McHardy, W. D.
No description available.
Greenlees-Zollschan, Linda, email@example.com
Neller, Kenneth V.
Research on the Gospel of Thomas in the last quarter of a century has made it clear that the origins of this apocryphal gospel cannot be satisfactorily explained from a single point of view. The author thus suggests that Thomas be understood as a growing collection of sayings which originated in various places and languages, with some logia being added to the collection after its inception. While this suggestion is by no means new, there have been few extensive attempts to study Thomas from such a presupposition. Due to the need for a control group, only the logia which have rather close parallels to the Synoptic gospels are investigated. Verbal and textual affinities are noted between these logia and the earliest texts of the Gospels (the Coptic versions, the Diatessaron, the Old Syriac version, and other early versions and Christian writings). Various degrees of probable contact between each logion and these texts are assigned. The results of this study give some idea as to the place of origin, the original language, and the approximate date at which certain logia were added to the collection. Those sayings which show a closer affinity to the Diatessaron, the Old Syriac version, or other Syrian writings may be considered as having been added to the sayings collection as it circulated in its earliest form, possibly in a Semitic language. Other logia which show no signs of awareness of a Syrian reading, but which are similar to variants found in the Coptic versions or other Egyptian texts, may well have originated in Egypt and been added to the collection at a later stage. These results, however, must await verification by those who might approach Thomas from related, but different, perspectives.
Jeruzalémské kapitoly v románu M. A. Bulgakova Mistr a Markétka / M. A. Bulgakov - The Jerusalem chapterrs in the novel Master and MargaritaJurečková, Jolana January 2011 (has links)
SUMMARY: Characteristics of the part of the novel Master and Margarita by M. A. Bulgakov. Historical and Biblical context of Jerusalem chapters. The characters of Pontius Pilate and Jeshua Ha-Nocri and their place in the novel. Characteristics of their personalities, their projections in the Moscow part of the novel, comparsion of Pilat, Woland and Stalin. Jeshua Ha-Nocri and the origin of his name. Comparison to a Biblical model. Comparsion of Master, Jeshua's projection in Moscow in the thirties of the twentieth century, and Bulgakov's reality. Problematics of freedom for creative writing in totalitarian regimes. Characteristics of other characters of Jerusalem chapters and estimation of their place in totalitarian regimes.
Žánrové podoby v historické próze Oldřicha Daňka / Forms of Historical Fiction in Oldřich Daněk's ProsesFürstová, Alena January 2017 (has links)
The present thesis deals with four proses by Oldřich Daněk which use a historical setting (Král utíká z boje, Král bez přilby, Vražda v Olomouci, Nedávno...). In addition to detailing some constant features, which are typical for the author, the thesis aims primarily at showing how Daněk exploits conventions of various literary genres, specifically the historical novel, literary apocrypha and detective story. Key words: Oldřich Daněk, Historical Fiction, Literary Apocrypha, Detective Fiction
Fictions d'apocryphes au XXeme siècle chez Borges, Boulgakov et Saramago. Théorie et parcours / XXth century Fictional Apocrypha by Borges, Bulgakov and Saramago. Theory and StudiesIvanovitch, Alexandra 08 December 2012 (has links)
