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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Osäkerhet i energisimuleringar av flerbostadshus : Analys av fem nybyggnationer / Uncertainty in Energy Simulations of Multi-family Dwellings

Carlsson, Johan January 2012 (has links)
Since energy simulations are used to verify that projected residential buildings will reach the current energy requirements it is important that the results are reliable.This report investigates the extent of uncertainty in energy simulations, estimates the causes of the uncertainty and its economic and environmental consequences. The method used in this report is based on three validation methods; empirical validation, analytical validation and comparative validation. The analysis was carried out for five multi-family dwellings in Uppsala with installed meters for energy measurements. One of these objects, Klockarlunden, was studied in more detail than the others. The results show that the deviations are between 10 and 29% for the studied objects, which means that the uncertainty is estimated to be at least 29%. All simulations underestimate the buildings need of energy. The simulation for Klockarlunden can predict the energy consumption to be within the range of 46-98 kWh/m2year with 90% confidence level based on the current uncertainty. The range equals a standard deviation of 28% of the mean. The origin of the uncertainty for the studied objects was shown to be due to weak estimations of hot water consumption, ventilation flow rates, leakage and household electricity. The consequences of the difference between simulated and measured energy consumption can be translated to SEK 8.5 million and 4.5 thousand tons of carbon emissions over the estimated economic lifespan of the buildings.
2

Kartläggning av orsaker till skillnad mellan beräknad och uppmätt energianvändning i byggnader. : Identifiering av prioriterade arbetsområden inom energisimulering och energiuppföljning.

Solmaz, Emrah January 2015 (has links)
As a result of high energy use in buildings, the rules for energy conservation has, since 2006, become stricter in Sweden. Today, it must be verified that buildings meet the requirements of specific energy consumption (energy consumption per square meter heated floor area), with a calculation of the energy performance in a simulation program and by measuring the energy performance when the building is done. This in addition to the requirement that the average coefficient of thermal transmittance and the installed electrical power, for electrically heated buildings, must be calculated at the design stage. It is, however, often noted that the result of the calculations and measurements differ from each other, and that the measured values ​​often are higher than those calculated. In collaboration with NCC and Mälardalens University, an investigation was made in which the calculated and measured values ​​of energy were examined for a number of apartment buildings, schools and sports halls, to identify causes of difference, and to identify priority areas of work within, above all , energy simulation and energy follow-ups. It turned out that the difference is largely influenced by the type of the building, as it differed between apartment buildings, schools and sports halls. In addition, the amount of window area turned out to have impact on the results, as it allows for more airing, which is a factor that is very difficult to anticipate for the simulations. The windows ability to let in sunlight is another factor that is hard to anticipate. Furthermore, it was discovered that the standard values for the assumed energy consumption for domestic hot water is often too high. In some cases the assumed heated floor area and the assumed outdoor climate data differed between calculations and measurements. It also happens that heat losses from culvert pipes to the ground is not taken into account when calculations are done. As for priority areas of work, judging by the results of this work, better behavior related input data and standard values ​​for, above all, energy consumption for hot water needs to be developed. There has to be more diligence when ensuring that there are same conditions for calculations and measurements, and this could mean that those who perform the calculation may need to be assigned more responsibility over the measuring work. In addition, the follow-up work must be envisaged in the long term, which means that the number of registers should be sufficient to distinguish the different parameters, that consumes energy, apart to make it possible to learn from the over-/underestimation, and base future input and standard values ​​on it. This may mean that the simulation-/measure-work should not be limited only to comply with applicable laws, but it should be ensured that follow-up work can be done in such a way that it helps to improve the future work of simulations and measurements of energy use in buildings.
3

Energieffektivisering av en äldre byggnad : Fallstudie på Andra Magasinsgatan i Gävle

