Evaluation of insertion-deletion polymorphisms with the kit Qiagen Investigator® DIPplex for forensic application in South AfricaJacobs, Gwynneth 2015 (has links)
>Magister Scientiae - MSc Insertion-deletion polymorphisms (indels) have been underutilized in forensic identification of individuals in comparison with single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and short tandem repeat (STRs) systems. The use of indels for the purpose of human identification is more advantageous than previously used methods as it combines desirable characteristics of both the SNPs and STRs i.e. low costs and simplistic typing methods as well as indels having small amplicons size, making them suitable for genotyping highly degraded DNA. Currently there is only one commercial kit available for the forensic community, the Investigator® DIPlex kit (Qiagen), which cover a total of 30 indel loci distributed over 19 autosomal chromosomes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the Qiagen Investigator® DIPplex kit for forensic application in South Africa. The kit‘s performance was evaluated by comparing different extraction methods; sensitivity, robustness and reproducibility were evaluated and forensic parameters (match probability, power of discrimination, polymorphism information content, power of exclusion and typical paternity index) were estimated based on population data generated from five South African populations (Afrikaner, Mixed Ancestry, Indian-Asian, Xhosa and Zulu). Population comparisons were performed using Fst-analysis, factorial component analysis as well as phylogenetic tree construction. DNA was extracted from buccal swabs and whole blood collected from a total of 512 individuals from the five South African population groups and genotyped using the Qiagen Investigator® DIPplex kit. Sanger DNA sequencing and sequence alignments confirmed the presence of a null allele at locus HLD97 which was present in high frequency in the Xhosa and Zulu populations. This observation was made in 14 individuals belonging to the Xhosa and Zulu populations. Null allele frequencies in all five South African populations were also estimated. Null alleles were estimated for all loci using analytical methods i.e. Charkraborty null allele estimator, Brookfield null allele estimators 1 and 2 and ML-NullFreq software program. The kit performed well in the laboratory, not requiring any additional reagents or instrumentation and successfully generating profiles with input DNA amounts as low as 0.2 ng/μL. Although well suited for forensic application, the Qiagen Investigator® DIPplex kit showed some drawbacks with regards to application on South African populations. The presence of a null allele at the HLD97 locus as well as indication of population substructure affects allele frequency estimates for the South African populations. Correction for population substructure as present within the South African populations should be considered using FST analysis and it is recommended that the HLD97 locus should be excluded from any kinship analysis performed on South African populations.
A population-based study of cervical cytology findings and human papillomavirus infection in a suburban area of ThailandPhoolcharoen, Natacha, Kantathavorn, Nuttavut, Sricharunrat, Thaniya, Saeloo, Siriporn, Krongthong, Waraphorn 2017 (has links)
Cartas al Editor
Meta-analysis of QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in Chinese wheat landraces using genotyping by sequencingCai, Jin 2016 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy Department of Agronomy Guihua Bai Guorong Zhang Fusarium head blight (FHB) is a devastating fungal disease in wheat, reducing not only grain yield but also quality. The pathogen produces the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol (DON) that induces severe toxicological problems in human and animals. Using host resistance has been the most efficient way to control the disease. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for FHB resistance in Chinese landrace Haiyanzhong (HYZ), a recombinant inbred lines (RILs) population derived from a cross between HYZ and Wheaton was developed. The RILs were evaluated for percentage of symptomatic spikelets (PSS) in three greenhouse experiments, and genotyped using simple sequence repeats (SSRs) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNPs) developed from genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS). Eight QTLs were identified for type II (PSS) resistance on chromosomes 5A, 6B, 7D, 2B (2), 3B, 4B, and 4D, with 5A as the major QTL. Ten SNPs closely linked to 5A, 6B, and 2B QTLs were successfully converted to Kompetitave allelic specific PCR (KASP) assays. To identify common QTLs across different populations, we constructed high-density GBS-SNP maps in an additional four RIL populations derived from the Chinese landraces, Wangshuibai (WSB), Baishanyuehuang (BSYH), Huangfangzhu (HFZ), and Huangchandou (HCD) and conducted meta-analysis of the QTLs for FHB resistance using a consensus map developed from the five populations. We identified six MQTLs on chromosomes 3BS (2), 3A, 3D, 2D, and 4D and 23 tightly linked GBS-SNPs to the MQTLs. These GBS-SNPs were successfully converted to KASPs. The KASPs linked to MQTLs can be used for pyramiding these QTL in breeding programs. To quickly reduce FHB damage in U.S. hard winter wheat (HWW), we transferred Fhb1, a major QTL with stable effects on FHB resistance, from Ning7840 into three adapted HWW cultivars Overland, Jagger, and Overley, by marker-assisted backcross (MAB), and assessed the effect of Fhb1 on FHB resistance in these different backgrounds. The results showed that Fhb1 can significantly lower FHB severity, Fusarium-damaged kernel (FDK), and DON accumulation in the all the three HWW backgrounds. Some of the selected lines showed high levels of FHB resistance, but agronomically similar traits as recurrent parents, can be used as resistant parents to improve HWW FHB resistance.