Dans Naissance de Dieu. La Bible et l’historien, Jean Bottéro explique qu’il ne nous est resté que le livret de la pièce : la Bible. L’apocryphe en est le supplément. Outre les livraisons irrégulières et parcimonieuses, venues des sables d’Égypte entre autres, que nous a léguées l’histoire des découvertes archéologiques, il est un fonds incommensurable par lequel d’autres écrits apocryphes chrétiens nous sont parvenus : la littérature du XXe siècle. Borges, par tel poème se présentant comme un fragment de manuscrit apocryphe retrouvé, Boulgakov en insérant dans Master i Margarita [Le Maître et Marguerite] un évangile centré sur Pilate, Saramago avec son roman brûlot O Evangelho segundo Jesus Cristo [L’Évangile selon Jésus-Christ]: tous ont fourni des livraisons supplémentaires à ce que Jean Bottéro appelait la « pièce ». Les textes de notre corpus sont à lire comme des fictions d’évangiles apocryphes ; mais l’histoire de la (non-)réception des écrits apocryphes chrétiens depuis l’Antiquité ne nous enseigne-t-elle pas qu’ils furent très souvent considérés comme de la fiction ? Le canon biblique distingue les textes inspirés des autres, relégués au statut de fables ou d’inventions : et tout le reste est littérature… En outre, les apocryphes, antiques et modernes, attestés et fictifs, constituent autant de midrashim, parfois paradoxaux sur les Écritures. En quoi la notion de midrash, cette forme d’exégèse narrée et de narration interprétative, permet-elle de projeter un regard nouveau sur la théorie de l’intertextualité ? Conformément à ce que le sous-titre annonce, au terme de ces considérations plus théoriques, le dernier temps de la réflexion est consacré à l’étude plus détaillée des textes du corpus, à la lumière des critères qu’avait jadis dégagés Auerbach, dans Mimésis, pour distinguer la Bible des récits profanes. L’apocryphe, dans tous ses états et manifestations, nous invite à scruter les ‘définitions’, au sens étymologique du terme, à savoir les frontières de la Bible et la littérature. Plus encore que de livrer une étude thématique ou intertextuelle sur les réécritures de l’Évangile au XXe siècle, cette thèse entend reposer des questions – canoniques – de littérature générale, à travers un prisme biblique. / In Naissance de Dieu. La Bible et l’historien [The Birth of God. The Bible and the Historian], Jean Bottéro explains that we are left with the play’s libretto: the Bible. The apocrypha is the supplement. Apart from the irregular and parsimonious issues, notably from the sands of Egypt, transmitted to us by the history of archaeological finds, there is an immeasurable collection through which other apocrypha have come to us: XXth century literature. Borges, through his poems presenting themselves as apocryphal manuscripts which are lost and found, Bulgakov by inserting a Gospel centered on Pilate in his Master i Margarita [The Master and Margarita], Saramago with his O Evangelho segundo Jesus Cristo [The Gospel According to Jesus-Christ]: all have given supplements to what Jean Bottéro called the « libretto ». These texts are to be read as fictional apocryphal Gospels; but then again, the history of the (non-)reception Christian apocrypha encountered since Antiquity tells us that they were very often considered and read as mere fiction. The Biblical canon distinguishes the inspired texts from the rest, which is relegated to the status of fables or inventions: and all the rest is literature… Furthermore, the apocrypha, be it antique or modern, attested or fictional, constitute midrashim on the Sacred Scriptures, which are sometimes paradoxical. How does the notion of midrash -- a form of narrated exegesis and interpretative narration -- allow us to see differently the theory of intertextuality? As stated in our subtitle, after these more theoretical considerations, the last part of our dissertation is dedicated to a more detailed study of our body of texts, in the light of the criteria Auerbach used in Mimesis to distinguish the Bible from secular narratives. The apocrypha invite us to examine the ‘definitions’, in the etymological sense of the term, that is, the frontiers between the Bible and literature. More than a thematical or intertextual study, this dissertation strives to give answers to some of the canonical questions tackled by the theory of literature, through a Biblical prism.
