• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 20
  • 6
  • 5
  • 1
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 33
  • 33
  • 19
  • 19
  • 8
  • 7
  • 6
  • 6
  • 5
  • 4
  • 4
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Tethering of goats in Tanzania : purpose, and implications with special reference to effects on grazing behaviour and intake

Sendalo, David Stanley Chambo January 1995 (has links)
No description available.
2

Effects of feeding different vegetal fat sources to increase conjugated linoleic acid in milk of small ruminants and interaction with fibrolytic enzymes

Bouattour, M. Amine 28 February 2007 (has links)
El objetivo principal de la presente tesis doctoral fue estudiar la posibilidad de mejorar la calidad nutritiva de la leche de oveja y de cabra, y en particular la concentración de ácido linoleico conjugado (CLA) mediante la incorporación de diferentes fuentes de lípidos vegetales a la ración.El primer capitulo fue realizado para investigar los efectos de la suplementación con Semillas Enteras de Lino (WLS) o de Aceite de Lino (LSO) sobre la producción y composición de leche, así como el perfil de ácidos grasos (AG) de leche y queso. Las concentraciones de AG de cadena media y de AG saturados fueron más bajas, y las de AG insaturados y de cadena larga más altas en la leche de los tratamientos con lino. El ácido alfa-linolénico aumentó más con la semilla que con el aceite, mientras que el CLA (ácido ruménico, RA) aumentó más con el aceite que con la semilla. En paralelo, el ácido trans-11 vaccénico (TVA) aumentó únicamente con el aceite. De manera general, la composición en AG de quesos curados (60 días de maduración) fue similar a la de la leche del correspondiente tratamiento experimental.En el segundo capítulo se utilizaron 24 ovejas de raza Lacaune para estudiar los efectos de las semillas enteras de cártamo (WSF) sobre la producción y composición de leche, así como sobre su perfil de AG, en particular CLA. En la leche producida por el grupo WSF, las concentraciones de AG de cadena larga y de AG insaturados fueron más altas, mientras que las de AG de cadena corta y de AG saturados fueron más bajas. Las concentraciones de CLA (RA) y de TVA en leche fueron mayores en el grupo WSF.En el tercer capítulo, se realizaron dos ensayos experimentales con el objetivo de estudiar los efectos de la inclusión del aceite de soja (SBO) y de un complejo de enzimas fibrolíticas (E) sobre la digestibilidad de los nutrientes de la ración y la producción y composición de leche. Cuando SBO se utilizó solo, no tuvo consecuencias sobre las digestibilidades de MS, MO y FND. El tratamiento E incrementó las digestibilidades de MS, MO y FND. Sin embargo, cuando fueron utilizados conjuntamente (SBO+E) el aceite de soja anuló las mejoras ofrecidas por E. En el experimento de ordeño, las concentraciones de ácido oleico, TVA, linoleico y CLA fueron más altas por efecto del aceite, con respuestas más evidentes en raza Lacaune que en Manchega. La adición de enzimas incrementó la producción de leche. El cuarto capítulo consistió en un experimento llevado a cabo con 24 cabras Murciano-Granadinas con el objeto de estudiar los efectos de la suplementación con SBO sobre la producción y composición de leche, y su perfil de AG, especialmente de CLA y de TVA. La concentración de AG de cadena corta y media en leche se redujo, mientras que la de AG de cadena larga aumentó. SBO redujo el ratio de AG saturados/insaturados así como el índice de aterogenicidad. Comparado con el control, las concentraciones de CLA y TVA en la leche fueron triplicadas por efecto del aceite de soja.En conclusión, los lípidos de origen vegetal incrementaron el CLA (RA) y el ácido trans-11 vaccénico, obteniéndose los incrementos más altos con la utilización de aceites vegetales, especialmente con aceite de soja en ovejas de raza Lacaune o en cabras Murciano-Granadinas. Por el contrario, las semillas enteras de lino permitieron un mayor aumento del ácido alfa-linolénico, de tipo n-3. A la dosis utilizada, el aceite de soja no afectó la digestibilidad de la fibra, pero anuló el efecto positivo de las enzimas observado sobre la digestibilidad. / The present Doctoral Thesis was carried out to study the possibility of enhance the nutritive quality of sheep and goat milk using the incorporation of different sources of vegetal fat to the diet.The first experiment was performed to investigate the effects of feeding whole linseed (WLS) or linseed oil (LSO) to dairy ewes on lactational performance, milk and cheese fatty acids profile and CLA content. Short chain fatty acids (FA) remained unchanged while medium chain and saturated FA were decreased and large chain and unsaturated FA (including mono and poly-unsaturated FA) were increased by WLS and LSO. Feeding WLS was more useful on increasing milk alpha-linolenic acid content, while feeding LSO allowed a higher increase of rumenic acid. Similarly, trans-11 C18:1 (trans vaccenic acid or TVA), precursor of CLA, was only increased by LSO. Except for short chain FA, the FA profile of 60-d-old cheeses made from milk of the ewes receiving the experimental treatments was similar to the FA profile of the milk.In the second study, a total of 24 Lacaune dairy ewes at 49±7 DIM were used to study the effects of adding whole safflower seeds (WSF) to the concentrate on dairy performance and Conjugated Linoleic Acid (CLA) in milk. Feeding WSF increased concentrations of long chain and unsaturated FA, and decreased short chain and saturated FA. Concentrations of rumenic (cis-9, trans-11 CLA) and TVA acids in milk were increased in animals fed WSF. In addition, WSF reduced the saturated/unsaturated FA ratio and the atherogenicity index of the milk fat, but increased the ratio n-6/n-3 FA. In the third chapter, two experiments were performed to study the effects of feeding soybean oil (SBO) and a fibrolytic enzyme complex (E) on nutrients digestibility (trial 1) and lactational performance of dairy ewes (trial 2). When used alone, feeding SBO increased ether extract digestibility without varying the DM, OM and NDF digestibilities, while the E treatment increased DM, OM and NDF digestibilities. In contrast, when fed together with the enzyme complex, SBO reduced digestibilities of DM, OM and NDF, being the enzyme supplement unable to reincrease nutrients digestibility. In a milking trial, milk FA variations were higher in Lacaune than in Manchega ewes. Oleic acid, TVA, linoleic acid and CLA were increased.The fourth chapter consisted in an experiment where a total of 24 Murciano-Granadina dairy goats were used to study the effects of feeding soybean oil (SBO) on lactational performance and milk fatty acids (FA), particularly CLA and TVA. Feeding SBO increased milk concentrations of linoleic, oleic and stearic FA. As a consequence, feeding SBO reduced the saturated to unsaturated FA ratio and the atherogenicity index, but increased the n-6/n-3 FA ratio. Compared with the control, milk contents of cis-9, trans-11 CLA and TVA in the SBO treatment were almost triplicated. In conclusion, vegetal fat increased CLA (rumenic acid) and TVA, being the highest increases obtained in the case of feeding vegetal oils, particularly when using soybean oil in Lacaune ewes or Murciano-Granadina goats. In contrast, whole linseed grains enhance better the alpha-linolenic acid (n-3). Under the circumstances of our experiment, soybean oil did not affect fiber digestibility except when used together with the fibrolytic enzyme complex, in which case reduced DM, OM and fiber digestibilities.
3