Agronomic, genetic and genomic approaches for predicting heterosis in sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench]Maulana, Frank 2016 (has links)
Doctor of Philosophy Department of Agronomy Tesfaye Tesso The approach used to identify inbred lines that can produce superior hybrids is costly and time-consuming. It requires creation of all possible crosses and evaluation of the crosses to estimate combining abilities for the desired traits. Predicting heterosis or hybrid performance in any way possible may help to reduce the number of crosses to be made and evaluated. In this study, four sets of experiments were conducted to determine whether heterosis can be predicted based on inbred line performance, genetic distance between parents and genomic prediction model. The first experiment was aimed at assessing the levels of genetic diversity, population structure and linkage disequilibrium (LD) in 279 public sorghum inbred lines, based on 66,265 SNPs generated using the genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) platform. The inbred lines were developed at different times over the last two decades and harbor robust diversity in pedigree and agronomic characteristics. Some of the inbreds are resistant to Acetolactate synthase (ALS) and Acetyl co-enzyme-A carboxylase (ACC) inhibitor herbicides. The mean polymorphic information content (PIC) and gene diversity across the entire inbreds were 0.35 and 0.46, respectively with non-herbicide resistant inbreds harboring more diversity than the herbicide resistant ones. The population structure analysis clustered the inbred lines into three major subgroups according to pedigree and fertility-reaction with the maintainer lines (B-lines) distinctly forming a separate cluster. Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) revealed more variation within subgroups than among subgroups. Substantial linkage disequilibrium (LD) was detected between the markers in the population with marked variation between chromosomes. This information may facilitate the use of the inbreds in sorghum breeding programs and provide perspectives for optimizing marker density for gene mapping and marker-assisted breeding. The second experiment, based on 102 F1 hybrids developed by intercrossing closely and distantly related inbreds, was conducted to investigate the relationship of genetic distance between parents with hybrid vigor or heterosis. The F1 hybrids alongside their parents were evaluated at two environments in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The results show that correlations of genetic distance between parents with hybrid performance and heterosis were variable and dependent on the trait. Though most were statistically non-significant and not strong to be used as predictor for heterosis, the results tend to show that certain level of genetic distance between parents is needed to capture maximum heterosis and hybrid performance. The objective of the third research study was to determine whether traits measured on parents can be used to predict hybrid performance in sorghum and to assess the combining ability of selected inbreds. Forty-six parental inbred lines and 75 F1 hybrids generated from intercrossing the inbreds were evaluated in four environments in a randomized complete block design with three replications. The average performance of the parents (mid-parent) was significantly correlated with hybrid performance for thousand kernel weight, days to flowering and plant height. Significant general (GCA) and specific (SCA) combining abilities were observed for most traits, with highly significant GCA effects observed for most traits as compared to SCA indicating that additive genetic effects are more important in affecting the inheritance of the traits measured. Results show that studying parental inbred line performance could generate important information for predicting hybrid performance in sorghum. The fourth experiment was aimed at assessing the efficacy of genomic prediction of hybrid performance in sorghum. Genomic prediction was performed with five-fold cross-validation procedure on 204 F1 hybrids developed using 102 inbred lines. A total of 66,265 SNP markers generated using genotyping-by-sequencing were used in this study. Results showed that increasing training population size increased prediction accuracies for all traits with the effect being different for different traits. Also, considering additive effects alone versus additive and dominance effects in the model showed similar trend of prediction accuracy but the full model (considering both additive and dominance effects of the markers) provided better prediction at least for some of the traits. The results suggest that genomic prediction could become an effective tool for predicting the performance of untested sorghum hybrids thus adding efficiency to hybrid selection.
Rife, Trevor W.
Doctor of Philosophy Genetics Interdepartmental Program Jesse Poland The Green Revolution is credited with saving billions of lives by effectively harnessing new genetic resources and breeding strategies to create high-yielding varieties for countries lacking adequate food security. To keep the next billion people in a state of food security, plant breeders will need to rapidly incorporate novel approaches and technologies into their breeding programs. The work presented here describes new genomic and phenomic strategies and tools aimed at accelerating genetic gain in plant breeding. Plant breeders have long relied on regional testing networks to evaluate new breeding lines across many locations. These are an attractive resource for both retrospective and contemporary analysis due to the vast amount of data available. To characterize genetic progress of plant breeding programs in the Central Plains, entries from the Southern Regional Performance Nursery dating back to 1992 were evaluated in field trials. The trend for annual improvement was 1.1% yr⁻¹, matching similar reports for genetic gain. During the same time period, growth of on-farm yields stagnated. Genomic selection, a promising method to increase genetic gain, was tested using historical data from the SRPN. A temporal-based model showed that, on average, yield predictions outperformed a year-to-year phenotypic correlation. A program-based model found that the predictability of a breeding program was similar when using either data from a single program or from the entire regional collection. Modern DNA marker platforms either characterize a small number of loci or profile an entire genome. Spiked genotyping-by-sequencing (sGBS) was developed to address the need in breeding programs for both targeted loci and whole-genome selection. sGBS uses a low-cost, integrated approach that combines targeted amplicons with reduced representation genotyping-by-sequencing. This approach was validated using converted and newly-designed markers targeting known polymorphisms in the leaf rust resistance gene Lr34. Plant breeding programs generate vast quantities of data during evaluation and selection of superior genotypes. Many programs still rely on manual, error-prone methods to collect data. To make this process more robust, we have developed several open-source phenotyping apps with simple, intuitive interfaces. A contemporary Green Revolution will rely on integrating many of these innovative technologies into modern breeding programs.