Geyser, Anna Barbara
10 January 2007
AFRIKAANS: In die laat tagtigs en vroeë negentigs van hierdie eeu is die res van die Oumran-geskrifte wat ontdek is, openbaar gemaak. Met die gebeurtenis het talle moontlikhede vir die wetenskaplike bestudering van 'n groot aantal dokumente ontstaan. 4Qlnstruction is een van die dokumente wat beskikbaar geraak het, en is geklassifiseer as 'n wysheidsteks wat 'n legio moontlikhede vir wetenskaplike bestudering moontlik gemaak het. As gevolg van die fragmentariese aard van die teks bestaan daar nog geen vasgestelde teks vir die geskrif nie en is daar nog nie 'n volledige vertaling nie. Hierdie twee faktore asook die feit dat die fragmente tematiese ooreenstemming (maar ook verskille) toon met ander wysheidsgeskrifte, het as motivering vir hierdie studie gedien. In hierdie studie gee ek 'n eie komposisie van die teks asook 'n vertaling van die geselekteerde fragmente (4Q417 2i-ii en 4Q416 2ii-iv ) van 4Qlnstruction weer. Deur middel van intertekstualiteit word die fragmente vergelyk met ander wysheidsgeskrifte (Ben Sira, ander Qumran-geskrifte en Spreuke) uit die Israelitiese geledere, Bepaalde wysheidstemas is in die fragmente geïdentifiseer, waarna dit met ooreenstemmende temas in die ander geselekteerde geskrifte vergelyk is, Die intertekstuele studie behels 'n bestudering van die geskrewe teks sowel as die gebeurde teks, Die onderskeie geskrifte se tekste sowel as kontekste is met ander woorde met mekaar vergelyk, in 'n poging om die rede(s) vir die ooreenstemmende asook verskillende opvattings oor soortgelyke temas binne die Israelitiese 'biblioteek' te verklaar. Na aanleiding van die intertekstuele studie wi! dit voorkom asof die ooreenstemminge voor die deur van die 'bronteks' (oorspronklike teks) gelê kan word, terwyl die verskille meer verstaanbaar is in die Iig van die onderskeie geskrifte se omstandighede (konteks/ sosiaie teks). ENGLISH: In the late eighties and the early nineties of this century most of the Oumran texts which were discovered were made public. Along with this, many opportunities arose for scholars to study the many documents contained therein. 4Qlnstruction is one of the documents which became available and as a result thereof, a wide range of opportunities opened up to scholars. Due to the fragmentary nature of the text, there is as yet no formal text of the document available. The motivation for this study arises from the above mentioned factors along with the fact that the fragments have both similarities and differences within certain themes. In this study I am presenting my own reconstruction and translation of selected 4Qlnstruction fragments (4Q417 2i-ii and 4Q416 2ii-iv). By using intertextual study, the fragments are compared with other wisdom texts (Ben Sira, other Qumran texts and Proverbs) from the Israelite 'library'. Certain wisdom themes are identified in the fragments and compared with similar themes in the other selected texts. The Intertextual study involves a study of the written text(s) as well as of the actual events (social text). Hence, the text(s) and context(s) of the selected works are compared with each other in an attempt to explain the reasons for the similarities as well as the varying opinions within the similar wisdom themes contained in the Israelite 'library'. In the Intertextual approach, it appears as if the similarities can be attributed to the original Israelite theology or ideology, while the differences are due to the varying situations (context/ social text). / Dissertation (MA (Semitic Languages))--University of Pretoria, 2007. / Ancient Languages / unrestricted
Moura, Valmir Nascimento de
31 July 2013
Made available in DSpace on 2015-04-17T15:02:08Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 arquivototal.pdf: 850435 bytes, checksum: 9524c75f53756030a6b029f9ef8ba9f5 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2013-07-31 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior - CAPES / Assuming that early Christianity was a complex place that housed ideological class struggle, look into evidence to prove these differences by studying the apocryphal text known as the Protevangelium of James, coming from the second century of our era. Attempts to demonstrate that the beliefs in this apocryphal text are not product of the imagination of its author, but are common elements to the Christian communities before orthodoxy. In early Christianity, there were several classes that had ideological divergent beliefs. With the passing centuries, emerging classes, the block termed proto-orthodox, by forces policies, prevailed over the remaining. This block then steadied itself then as the only truth, taking on the true apostolic succession and the true teaching of Jesus, was also enacted as the first church which all heresy