Viabilidade do parasitismo por Haemonchus placei em caprinos (Capra hircus) experimentalmente infectados / Viability of Haemonchus placei parasitism in experimentally infected goats (Capra hircus)

Santos, Isabella Barbosa dos 22 February 2018 (has links)
Submitted by ISABELLA BARBOSA DOS SANTOS null (isabellabs853@hotmail.com) on 2018-04-04T23:51:02Z No. of bitstreams: 1 dissertação_Isabella_Barbosa_dos_Santos.pdf: 1903091 bytes, checksum: 01a14a6ac4969df8c86c454e56e542c4 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Alexandra Maria Donadon Lusser Segali null (alexmar@fcav.unesp.br) on 2018-04-05T13:49:47Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 santos_ib_me_jabo.pdf: 1903091 bytes, checksum: 01a14a6ac4969df8c86c454e56e542c4 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-04-05T13:49:47Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 santos_ib_me_jabo.pdf: 1903091 bytes, checksum: 01a14a6ac4969df8c86c454e56e542c4 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-02-22 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / A caprinocultura é considerada um segmento de grande importância em agronegócios no país, gerando importante fonte de carne e leite, principalmente na região Nordeste. Entretanto, este criatório sofre grandes perdas econômicas devido às parasitoses que acometem o trato digestório. Dentre estas, destaca-se, o gênero Haemonchus, cujas espécies H. contortus e H. placei parasitam abomaso de caprinos e bovinos, respectivamente, havendo possibilidade de infecção cruzada dessas duas espécies helmínticas. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade do parasitismo por H. placei em caprinos e compará-la à patogenicidade por H. contortus. Foram utilizados 14 caprinos, recém-nascidos, mantidos em gaiolas metálicas de piso suspenso, assim distribuídos: GI - quatro cabritos inoculados com 5000 larvas infectantes (L3) de H. placei, GII – quatro infectados com 5000 larvas infectantes (L3) de H. contortus, GIII – quatro animais inoculados com 2500 larvas L3 de H. contortus + 2500 H. placei e GIV – dois cabritos que receberam apenas água (controle). Exames de contagem de ovos de estrongilídeos por grama de fezes (OPG) foram realizados diariamente, após o 7º dia da inoculação. Os períodos pré-patentes foram de 24 dias para H contortus e de 31 dias para H. placei. O grupo inoculado apenas com H. placei apresentou médias de OPG inferiores quando comparado aos demais grupos. Decorridos 42 dias pós-infecção, os 14 caprinos foram eutanasiados e necropsiados, sendo coletados “in totum” os exemplares de Haemonchus. O grupo I apresentou média de 25,5 espécimes H. placei, o grupo II média de 619,5 de exemplares de H. contortus, o grupo III média de 120 exemplares de H. placei e 604,75 de H. contortus e no grupo IV nenhum helminto foi diagnosticado. Não foram constatadas quaisquer outras espécies e nem formas imaturas de Haemonchus no trato gastrintestinais dos caprinos. Fragmentos do abomaso foram coletados e armazenados em formol tamponado para análise histopatológica. Foram observados no grupo I lesões microscópicas leves apenas com poucos focos inflamatórios. Nos grupos II e III foram diagnosticadas lesões extensas, como edemas, focos inflamatórios difusos, infiltrado de eosinófilos, diminuição das células parietais. No grupo IV nenhuma alteração histopatológica foi diagnosticada. Nas condições desse estudo, a espécie caprina foi razoavelmente susceptível ao parasitismo por Haemonchus placei, sendo esse parasitismo mais proeminente nos animais que receberam infecção mista (H. placei + H. contortus). / Goat breeding is considered a very important segment in Brazilian agribusiness, generating a significant source of meat and milk. However, this industry suffers great economic losses due to parasitic diseases that affect the digestive tract, compromising their development. Among these, the Haemonchus genus stands out, with H. contortus and H. placei parasitizing goats and cattle, respectively, with the possiblity of cross infection between these helminth species in abomasu of hosts. The objective of the present study was to estimate the viability of H. placei parasitism in goats, and compare it with H. contortus pathogenicity. Fourteen newborn goats were used, distributed in the following way: GI - four goats inoculated with infective larvae (L3) of H. placei; GII – four animals infected with infective larvae (L3) of H. contortus; GIII - four caprines inoculated with larvae L3 of H. contortus + H. placei; and GIV - two goats that received only water (control). Each animal received 5000 L3 of Haemonchus species, in a single dose, orally. Egg per Gram of Feces (EPG) exams were performed daily after the 7th day of inoculation, establishing that the pre-patent period of H. contortus was 24 days and H. placei was 31 days. The group inoculated only with H. placei presented lower EPG means when compared to the other groups. After 42 days post-infection, all 14 goats were euthanized and necropsied, and Haemonchus specimens were collected “in totum". Group I presented an average of 25.5 specimens, while the mean of group II was 619.5, group III obtained an average of 120 specimens of H. placei and 604.75 of H. contortus and group IV did not present any specimens. No other species and no immature forms of Haemonchus were found in gastrintestinal tracts of experimental animals. Fragments of abomasum were collected and stored in buffered formalin for histopathological analysis, in which GI group showed mild microscopic lesions with only a few inflammatory foci, while groups II and III had extensive lesions, such as edema, diffuse inflammatory foci, eosinophilic infiltrate and hyperplasia of parietal cells. Group IV showed no changes. Under conditions of this study, the caprine species did not present itself as susceptible to parasitism by Haemonchus placei, with such parasitism being more prominent when in consortium with Haemonchus contortus.
4