Olsson, Sofia, Karlsson, Ingela January 2016 (has links)
Syftet med denna rapport är att ta fram ett kostnadseffektivt sätt att energieffektivisera en äldre byggnad i Gävle utifrån Gävle kommuns restriktioner avseende fysisk och estetisk ändring. Detta då miljöproblemen på senare tid har blivit ett stort hot mot vår värld och det arbetas dagligen med att stoppa dessa och den växthuseffekt som dessa problem bidrar till. Bostadssektorn står för nästan en tredjedel av all energianvändning, vilket är en stor del av växthusutsläppen. För att minska energianvändningen och därmed bidra till att dämpa växthuseffekten går det att energieffektivisera byggnader. I den här fallstudien har litteraturstudier, besiktningar, mätningar, undersökningar, beräkningar och simuleringar gjorts för att få fram ett resultat. Byggnadens historia har även undersökts och detaljplanen för Gävle stad är granskad för att kontrollera om det finns begränsningar avseende fysisk eller estetisk ändring på grund av speciella bevarandekrav. Det finns dock inga begränsningar enligt detaljplanen eller kommunens bevarandekrav, så därför har Boverkets Byggregler med varsamhetskravet följts under framtagandet av resultatet. Den åtgärd som är mest kostnadseffektiv och mest energieffektiv i denna fallstudie är att kombinera tre sätt; att tilläggsisolera ytterväggarna invändigt, att tilläggsisolera vindsbjälklaget samt att byta de befintliga ytterdörrarna till nya dörrar som både är tätare och har bättre U-värden. / The purpose of this report is to propose a cost-effective way of improving energy efficiency in an old building in Gävle based on Gävle municipality's restrictions on physical and aesthetic changes. This is due to the fact that environmental problems in recent times have become a major threat to our world, and there are daily efforts aiming at curbing these and the greenhouse effect they contribute to. The housing sector stands for almost a third of all energy consumption, which is a large part of greenhouse gas emissions. To reduce energy consumption and thereby help to mitigate the greenhouse effect, energy efficiency can be improved in buildings. In this case study, literature reviews, inspections, surveys, studies, calculations and simulations have been executed in order to reach a result. The history of the building has also been investigated and the zoning of Gävle city has been studied to determine whether or not there exists restrictions regarding physical or aesthetic alterations due to special preservation requirements. However, since no restrictions existed according to the zoning or the preservation requirements of the municipality, the building regulations of the National Board of Housing, Building and Planning with the caution requirement have been followed carefully during the development of the study. The most cost effective and energy effective measure to take in this case study is to combine three types; to provide additional insulation to the inside of the exterior walls, to provide additional insulation to the attic as well as to replace the external doors with new doors that are both tighter and have better U-values.
4

Analys av energianvändningen i kvarteren Carolina och Jenny : en fallstudie

Almberg, Stina, Michel, Gabriella January 2010 (has links)
<p>An energy study has been performed on two blocks in an area called Gävle Strand. The buildings are owned by a tenant-owner’s association called brf Carolina and were built by the company Skanska 2008. The builder as well as brf Carolina are pussled by the fact that electricity use is higher than expected while heating is less. Skanska is also very interested in finding out how much heat recovery from stale exhaust air through a geo-thermal heat pump is contributing to the general heating requirement and energy balance in four out of the ten buildings located on the properties.</p><p>To find possible answers to the higher electricity use a literature survey on user behaviour was conducted. Simulations were executed in the energy simulation program BV2 testing the efficiency of a mechanical ventilation system with fans dispatching the used stale air with heat recovery through the geo-thermal heat pump in comparison to a HRV-system. As BV2 can’t simulate heat pumps its impact was instead calculated manually and added to the result from BV2.</p><p>The result show that there are significant differences in both water and electricity use between households. The mean value in brf Carolina is also higher for both water and electricity use than the typical pattern value most commonly used in energy simulations for new buildings. The simulations and calculations show that a HRV-system is practically equal to the system chosen for these buildings. The geo-thermal heat pump make a substantial contribution to the heating requirements but also increases the electricity use in comparison to the HRV-system.</p><p>The buildings over all have a good energy performance. The chosen heat recovery system is working well. If the source for energy is also valued a HRV-system is still preferable since it requires less electricity.In regards to user behaviour the under floor heating installed in the bathrooms and operated by the occupants is very likely to have a substantial impact on the higher than average electricity use. There are however many other factors that could have an impact on energy use due to behaviour factors. This is also a factor when varations between households are viewed.</p><p>Key words; energy, energy simulation, user behaviour</p>
5