arose in relation to their beliefs. The speech that block disregards the whole dialectical process that gave his statement. As the Protevangelium of James is a based text in the proto-orthodox, that is, part of its content is similar to what will become the orthodoxy, but also carries an offensive content to this, it is appropriate to question such speech. In the process of quest the aim of research, resorting on studies of Foucault, Bakhtin and Berger, it was necessary to understand the importance of speech for formation of the classes ideologically constituted, the process of legitimation of the discourse and the construction of truths. It is important to consider how to handsel the orthodoxies and heresies, the canonical and apocryphal in the religious systems and understand ,panoramically, how was the construction of the canon of Christian scriptures. The Protevangelium will be still compared with other Christian literature, such as the canonical Matthew and Luke's gospels and other apocryphal narratives, as well as works of early Christian writers to examine their scope and relevance. It is concluded that the Protevangelium of James initially served as raw material for orthodoxy, but with the development of this, it was deemed unacceptable. / Partindo da hipótese de que o cristianismo primitivo era um lugar complexo que abrigava lutas de classes ideológicas, procuram-se indícios que comprovem essas divergências por meio do estudo do texto apócrifo conhecido como o Protoevangelho de Tiago, oriundo do século II de nossa era. Tenta-se demonstrar que as crenças contidas neste texto apócrifo não são frutos da imaginação de seu autor, mas são elementos comuns às comunidades cristãs antes da ortodoxia. No cristianismo primitivo, havia varias classes ideológicas que apresentavam crenças divergentes entre si. Com o passar dos séculos, as classes emergentes, o bloco denominado proto-ortodoxo, por forças políticas, prevaleceram sobre as demais. Este bloco, então, firmou-se então como a única verdade, tomando para si a verdadeira sucessão apostólica e o verdadeiro ensino de Jesus, promulgou-se ainda como a primeira igreja e da qual toda a heresia surgiu em relação às suas crenças. O discurso desse bloco ignora todo o processo dialético que se deu para sua afirmação. Sendo o Protoevangelho de Tiago um texto de base proto-ortodoxa, isto é, parte de seu conteúdo é similar ao do que se tornará a ortodoxia, mas que traz também um conteúdo ofensivo a esta, é adequado para questionar tal discurso. No percurso de busca ao objetivo da pesquisa, recorrendo aos estudos de Foucault, Berger e Bakhtin, se fez necessário entender a importância do discurso para a formação de classes ideologicamente constituídas, o processo de legitimação do discurso e as construções das verdades. É importante refletir como se dão as ortodoxias e as heresias, o canônico e o apócrifo nos sistemas religiosos e entender, panoramicamente, como se deu a construção do cânon das escrituras cristãs. O Protoevangelho será comparado ainda com outras literaturas cristãs, tais como os evangelhos canônicos de Mateus e de Lucas, outros evangelhos e narrativas apócrifas, como também obras de escritores cristãos antigos para averiguar sua abrangência e relevância. Conclui-se que inicialmente o Protoevangelho de Tiago serviu de matéria prima para a ortodoxia, mas com o desenvolvimento desta, foi considerado inaceitável.
DEIXAI TODA ESPERANÇA VÓS QUE ENTRAIS: o Inferno na tradição dos apócrifos e sua recepção em textos medievais e contemporâneos. / Leave all hope you entered: the hellin the tradition of the apocryha and its reception in medieval contemporary textsMATTOS, Carlos Eduardo de 21 March 2017 (has links)
Submitted by Noeme Timbo (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2017-06-14T19:33:34Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Carlos Eduardo.pdf: 931719 bytes, checksum: c8685a26426d27f1d8bac31a50d52878 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2017-06-14T19:33:34Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Carlos Eduardo.pdf: 931719 bytes, checksum: c8685a26426d27f1d8bac31a50d52878 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2017-03-21 / Conselho Nacional de Pesquisa e Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico - CNPq / The research that follows seeks to present a mapping of a tradition developed over many centuries in the apocalyptic writings of Christianity: The accounts of travel description to the Other-World, more specifically, to Hell. Initially we tried to draw a line starting from the origins of this tradition, in classical Greek texts, through the Jewish Apocalypse of the Second Temple, through Primitive Christianity and making references to some works of the Middle Ages, in order to demonstrate, once more, that