Caracterização e desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção de ovinos Morada Nova no estado do Ceará / Characterization and economic performance of production systems of sheep breed Morada Nova in the state of Ceará

Sousa Neto, Jaime Martins de January 2011 (has links)
SOUSA NETO, Jaime Martins. Caracterização e desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção de ovinos Morada Nova no estado do Ceará. 2011. 84 f. Dissertação (Mestrado em zootecnia)- Universidade Federal do Ceará, Fortaleza-CE, 2011. / Submitted by Elineudson Ribeiro (elineudsonr@gmail.com) on 2016-05-17T19:07:06Z No. of bitstreams: 1 2011_dis_jmsousaneto.pdf: 1342135 bytes, checksum: 2ad71bdd3537cc268e5b6a39cd7e7dce (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by José Jairo Viana de Sousa (jairo@ufc.br) on 2016-05-27T20:02:34Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 2011_dis_jmsousaneto.pdf: 1342135 bytes, checksum: 2ad71bdd3537cc268e5b6a39cd7e7dce (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-05-27T20:02:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2011_dis_jmsousaneto.pdf: 1342135 bytes, checksum: 2ad71bdd3537cc268e5b6a39cd7e7dce (MD5) Previous issue date: 2011 / This chapter has the aim to make the technical analysis of production systems in Morada Nova sheep to complement the project "Characterization and basis for the genetic improvement of sheep Morada Nova", coordinated by Embrapa Goats and Sheep, with the financial support of Banco do Nordeste (FUNDECI / ETENE). In order to achieve this objective, primary research was conducted with data collected through the application of questionnaires to the sheep farmers of the municip ality of Morada Nova, Ceará State. To assess the technological level, the system of sheep was divided into four components: the producer management, infrastructure, production system, herd management and performance of the herds. Next, we determined the te chnological indices for each component separately and for all of them, based on its recommended technology. We found four production systems baptized by the technology index for each producer, being called "high technology gap" - level D, "regular technolog ical gap" - level C, "low technology gap" - level B and "high art " - level A. It was found that 17% of farmers fall in the level A, 33% at level B, Level C in 33% and 17% at level D. / O presente trabalho tem por objetivo principal efetuar a caracterização e avaliação do desempenho econômico dos sistemas de produção de ovinos da raça Morada Nova no Estado do Ceará. Para tanto foram aplicados questionários junto aos produtores de ovinos da raça Morada Nova no Estado do Ceará. Para caracterização técnica, dividiu-se o sistema de produção de ovinos em quatro componentes: gerenciamento do produtor, infra-estrutura do sistema de produção, manejo dos rebanhos e desempenho dos rebanhos. Em seguida, foram determinados os índices tecnológicos para cada componente, separadamente e para o conjunto deles, com base na respectiva tecnologia recomendada. Para a caracterização socioeconômica dos produtores, foram analisados sete fatores, a saber: infra-estrutura e produção de volumosos, rebanhos e manejo de produção, produção, aspectos ambientais, mão-de-obra, crédito rural e administração do empreendimento. A análise econômica foi feita utilizando-se a metodologia do Sistema Integrado de Custos Agropecuários – CUSTAGRI. Foram identificados quatro níveis tecnológicos de sistemas de produção que foram usados para a análise dos aspectos socioeconômicos, estimativas de custos e avaliação de rentabilidade. Os sistemas de produção de ovinos Morados Nova mais tecnificados mostraram-se lucrativos e capazes de viabilizar o desenvolvimento sustentável no meio rural, proporcionando a fixação do homem no campo com emprego e renda. As principais dificuldades observadas pelos produtores estão ligadas à mão-de-obra desqualificada, políticas de crédito insuficientes e falta de políticas públicas focadas na atividade.
5