Analys av energianvändningen i kvarteren Carolina och Jenny : en fallstudie

Almberg, Stina, Michel, Gabriella January 2010 (has links)
An energy study has been performed on two blocks in an area called Gävle Strand. The buildings are owned by a tenant-owner’s association called brf Carolina and were built by the company Skanska 2008. The builder as well as brf Carolina are pussled by the fact that electricity use is higher than expected while heating is less. Skanska is also very interested in finding out how much heat recovery from stale exhaust air through a geo-thermal heat pump is contributing to the general heating requirement and energy balance in four out of the ten buildings located on the properties. To find possible answers to the higher electricity use a literature survey on user behaviour was conducted. Simulations were executed in the energy simulation program BV2 testing the efficiency of a mechanical ventilation system with fans dispatching the used stale air with heat recovery through the geo-thermal heat pump in comparison to a HRV-system. As BV2 can’t simulate heat pumps its impact was instead calculated manually and added to the result from BV2. The result show that there are significant differences in both water and electricity use between households. The mean value in brf Carolina is also higher for both water and electricity use than the typical pattern value most commonly used in energy simulations for new buildings. The simulations and calculations show that a HRV-system is practically equal to the system chosen for these buildings. The geo-thermal heat pump make a substantial contribution to the heating requirements but also increases the electricity use in comparison to the HRV-system. The buildings over all have a good energy performance. The chosen heat recovery system is working well. If the source for energy is also valued a HRV-system is still preferable since it requires less electricity.In regards to user behaviour the under floor heating installed in the bathrooms and operated by the occupants is very likely to have a substantial impact on the higher than average electricity use. There are however many other factors that could have an impact on energy use due to behaviour factors. This is also a factor when varations between households are viewed. Key words; energy, energy simulation, user behaviour
6

Energikartläggning av Masurgårdens förskola : Åtgärder och dess potentiella energi- och kostnadsbesparing

Lindberg, Joakim January 2014 (has links)
Arbetet syftar till att åskådliggöra energianvändningen i Masurgårdens förskola samt kontrollera om fastighetens energisystem används optimalt. Kartläggningen syftar till att förse fastighetsägaren med beslutsunderlag för framtida investeringskalkyler och energi-besparingsåtgärder.En modell av fastigheten skapades i energisimuleringsprogrammet IDA ICE, klimat-skalet återskapades från konstruktionsritningar, belysning och personbelastning inven-terades på plats. Resterande indata var baserat på nyckeltal från tidigare studier och schablonvärden.Simuleringsresultaten visar att fastigheten inte är i behov av några större investeringar i energibesparande åtgärder. Men det konstateras att en årlig energibesparing på 5308 kWh (5,6 %) är möjlig genom en sänkning av uteluftsflöde under vintermånaderna och genom att byta ut radiatortermostaterna mot nya. Åtgärderna leder även till en förbättring av inomhusmiljön och tros minska problemen med torra slemhinnor under vintermånaderna hos brukarna. / This work aims to illustrate the use of energy in Masurgårdens förskola and verify that the property's energy is used optimally. The survey seeks to provide the landlord with decision support for future investment calculations and energy saving measures.A model of the building is created in the energy simulation program IDA ICE, the building envelope was recreated from the buildings blueprints, lighting and personal load was inventoried. The remaining input data were taken from previous studies or from standard values.Simulation results show that the building is not in need of significant investment in energy saving measures. But it is found that annual energy savings of 5308 kWh (5.6%) is possible by lowering the outdoor airflow during winter months and by replacing the radiator thermostats with new ones. The measures also leads to an improvement of indoor environment and is believed to reduce the problem with mucosal dryness on the buildings occupants during the winter months.
7

