely higher than the demand. Therefore, the customers are more and more exigent. To distance themselves, companies need to offer to their customers the best quality products, the best costs, and with controlled lead times as short as possible. Last years, the struggle for reducing costs was accentuated within companies. However, stocks represent an important financial asset, and therefore, it is essential to control them. In addition, a bad management of stocks led either to delays in delivery, which generate additional production costs, either to the unnecessary inventory. The latter one can occur at different levels (from components at the last level to finished product), it costs money and immobilize funds. That is why, planners have to look for efficient methods of production and supply planning, to know exactly for each component, and when to order and in which quantity.The aim of this doctoral thesis is to investigate the supply planning in an uncertain environment. We are interested in a replenishment planning for multi-level assembly systems under a fixed demand and uncertainty of components lead times.We consider that each component has a fixed unit inventory cost; the finished product has an inventory cost and a backlogging cost per unit of time. Then, a general mathematical model for replenishment planning of multi-level assembly systems, genetic algorithm and branch and bound method are presented to calculate and to optimize the expected value of the total cost which equals to the sum of the inventory holding costs for the components, the backlogging and the inventory holding costs for the finished product. We can state by the different results that the convergence of the GA doesn't depend only on the number of components in the last level but also on the number of levels, the type of the BOM and the backlogging cost for the finished product.
Processanalys av Scanias mjukvaruutveckling för drivlinan / Analysis of the software powertrain development process at ScaniaWisén Svanström, Sofie, Tiger, Jenny January 2014 (has links)
Scanias nuvarande mjukvaruprocess upplevs, i många fall, vara onödigt lång från det att en idé har genererats tills att den har lanserats på marknaden. För att konkurrera på marknaden är det viktigt att erbjuda nya tjänster och ny avancerad fordonsstyrning som snabbt ska kunna sättas i produktion. För att säkerställa att mjukvaran uppfyller de uppsatta kvalitet- och säkerhetskraven används inarbetade processer däribland den så kallade Embedded Release Process. Dock är denna process inte alltid till hjälp för utvecklingen och kan medföra lång "time-to-market". Syftet med detta examensarbete var att utreda Scanias nuvarande utvecklingsprocess av mjukvara med avseende på ledtider, eftersom det idag råder frågetecken om huruvida processen är tidsmässigt optimerad från idé tills att den når kund. De metoder som har använts för att angripa de uppställda frågeställningarna har bestått mestadels av kvalitativa forskningsmetoder så som litteraturstudie, värdeflödesanalys, fallstudie, benchmarking samt workshop. Såsom ett komplement till den kvalitativa forskningen har statistik tillämpats i fallstudien. Värdeflödesanalysen visade på många överlämningar inom organisationen, centraliserad beslutsfattning samt att flödet sker sekventiellt. Vidare utfördes en fallstudie på två mjukvaruprojekt med olika karaktär. Efter analys av de både projekten identifierades mestadels olikheter, där framgångsfaktorerna för det ena fallet kan tillämpas på framtida projekt. Även ett benchmarkingbesök på företaget Maquet har skett vilket påvisade underlag för att de långa ledtiderna i Scanias mjukvaruutveckling kan reduceras. Slutligen utfördes en omfattande workshop med representanter från olika mjukvaruavdelningar där slöserier inom mjukvaruutvecklingen fastställdes. Examensarbetets forskningsmetoder har sammantaget visat på att det finns inneboende ledtider som är obefogade för rena mjukvaruprojekt. De processer som tillämpas idag är inte behovsstyrda och flexibla som mjukvaruutvecklingen erfordrar. Om dessa ledtider skulle optimerats utifrån examensarbetets rekommendationer skulle de nya funktionerna kunnat nå marknaden tidigare. Sökord: mjukvaruutveckling, Scania, process, kvalitet, effektivitet, ledtider, slöserier, testning. / The current software lead times at Scania are perceived, in many cases, as unnecessary long. Companies within the automotive industry nowadays have to deliver advanced automotive control systems in a rapid pace to be able to compete on the market. At Scania, there are well established processes, including the so called Embedded Release Process, ensuring that the original demands for quality and safety are met by the software. However this process seems not to have an approach where the "pull" comes from the demand. The current software development process is questioned whether this process, from its idea until it is launched, is time optimized. The main purpose of this master thesis was therefore to investigate the current software development process focusing on lead times. In order to address the stated issues, in the introduction chapter, the master thesis have utilized mostly qualitative research methods. A selection of the chosen methods and tools have been; literature study, value stream analysis, case study, benchmarking, workshop and statistics. The value stream analysis highlighted several handovers within the organisation of Scania, centralized decision-making and a process based on numerous sequential activities. Further on, the case study was performed on two software development projects with various characteristics. Through the analysis of the specific cases mostly differences were identified, where the success factors for one of the cases could be learned from for the future projects. Furthermore a benchmarking was conducted at the company Maquet which showed on potential improvements regarding the software lead times at Scania. Finally a comprehensive workshop was organised involving representatives from various departments within software development at Scania. The last mentioned resulted in many concrete examples of waste hidden in the current software development process. This master thesis’ research has altogether showed on intrinsic lead times not adapted to software projects exclusively. The nature of software development calls for flexibility and a process that will satisfy the rapidly changing customer needs of today. This has proven not to be the case with the current applied processes. Lastly, an optimization of the intrinsic lead times, based on the recommendations of this report, is believed to result in an earlier market introduction for the software. Keywords: software development, Scania, process, quality, efficiency, lead times, waste, testing.
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