Detecção de Ureaplasma spp. e Mycoplasma agalactiae pela técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR) em sêmen de reprodutores ovinos

SOUSA, Francisco David Nascimento 08 February 2013 (has links)
Submitted by (lucia.rodrigues@ufrpe.br) on 2017-02-09T12:22:55Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Francisco David Nascimento Sousa.pdf: 1748878 bytes, checksum: f75f899a3117c09975b8cfcef18e67a6 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2017-02-09T12:22:55Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Francisco David Nascimento Sousa.pdf: 1748878 bytes, checksum: f75f899a3117c09975b8cfcef18e67a6 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-02-08 / The objective of this study was to detect the DNA of Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma agalactiae in sheep semen by the technique of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR). Were analyzed 240 samples, 120 frozen semen obtained from central artificial insemination (AI) and 120 fresh semen of breeding sheep from the states of Alagoas, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte collected during the Northeastern Exposure animals in Recife. After collection of the samples were carried out DNA extraction and detection of genomic DNA of the agents studied. For the first time in Brazil, was detected the presence of agents Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma agalactiae in samples of frozen semen of sheep. Samples of frozen semen, DNA was detected Ureaplasma spp. in 2.5% (3/120) and Mycoplasma agalactiae of 4.2% (5/120). For fresh semen was detected DNA of Ureaplasma spp. in 8.3% (10/120) of the samples and 6.7% (8/120) of Mycoplasma agalactiae When evaluating the association between the type of semen and DNA detection for Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma agalactiae, a significant association was observed only for Ureaplasma spp. (p = 0.046), being more common detection of this micro-organism in fresh semen samples. We also observed positive samples Ureaplasma spp. and Mycoplasma agalactiae from the states of Paraíba, Pernambuco and Rio Grande do Norte. All samples from the states of Alagoas and Ceará results were negative. Results obtained in this study, there is the presence of DNA of these microorganisms in semen of the breedings sheep. Thus, it is suggested that techniques for detecting these agents must be used in insemination centers and breeding sheep with high genetic potential to maximize the efficiency of the sheep reproduction by preventing the spread of these pathogens. / Objetivou-se com este estudo detectar o DNA de Ureaplasma spp. e Mycoplasma agalactiae em sêmen de ovinos pela técnica da Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase (PCR). Foram analisadas 240 amostras, sendo 120 de sêmen congelado obtidas de centrais de inseminação artificial (IA) e 120 de sêmen fresco de reprodutores ovinos provenientes dos estados de Alagoas, Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco e Rio Grande do Norte coletados durante a realização da Exposição nordestina de animais em Recife,PE. Após a colheita das amostras, foram realizadas a extração de DNA e detecção de DNA genômico dos agentes estudados. Pela primeira vez no Brasil, foi detectada a presença dos agentes Ureaplasma spp. e Mycoplasma agalactiae em amostras de sêmen congelado da espécie ovina. Nas amostras de sêmen congelado, detectou-se DNA de Ureaplasma spp. em 2,5% (3/120) e de Mycoplasma agalactiae em 4,2% (5/120). Para o sêmen fresco, detectou-se DNA de Ureaplasma spp. em 8,3% (10/120) das amostras analisadas e 6,7% (8/120) de Mycoplasma agalactiae Ao avaliar a associação entre o tipo de sêmen e a detecção de DNA para Ureaplasma spp. e Mycoplasma agalactiae, observou-se associação significativa somente para Ureaplasma spp. (p= 0,046), sendo mais comum a detecção deste micro-organismo em amostras de sêmen fresco. Foram observadas ainda, amostras positivas para Ureaplasma spp. e Mycoplasma agalactiae provenientes dos estados da Paraíba, Pernambuco e Rio Grande do Norte. Todas as amostras oriundas dos estados de Alagoas e do Ceará obtiveram resultados negativos. Diante dos resultados obtidos neste estudo, constata-se a presença de DNA destes micro-organismos em sêmen de reprodutores ovinos. Desta forma, sugere-se que técnicas para detecção desses agentes sejam utilizadas em centrais de inseminação e em reprodutores ovinos com alto potencial genético, maximizando a eficiência da prática na reprodução de ovinos, evitando a disseminação destes patógenos.
6

Efeitos de diferentes relaÃÃes volumoso: concentrado na biometria corporal, testÃculo-epididimÃria e perfil metabÃlico em ovinos Santa InÃs / Effects of different forage: concentrate in body biometrics, epididymal-testicular metabolic profile in sheep Santa Ines