Kalibrering och validering mot uppmätt data med hjälp av IDA ICE : En fallstudie av miljonprogrammets flerbostadshus

Köyluoglu, Idris, Moalin, Hussein January 2020 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is to create an energy simulated model with IDA ICE (IDA Indoor, Climate and Energy) of a multy – family apartment located in Andersberg, Gävle and then validate the model against measured district heating. The model will be used in future renovations by the property owner AB Gavlegårdarna and involved consultants to investigate energy savings measures. The district of Andersberg is located 4 kilometers south of Gävle City. The studied construction is a five-floor multi-family residential building with about 50 apartments. It was built under the Swedish Million Programme which had its constructing period during 1965 – 1974 century. These buildings need renovation and energy efficiency. Sweden has implemented several goals, including reducing the total energy use per unit of floor space in residential and commercial buildings with 50 % until 2050. In order to execute this study, a preliminary investigation, site visits, measurements, literature study, calculations and energy simulation were accomplished. The research method that is used for this thesis is a case study used by simulation of a building where a calibrated model against measured data for energy use is created. By calibrating simulation models, it gives a better model that matching the real building operating performance. An energy signature method performed by Martin Eriksson, who is a postgraduate of energy systems, is used to validate the building loss factor. The calibrated model can later be used to identify and estimate energy saving measures. An evidence-based method is applied to maintain choice of important data for build energy simulation. These selections are used for input parameters when creating the model and are based on the priority order in a defined source hierarchy. The results of the study achieved where not to pass a difference of 10 % between simulated result and measured data. The simulated needed district heating energy for the building deviate only with 5 % against district heating energy received from Gävle Energi. The buildings facility electricity and household electricity were taken from energy declaration for the building and Svebys standardized values for using calibrating. It is resulting a difference with 7 % respective 1.2 % between simulated and calibrating data.
8

Energieffektivisering utav Centralgaraget i Vitåfors

Songsong, Marcus January 2024 (has links)
LKAB är ett företag som satsar på att minimera sin klimatpåverkan bland annat genom att elektrifiering och energieffektivisering av deras anläggningar. Centralgaraget på Malmberget är en fastighet byggd 1958 som huserar en rad olika fordon så som bilar och bussar men även har verkstäder och kontor.  Syftet med arbetet har varit att ge underlag åt LKAB för möjliga investeringar i åtgärder för energieffektivisering och förbättring av inomhusklimat. Genom att först bygga en energimodell av byggnaden och sedan simulera olika förslag samt att beräkna dessa ekonomiskt kunde underlaget skapas.  Med givna data från LKAB för fjärrvärmeförbrukningen mellan åren 2018 och 2023 togs ett min-, medel- och maxvärde på års- och månadsbasis. Intervallet blev 292 −574 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 och medelvärdet 412 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟. Basfallet som gjordes för att efterlikna verkligheten hade en simulerad fjärrvärmeförbrukning på 540 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟. Förbrukningen för de simulerade förslagen kan delas upp i tre grupper. Den första gruppen är de med variabel flödesventilation (VAV) i hallarna och verkstäderna samt en simulering med VAV i hela byggnaden som fick värdena 395 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 respektive 386 𝑀𝑊/å𝑟ℎ. Andra gruppen var byte av fönster till ett genomsnittligt värmegenomgångstal på 𝑈 = 0,9 𝑊𝑚2𝐾  och tillägget av markiser vilka hade 532 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 för byte av fönster och 527 𝑀𝑊ℎ för tillägget av markiser. Sista gruppen var simuleringarna med golvvärme i garaget med effekten per kvadratmeter 20 ,40  samt 40 i kombination med befintliga fläktaggregat. Dessa hade en förbrukning på 550 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟, 580 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 samt 586 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟. Elförbrukningen kunde grupperas likadant som för fjärrvärmeförbrukningen där värdet var 99 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 för Basfallet och en variation mellan 59 − 99 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 för resten av simuleringarna. Enligt offert från Frico AB var besparingen i 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 mellan 10,6 − 16,2 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 per aggregat beroende på vilken hall som de var installerade i. Elkedjans solcellskalkylator gav en elproduktion på 43𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 Inomhusklimatet evaluerades efter Fangers modell där PPD värdet varierade mellan 18 − 23% där simuleringarna med Markiser och VAV i hela byggnaden hade bäst värden och byte av fönster det dåligaste.  Baserat på resultaten simulerades två kombinationsförslag där den ena hade VAV i hallarna och markiser medan det andra också hade golvvärme. Dessa hade fjärrvärmeförbrukningen och PPD värde 410 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 och 19% respektive 440 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 och 17%. Elförbrukningen var 46 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 respektive 61 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟. De ekonomiska kalkylerna visade att luftridåerna hade en återbetalningstid på 10 −15 år och en internränta mellan 1 − 13%. Samtliga förslag förutom solpaneler och fönsterbyte var positiva investeringar med en återbetalningstid mellan 1,3 − 8 år och en internränta mellan 9 − 51%. Rekommendationen till LKAB blev att investera i luftridåer i fyra utav hallarna samt att implementera VAV i hallarna, lägga till markiser och börja använda golvvärmen. Energiförbrukningen för detta fall ger en minskning på 153 𝑀𝑊ℎ/å𝑟 relativt Basfallet exklusive luftridåerna och har det bästa inomhusklimatet. Återbetalningstiden för detta är 1,6 år med en internränta på 14%. Detta fall ger en både det bästa inomhusklimatet samt en relativt stor energibesparing.
9