the importance of the theme made him gain breath in this period too. We highlight some important concepts such as the apocalyptic genre and some striking features of the reports of journeys of hell. We define some theoretical bases that are relevant to all research, such as the importance they have for a significant study of the formation of the religious imaginary of Primitive Christianity, from sources such as apocryphal writings. In a second moment, we turn to the analysis of one of the primitive sources in which, in the second century of Christianity, reports of a description of Hell appeared in a guided journey in which condemned sinners and their feathers were described: The Apocryphal Acts of the Apostle Philip. Finally, we analyze two contemporary sources in which, we argue, there was reception of the theme of the journeys to Hell and in which are laid common characteristics in relation to continuity and rupture with the oldest writings, revealing the importance of the theme for crossing centuries of history of the Christianity, being assumed, reread and re-signified by the most diverse readers to the present day. / A seguinte pesquisa busca apresentar um mapeamento de uma tradição desenvolvida ao longo de muitos séculos nos escritos apocalípticos do Cristianismo: Os relatos de descrição de viagens ao Além-Mundo, mais especificamente, ao Inferno. Inicialmente procuramos traçar uma linha que se iniciasse nas origens dessa tradição, em textos clássicos gregos, passando pela Apocalíptica Judaica do Segundo Templo, pelo Cristianismo Primitivo e fazendo referências a algumas obras da Idade Média, a fim de demonstrar, mais uma vez, a importância do tema e como o mesmo ganha fôlego também nesse período. Destacamos alguns conceitos importantes como o de gênero apocalíptico e algumas características marcantes dos relatos de viagens ao inferno. Definimos algumas bases teóricas relevantes a toda a pesquisa, como por exemplo, a importância que têm, para um estudo significativo da formação do imaginário religioso do Cristianismo Primitivo, de fontes como os escritos apócrifos. Num segundo momento, passamos à análise de uma das fontes primitivas na qual, já no segundo século do Cristianismo, surgiram relatos de uma descrição do Inferno em uma jornada guiada em que pecadores condenados e suas penas foram descritas: Os Atos Apócrifos do Apóstolo Felipe. Por fim, analisamos duas fontes contemporâneas em que, defendemos, houve recepção do tema das viagens ao Inferno e nas quais estão postas características comuns em relação de continuidade e ruptura com os escritos mais antigos, revelando a importância do tema por atravessar séculos de história do Cristianismo, sendo assumido, relido e ressignificado por leitores, os mais diversos até os dias de hoje.
Wisdom and apocalyptic in the Gospel of Matthew : a comparative study with 1 Enoch and 4QInstructionMacaskill, Grant January 2005 (has links)
Recent scholarship has demonstrated that Matthew's gospel has significantly developed both sapiential and apocalyptic elements within its narrative. Little attention has been paid, however, to the question of how these two features of Matthew's gospel might relate to one another. It is this gap in scholarly literature that the present study is intended to fill, by means of a comparative study with two other texts of mixed genre: 1 Enoch and 4QInstruction. An examination of these texts demonstrates that each is marked by an inaugurated eschatology, within which the revealing of wisdom to an elect group, defined in distinction to the Jewish parent group, serves as the pivotal moment of inauguration. In addition, within 4QInstruction the idea is developed that possession of this revealed wisdom allows the remnant to live in fidelity to the will of the Creator and to the patterns built-in to the original creation. Thus, possession of revealed wisdom facilitates a recovery of creation. These findings provide lines of enquiry that may be brought to Matthew. Three sections of the gospel are examined (chapters 5-7; 11-12; 24-25). It is argued that Jesus is presented as an eschatological figure who reveals wisdom to an elect group. This wisdom cannot be reduced to great moral insight or interpretation of Torah, but is presented as prophetic revelation, happening in eschatological time. It remains the case, however, that Matthew presents it as wisdom and presents Jesus as a sage. More tentatively, it is suggested that creation provides the patterns for the ethical requirements of Jesus' wisdom, thus indicating that the idea of restored creation is also at work in Matthew. The fall of the temple may also be connected in Matthew's narrative to such a restoration, but again, the evidence for this is not clear.
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