Gabriel CÃndido Bandeira 28 August 2013 (has links)
FundaÃÃo de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado do Cearà / Objetivou-se com o presente estudo avaliar o efeito de diferentes nÃveis de volumoso:concentrado sobre: a) O desenvolvimento biomÃtrico corporal, testicular e epididimÃrio. b)O perfil metabÃlico em cordeiros Santa InÃs.Foram utilizados 29 cordeiros, nÃo castrados, com peso vivo mÃdio inicial de 14,77  1,26 kg e, aproximadamente, 60 dias de idade. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema de parcelas subdivididas. Os tratamentos experimentais consistiam em nÃveis crescentes de relaÃÃo volumoso: concentrado (100:0; 80:20; 60:40; 40:60 e 20:80). O feno de capim Tifton 85 foi utilizado como volumoso Ãnico e as raÃÃes foram formuladas segundo recomendaÃÃes do NRC (2007)para categoria de animais em crescimento (acima de 4 meses) e ganho de 250 g/dia. Semanalmente, mensurou-se o escore de condiÃÃo corporal (ECC), peso corporal (PC), comprimento corporal (CC), altura de cernelha (AC), altura de garupa (AG), largura de garupa (LG), largura de peito (LP), perÃmetro torÃcico (PT), perÃmetro escrotal (PE), comprimento testicular (CT), largura testicular (LT), espessura testicular (ET), comprimento da cauda do epidÃdimo (CCE), largura da cauda do epidÃdimo (LCE), espessura da cauda do epidÃdimo (ECE) e espessura da bolsa escrotal (EBE). O volume testicular foi calculado pela fÃrmula do cilindro (V=2[(r2) x Π x h]). A forma testicular foi calculada pela razÃo da largura/comprimento e classificada em longo se a razÃo fosse menor ou igual a 0,5, longo-moderado se 0,510 e 0,625, moderado-oval se 0,626 e 0,750, oval-esfÃrico se 0,751 e 0,875 e esfÃrico quando a razÃo fosse maior que 0,875. Em relaÃÃo ao perfil metabÃlico, foram colhidas amostras de sangue, quinzenalmente, as quais foram analisadas e quantificadas os teores de albumina, proteÃnas totais, globulinas, colesterol total, glicose, ureia, fosfato inorgÃnico e magnÃsio. Com relaÃÃo as mensuraÃÃes biomÃtricas, foi constatado um efeito linear para todas as variÃveis com o aumento da relaÃÃo volumoso:concentrado. Com relaÃÃo a forma testicular, houve uma predominÃncia do formato longo/esfÃrico, no entanto, a partir da coleta 5 houve uma homogeneidade nas formas longo/esfÃrico e longo/oval. No presente trabalho, as medidas biomÃtricas apresentaram correlaÃÃes que variaram de 0,527 a 0,983, sendo as mais significativas, ECC x PT, r=0,94; ECC x PC, r=0,92; PT x PC, r= 0,94; CC x ECC, r= 0,90; PT x CC, r=0,89. No tocante ao estudo do perfil metabÃlico, observou-se interaÃÃo da inclusÃo de diferentes nÃveis de concentrado e o tempo de coleta para as concentraÃÃes de proteÃnas totais, albumina, ureia, colesterol, fÃsforo e magnÃsio, no entanto, globulinas e glicose nÃo sofreram influencia da dieta e nem do tempo de coleta. A inclusÃo de nÃveis diferentes de concentrado afeta positivamente o crescimento dos cordeiros. As medidas corporais podem ser utilizadas para estimar o desenvolvimento reprodutivo. As dietas elaboradas segundo o NRC nÃo atenderam completamente as necessidades metabÃlicas dos cordeiros. O perfil metabÃlico à um excelente ferramenta para adequaÃÃo do manejo nutricional. / The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of bulk food: focused on biometric development (body, testicular and epididymal) and metabolic profile in Santa Ines lambs. 29 uncastrated lambs were used with average weight of 14.77  1.26 kg and approximately 60 days of age. The experimental design was the randomized blocks with five treatments and six replications. The treatments consisted of increasing levels of roughage:concentrate ratio (100:0, 80:20, 60:40, 40:60 and 20:80). The Tifton 85 hay was used as unique roughage and the diets were formulated according to the NRC (2007) recommendations for the animal category growth (over 4 months) and gain 250 g / day. Weekly the body condition score (BCS), body weight (BW), body length (BL), withers height (WH), hip height (HH), rump width (RW), Chest width (CW), chest girth (CG), scrotal circumference (SC), testicular length (TL), width of testis (WT), testicular thickness (TT), length of the tail of the epididymis (LTE), width of the tail of the epididymis (LTE), thickness of the tail of the epididymis (TTE) and thickness of the scrotum (TS) were measured. Testicular volume was calculated from the cylinder formula (V = 2 [(r2) Π x h]). Testicular shape was calculated as the ratio of the width/length and classified as long if the ratio is less than or equal to 0.5, long-moderate if is between 0.510 and 0.625, moderate-oval if is between 0.626 and 0.750, oval-spherical if is between 0.751 and 0.875, and spherical when the ratio is greater than 0.875. Regarding the metabolic profile, blood samples were collected fortnightly, and in the laboratory were analyzed and quantified the levels of albumin, total protein, globulin, total cholesterol, glucose, urea, inorganic phosphate and magnesium. Regarding biometric measurements, linear effect was found for all variables with increasing forage:concentrate ratio. Regarding testicular shape, there was a predominance of long/spherical form, however, from the collection 5 there was a homogeneity in long/spherical and long/oval forms. In this paper, biometric measurements showed correlations ranging from 0.527 to 0.983, being the most significant, ECC x PT, r = 0.94; ECC x PC, r = 0.92; PT x PC, r = 0.94;ECC x CC, r = 0.90; EN x CC, r = 0.89. Concerning the study of the metabolic profile was observed interaction of different inclusion levels of concentrate and collection time for concentrations of total protein, albumin, urea, cholesterol, phosphorus and magnesium, however, globulin and glucose did not suffer influence of diet nor the collection time. The inclusion of different levels of concentrate positively affects the growth of lambs. The body measurements can be used to estimate the reproductive development. The diets prepared according to the NRC did not meet completely the metabolic needs of the lambs. The metabolic profile is an excellent tool to adjust the nutritional management.
7