Energisimulering i modulhus : Fallstudie för uppskattning av energiprestanda och därefter energieffektivisera enligt passivhusstandaren

Aljaberi, Saif, Majeed, Aram January 2019 (has links)
Abstract The Building sector is today an important sector in our society, which means that more people move from the urban area to the big cities, which in turn increases building production. The building and service sector is the largest energy waste in Sweden and internationally, which is about 40% of Sweden's total energy use and 60% of that energy goes to heating. The EU Directive Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD), implemented the concept of near zero-energy houses, which comes into full force in 2020, which means that all newly-built buildings must be energy-efficient with better energy performance than todays buildings. This is in connection with the need of houses/buildings and rental costs continuing to increase. For this reason, Ljusbo Hyreshus AB has invented a solution that includes both climatesmart rental apartments and cheap rental costs, which has attracted more than 20 communes (kommuner in Sweden) to offer land for these apartments. The purpose of this thesis is to find out the energy performance of one of Ljusbo Hyreshus AB's prototype module houses. Furthermore, improvement proposals would be developed to make the module house more energy efficient. The prototype house consisted of a single-storey modularhouse that stay in Söderhamn, which has been chosen in this thesis for further investigations. The house had a total area of 45 m2 and consisted of 3 rooms and kitchen. In this case study, the energy performance has been developed using analysis methods in the form of hand calculations and the energy signature method. Subsequently, the result of the analysis would be validated and would form the basis for later identification of various energy efficiency measures that contributed to the reduction of energy performance in the house and thereby achieved the passive house standard. The result shows that the modularhouse does not fullfil BBR's requirements at present, because the house misses important components which is important for energy performance. For this reason, improvement proposals, specifically regarding the climate shell, on energy efficiency measures have been developed in this report. With the help of these energy efficiency measures, which mainly consist of additional insulation and energy-efficient windows and with an energy-efficient ventilation system with heat recovery (FTX) and an installed air-water heat pump, the passive house standard has been possible to achieve. Future measures, such as the installation of solar cells, have also been examined in the report. This is due to converting the building from a passive house to a plus energy house.
10

Energisimulering av byggnadertidigt i projekteringsfasen : En utvärdering av Energy Analysis som verktyg för hållbar byggnadsdesign / Energy simulation of buildings in an early design phase : An evaluation of Energy Analysis as a tool for sustainable building design