Characterization of sheep and goat farming production systems in the brazilian northeasth / CaracterizaÃÃo dos sistemas de produÃÃo da ovinocaprinocultura no nordeste brasileiro

Jaime Martins de Sousa Neto 20 August 2015 (has links)
FundaÃÃo Cearense de Apoio ao Desenvolvimento Cientifico e TecnolÃgico / The research aims to characterize this the creation of small ruminants in northeastern Brazil. To this end, initially we aimed to analyze the importance of cluster analysis for characterization of small ruminant production systems, using as a methodological tool to literature. Thus, it was observed that the cluster analysis methodology to characterize the animal production systems, is a technique used worldwide to identify the successful cases, advantageous aspects and obstacles in order to support programs that facilitate the leverage of farming. Subsequently, based on data collected from field research through interviews with 224 farmers in four northeastern states, it used the cluster analysis technique called cluster analysis, aimed specifically identify the homogeneous groups and check leveraging factors and restrictors groups in relation to the general characteristics of the producer and his property, the composition of herds, the socioeconomic aspects of producer and practices related to reproductive management, food and health. Thus, five homogeneous groups have been identified (or clusters) of small ruminant producers in northeastern Brazil. Group I represents 25% of the producers examined, where farms have little area, however, high stocking density, highlighting the presence of cattle more quantitative in that group, characterized as "small farms focused on milk production ". Group II contains 20% of analyzed producers, with the quantitative smaller herds among the groups, lower adoption of management practices and a higher frequency of exclusive breeders of goats and sheep, being defined as "small flocks not technified". Group III is the largest group, comprising 28% of respondents creators, where the goat herd significantly exceeds the sheep flock, being named as "traditional goat farmers". Group IV absorbs 16% of the most experienced producers, with the largest areas of observed properties, showing also a larger quantity of animals and a higher percentage of adoption of management practices, which are defined as "large farms technicality". Group V covers 11% of the youngest producers, the lowest group analyzed where mixed farms of sheep, goats and cattle are most frequent, representing 33% of producers in that group, named "emerging mixed farms." There was generally an increase in all groups regarding the feeding management used by Northeastern producers caused by the promotion of the development of the rural sector policies. They identified some obstacles to be overcome, especially with regard to reproductive health and herd management. / A pesquisa realizada neste pretendeu caracterizar a criaÃÃo de pequenos ruminantes na RegiÃo Nordeste do Brasil. Para tanto, inicialmente, teve como objetivo analisar a importÃncia da anÃlise de clusters para caracterizaÃÃo de sistemas de produÃÃo de pequenos ruminantes, utilizando-se como ferramenta metodolÃgica a pesquisa bibliogrÃfica. Dessa forma, observou- se que a metodologia de anÃlise de clusters, visando à caracterizaÃÃo dos sistemas de produÃÃo animal, à uma tÃcnica utilizada no mundo todo, visando identificar os casos exitosos, aspectos vantajosos e impedimentos, de forma a subsidiar aÃÃes que propiciem a alavancagem da atividade agropecuÃria. Posteriormente, a partir de dados coletados de uma pesquisa de campo, por meio de entrevistas com 224 produtores de quatro estados nordestinos, utilizou-se a tÃcnica de anÃlise de agrupamento denominada de anÃlise de clusters, visando, especificamente, identificar os grupos homogÃneos existentes e verificar os fatores alavancadores e restritores dos grupos em relaÃÃo Ãs caracterÃsticas gerais do produtor e de sua propriedade, à composiÃÃo dos rebanhos, aos aspectos socioeconÃmicos dos produtores e Ãs prÃticas relativas ao manejo reprodutivo, alimentar e sanitÃrio. Dessa forma, foram identificados cinco grupos homogÃneos (ou clusters) de produtores de pequenos ruminantes na RegiÃo Nordeste do Brasil. O grupo I representa 25% dos produtores analisados, onde as fazendas tÃm pouca Ãrea, no entanto, elevada densidade animal, destacando-se a presenÃa do rebanho bovino com maior quantitativo nesse agrupamento, caracterizando-se como âpequenas fazendas centradas na produÃÃo de leiteâ. O grupo II contÃm 20% dos produtores analisados, apresentando os menores quantitativos de rebanhos dentre os grupos, menor adoÃÃo de prÃticas de manejo e a maior frequÃncia de criatÃrios exclusivos de caprinos e ovinos, sendo definido como âpequenos rebanhos nÃo tecnificadosâ. O grupo III à o maior grupo, contendo 28% dos criadores entrevistados, onde o rebanho caprino supera sensivelmente o rebanho ovino, sendo nomeado como âcaprinocultores tradicionaisâ. O grupo IV absorve 16% dos produtores mais experientes, com as maiores Ãreas de propriedades observadas, apresentando, tambÃm, um maior quantitativo de animais e um maior percentual de adoÃÃo de prÃticas de manejo, sendo definidos como âgrandes fazendas tecnificadasâ. O grupo V abrange 11% dos produtores mais jovens, sendo o menor grupo analisado, onde os criatÃrios mistos de ovinos, caprinos e bovinos sÃo de maior frequÃncia, representando 33% dos produtores desse grupo, nomeado de âcriatÃrios mistos emergentesâ. Verificou-se, em geral, uma evoluÃÃo em todos os grupos no tocante ao manejo alimentar utilizado pelos produtores nordestinos, provocada por polÃticas de promoÃÃo do desenvolvimento do setor rural. Identificaram-se alguns entraves a serem superados, em especial no tocante ao manejo reprodutivo e sanitÃrio dos rebanhos.
8

Investigating the diet selection and genetic variation of small ruminants in a dryland pastoral system in South Africa

Schroeder, Amy January 2019 (has links)
Magister Scientiae (Biodiversity and Conservation Biology) - MSc (Biodiv and Cons Biol) / Small ruminants found in pastoral dryland systems face many challenges regarding constant environmental and climate changes. These variable environments are home to many pastoralists who use the natural resources to sustain their livestock. Due to the prevailing environmental changes, these pastoralists require various adaptation strategies for the survival of their small ruminants. Adaptation is vital for all pastoralists globally, especially those living in semi-arid to arid regions as these areas are badly impacted by climate change. Farming with small ruminants that are able to constantly adapt to variable environments are a long-term and low cost resource strategy for farmers in these areas. Drought is a recurring challenge that farmers in dryland systems have to cope with and small ruminants are forced to adapt to food and water available to them as drought affects their survival, reproduction and production. This is because drought affects the environment directly as rainfall has an impact on all forage and water resources found in drylands. Thus available forage and the utilisation of this resource by small ruminants is essential for sheep and goat farmers who depend on these animals for their livelihoods. This thesis sets out to establish sheep and goat breeds found in a dryland pastoral system in South Africa focussing on their genetic differences and their diet selection during a drought period. The study was carried out in the 582 634 ha Steinkopf communal area located in the semi-arid to arid region of Namaqualand in South Africa. The dominant land use in this area is livestock farming where farmers utilise two biomes for grazing. Using mitochondrial DNA, genetic differences were investigated in small ruminants found in Steinkopf. The small ruminants that were studied were the Boer goats, Swakara sheep (Karakul) and cross-bred sheep. These were the most commonly farmed small ruminants in this area. Genetic differences and diversity found within the small ruminants in this area supports their ability to adapt to drought and changing environments. Diet selection of these small ruminants were assessed using direct forage observation during this drought period in both the Succulent and Nama Karoo biomes. Findings of the study indicate that small ruminants during a drought period will largely forage on what is available to them. Boer goats changed their diets from browser to grazers in the different biomes while sheep remained grazers in both biomes. This suggests that these animals are well adapted to changing forage availability and will adjust their feeding behaviours accordingly. Succulent plant species were utilised by all small ruminants and this can be regarded as new knowledge for small ruminants in dryland systems. Succulent species play a role in the diets of small ruminants in the Steinkopf rangeland and these animals have adapted traits that allow them to eat plants that contain high levels of phenolics and tannins, which show their high adaptability to this area. This study also revealed that indigenous and locally bred sheep in this area are crucial resources for livestock farming in this area. Swakara sheep in this area showed a low level of genetic variation while cross-bred sheep and the Boer goat had significant variation. With a long tradition of breeding small ruminants in the Steinkopf communal area that suit changing conditions, livestock keepers have accumulated detailed knowledge of their animals. Recommendations from this study were to do further studies regarding genetic variation within the cross-bred sheep as this information will be useful for breeding programs in dryland areas and it will add to the small ruminant genetics in South Africa. Because this study was conducted in a drought period, I recommend that diet selection should be observed during a regular wet and dry period as this would indicate how these animals adapt to what forage is available to them. These studies can act as management strategies for herders as it can provide information on how to use the natural resources sustainably.
9

Durabilité de la filière laitière des petits ruminants au Liban : analyse et signe de qualité label "Baladi" / Lebanese small ruminant food chain sustainability : analysis and quality sign Baladi label