Knutsson, Tobias January 2015 (has links)
Dagens samhälle står idag inför en stor utmaning, nämligen att minska dess påverkan påmiljön. EU har satt upp riktlinjer mot en mer hållbar utveckling, vilket Sverige beslutat attfölja, där ett mål varit att energianvändningen 2020 ska ha minskat med 20 % jämfört med år2008. År 2021 införs krav på att alla nybyggnationer minst ska uppfylla näranollenergihuskrav.Detta medför ett större ansvar på projektörer att skapa underlag förenergieffektivare byggnader.Den tidiga designprocessen av byggnader kännetecknas av en initiativrik process där mångabeslut fattas på kort tid. De tidiga besluten som berör byggnadsutformningen har enbetydande roll för hur stora energibehov den färdiga produkten kommer att få. Energibehovetpåverkar både byggnadens livscykelkostnad och dess miljöpåverkan. Den här studien ärinriktad på energisimuleringar tidigt i projekteringsprocessen vars syfte är att skapadesigndrivande underlag till beslut rörande byggnadsutformning.Autodesk Revit har ett integrerat verktyg, Energy Analysis, som gör energisimuleringar avBIM-modellen i programmet. Verktyget är framtaget för att göra snabba energisimuleringarsom ska fungera som beslutsunderlag vid projektering mot hållbara byggnadsdesigner. Måletmed studien var att kartlägga beräkningarnas tillförlitlighet och resultatens användbarhet försvenska arkitekter. Utifrån en CAD-fil på ett hus från Klara arkitektbyrå gjordes simuleringari Energy Analysis som jämfördes med samma hus skapat Strusofts VIP-Energy.Resultaten visar att programmen redovisar olika utdata där vissa ej är jämförbara. Jämförelserav transmissionen i de båda programmen visar dock att beräkningsmotorn i Energy Analysisger rimliga resultat. Programmen räknar förhållandevis lika på solinstrålning genom fönster,dock finns det en svaghet hos Energy Analysis när de räknar på fönster med solskydd.Av resultaten dras en slutsats att Energy Analysis gör tillräckligt noggranna beräkningar föratt kunna användas tidigt i projekteringen. Verktyget behöver dock utvecklas och anpassa enversion för svenska förhållanden och normer för att det ska bli användbart i Sverige, vilketredovisas i ett förslag till produktutveckling i rapporten. / Today's society is facing a major challenge, namely to reduce its impact on the environment.The EU has set guidelines towards a more sustainable development, something in whichSweden has decided to comply; where the goal has been to minimize energy consumptionwith 20 % until 2020 compared to the consumption in 2008. In 2021, a requirement will beintroduced. It says that all new buildings in the EA must be “Nearly zero energy buildings” atleast. This implies a greater responsibility on the drafters to create the basis for energyefficient buildings.The early design process of buildings is characterized by a proactive process where manydecisions are made during a short amount time. Early decisions taken regarding the design ofa building affects its total need of energy when the house is put into use. Energy demandsaffects both the building life cycle cost and environmental impact. This study focuses onenergy simulations early in the design process that aims to create design driven basis fordecisions regarding building design.Autodesk Revit has an integrated tool, Energy Analysis, which allows energy simulations ofthe BIM model in the program. The tool is designed to make quick energy simulations thatcan provide a basis for planning the sustainable building designs. The goal of the study was toidentify the reliability of the calculations and usefulness of the results for Swedish architects.Based on a CAD file of a house from Klara arkitketbyrå(architectural firm) simulations weremade in Energy Analysis and then compared to simulations in StruSoft´s VIP Energy.The results show that the programs present different outputs in which some are notcomparable. Comparisons of conductivity in both of the programs show that the calculationengine in the Energy Analysis provides reasonable results. The programs estimate the solarradiation through the windows relatively similar; however, there is a weakness in the EnergyAnalysis as to how it calculates when the window is shaded by sunshields.By the results a conclusion has been drawn that the Energy Analysis allows sufficientlyaccurate calculations to be used early in the design process. The tool needs to be developedand customize a version for Swedish conditions and standards for it to be useful in Sweden, asreported in a suggestion for product development in the report.

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