El Balaa, Rodrigue 10 November 2009 (has links)
L’objectif de l’étude est d’évaluer la durabilité de la filière laitière de petits ruminants au Liban et d’identifier ses faiblesses afin de proposer des solutions garantissant sa pérennité. Les résultats d’une enquête englobant 129 éleveurs (Srour, 2006) ainsi que de trois enquêtes portant sur 15 transformateurs, 83 distributeurs et 250 consommateurs ont été agrégés en 12 paramètres représentant les trois volets de la durabilité (environnementale, sociale et économique). Les résultats ont été utilisés pour concevoir un cahier des charges englobant des solutions aux problèmes de la durabilité ; celui-ci a été validé auprès de 16 producteurs, 15 transformateurs, 17 distributeurs et 20 consommateurs. Les producteurs sont responsables de l’impact environnemental le plus important de la filière et souffrent d’une fragilité économique élevée. Les transformateurs sont caractérisés par un manque d’investissement et de politique de traitement des déchets, mais présentent les meilleures conditions sociales à leurs employés et sont les plus performants au niveau de la valeur ajoutée malgré un taux faible de croissance. Chez les distributeurs, les épiceries sont en régression face à des grandes surfaces en pleine expansion et offrant de meilleures conditions sociales à leurs employés. Les consommateurs ignorent le concept de la durabilité et basent leur confiance sur les vendeurs pour l’achat des produits traditionnels. La mise en place de cahier des charges est soutenue par son originalité, l’absence de produits similaires et la situation géographique, mais elle doit prendre en considération la réceptivité du marché (local et extérieur) et l’absence d’infrastructure spécialisée / The aim of this study is to evaluate the sustainability of dairy small ruminant supply chain in Lebanon and to identify its weaknesses in order to suggest solutions guaranteeing its durability. The results relevant to a survey covering 129 breeders (Srour, 2006) and to three other surveys covering 15 processors, 83 distributors and 250 consumers were combined in 12 parameters representing the three facets of sustainability (environmental, social and economical). The results were used to design a labelling scheme containing solutions to sustainability problems; the latter was then validated with 16 breeders, 15 processors, 17 distributors, and 20 consumers. The breeders are responsible for the most important environmental impact of the supply chain and suffer from a high economical fragility. The processors are characterized with a shortage of investment and waste treatment policy but present the best social conditions to their employees and hold the best added value performance despite a weak growth rate. At the distributors’ level, groceries are in regression, facing large retailers in full expansion and offering better social conditions to their employees. The consumers ignore the sustainability concept and base their trust on the salesmen in buying traditional products. The application of the labelling scheme is supported by its originality, the absence of similar products and the geographical situation, but it has to take into consideration the receptiveness of the market (local and foreign) and the absence of specialized infrastructure
10

Avaliação da atividade de Aretmisia annua L., Melia azedarach L. e Trichilia claussenii C. sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos

Cala, Aida Cristina [UNESP] 25 March 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:57Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-03-25Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:17:35Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 cala_ac_me_jabo.pdf: 748222 bytes, checksum: cf47c5334ff6a1f2e9b54a930c87bc27 (MD5) / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) / Em virtude da importância que os pequenos ruminantes desempenham no setor agropecuário e da necessidade de se encontrar alternativas de baixo custo para o controle das helmintoses, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos de Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach e Trichilia claussenii. Os extratos, aquoso, bicarbonato de sódio, diclorometano, etanólico de A. annua, hexânico de M. azedarach e o metanólico de T. claussenii, foram avaliados em testes in vitro de eclodibilidade larvar (TEL) e de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL) sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua e artemisinina (bioativo purificado) foram avaliados in vivo em ovinos Santa Inês infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais com base na avaliação do hematócrito, na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e coprocultura. Os princípios ativos dos extratos foram quantificados com base na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - índice de refração (CLAE-IR), ultravioleta (CLAE- UV) e líquido-líquido (CLAE- LL). A capacidade antioxidante do extrato de bicarbonato de sódio foi determinada pelo método ORAC (capacidade de absorção do radical oxigênio) e a artemisinina eliminada foi quantificada pela CLAE-UV. Analisados pelos testes probit e de Tukey. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua foi o mais eficiente in vitro com CL50(concentração letal) de 0, 0677 μg/mL e CL99 de 1,27 μg/mL no TEL e no TDL a CL50 foi de 1,67 μg/mL e a CL99 de 23,8 μg/mL. No teste in vivo, a redução máxima do OPG foi de 31,97% no 14º dia nos animais tratados com o extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua (2 g/kg pv) e de 41,37% no 15º nos animais que receberam artemisinina (100 mg/kg pv). Na coprocultura obteve-se 91,2% de H. contortus, 8,4% de Tricostrongylus sp. e 0,3% de Oesophagostomum sp. Os... / Given the importance that small ruminant plays in the livestock and the need to find alternatives of low-costs for the control of helminthes, the objectives of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activities of extracts from Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach and Trichilia claussenii. The extracts, aqueous, sodium bicarbonate, dichloromethane, ethanol of A. annua, hexane of M. azedarach and methanol of T. claussenii, were evaluated in vitro tests of larval hatchability (TEL) and larval development (TDL) on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua and artemisinin (bioactive purified) were evaluated in vivo in Santa Ines sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes based on the assessment of hematocrit, egg count per gram of feces (OPG) and stool culture. The active ingredients of the extracts were quantified based on liquid chromatography with high efficiency - an index of refraction (HPLC-IR), ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and liquid-liquid (HPLC-LL). The antioxidant activity of sodium bicarbonate extract was determined by ORAC method (absorption capacity of the radical oxygen) and artemisinin in the feces was quantified by HPLC-UV. The results were analyzed by SAS probit and Tukey test. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua, in vitro, was the most effective with LC50 of 0,0677 μg/mL and 1,27 μg/mL of CL99 in TEL, and in the TDL LC50 was 1,67μg/mL and CL99 of 23,8μg/mL. In vivo test, the maximum reduction in EPG was 31,97% on day 14 in animals treated with the extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua (2g/ kg body weight) and 41.37% on day 15 in animals received artemisinin (100 mg/kg bw). In stool culture was obtained 91, 2% of H. contortus, 8, 4% Tricostrongylus sp. and 0, 3% of Oesophagostomum sp. The results show the need for more studies with higher doses of extracts, other alternatives of... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)

Page generated in 0.0915 seconds