Recent Tuberculosis Transmission and Clustering: An Evaluation of Clinical and Molecular Epidemiological Risk Factors in Ohio, 2006-2015Alamoudi, Banan Mohammad A 2017 (has links)
No description available.
Davhana, Ndivhudzannyi Caroline
12 February 2016
MSc (Microbiology) Department of Microbiology
Évaluation de marqueurs génétiques du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis combinée à l'utilisation d'outils bioinformatiques : apport en épidémiologie et phylogénie de la tuberculose Evaluation of genetic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis combined with the use of bioinformatics tools : input for epidemiology and phylogeny of tuberculosisMillet, Julie 7 June 2011 (has links)
Ce travail de thèse intitulé «Evaluation de marqueurs génétiques du complexe Mycobacterium tuberculosis combinée à l'utilisation d'outils bioinformatiques: apport en épidémiologie et phylogénie de la tuberculose» a consisté en la sélection et l'évaluation de marqueurs minisatellites dans le cadre d'études épidémiologiques et phylogénétiques du bacille tuberculeux, Une première partie a ainsi porté sur l'épidémie de tuberculose en Guadeloupe, Martinique, et Guyane française ainsi que dans un pays continental à faible incidence de tuberculose, la Suède, Les résultats montrent les disparités existant entre les populations de patients tuberculeux des 3 départements français d'Amérique (DFA) ainsi que les similitudes génotypiques existant entre les bacilles tuberculeux. Par ailleurs le rôle majeur joué par les cas d'importation dans l'épidémie de tuberculose a été montré aussi bien dans les DFA qu'en Suède. Nous nous sommes ensuite intéressés à une utilisation optimale des minisatellites pour une meilleure discrimination de la famille génotypique émergeante « Beijing» circulant au Japon (Osaka, Kobe et Okinawa), ainsi qu'en Russie. Nous avons constaté le faible pouvoir discriminant du format classique 12-locus MIRU (Mycobacterial lnterspersed Repetitive Units) et proposons plusieurs nouvelles stratégies de typage basées plusieurs marqueurs minisatellites incluant certains locus hypervariables. Enfin, dans un troisième volet, nous avons étudié la diversité génétique des bacilles tuberculeux circulant actuellement dans la Caraïbe. laquelle semble refléter le passé historique très particulier de cette zone géographique au croisement d'une multitude de peuplements. This thesis entitled "Evaluation of genetic markers of Mycobacterium tuberculosis combined with the use of bioinformatics tools: input for epidemiology and phylogeny of tuberculosis" deals with the selection and evaluation of minisatellite markers in the context of epidemiological and phylogenetic studies of the tubercle bacillus M. tuberculosis. The first part of the present work has focused on the epidemic of tuberculosis in Guadeloupe, Martinique and French Guiana as well as in a low incidence continental country, i.e Sweden. The results show differences between populations of TB patients in the three French Departments of America and similarities between the genotypes of the circulating tubercle bacilli Moreover, results highlight the important role played by imported cases for TB epidemic the three French departments of America and Sweden. ln a second part, minisatellite markers have been evaluated for a better discrimination of strains of the emerging genotype "Beijing" circulating in Japan (Osaka, Kobe and Okinawa), and Russia. A low discriminatory power of classical format 12-locus MIRU (Mycobacterial lnterspersed Repetitive Units) was observed and new combinations of minisatellites have also been proposed including hypervariable locus. Finally, the genetic diversity of tubercle bacilli circulating in the Caribbean was investigated which currently seem to reflect historical past of this very special region at the intersection of a multitude of cultures and peoples.
Detecção de polimorfismos do gene da proteína priônica no rebanho ovino do Estado de São Paulo: métodos e aplicabilidade à seleção para resistência ao scrapie Detection of Polymorphisms in the prion protein gene in Sheeps flock in the State of São Paulo: Methods and Applicability of Selection for Scrapie ResistanceCaio Rodrigues dos Santos 31 May 2012 (has links)
Scrapie ou paraplexia enzoótica dos ovinos é uma doença neurodegenerativa fatal que acomete ovinos e raramente caprinos. A doença é influenciada por polimorfismos nos códons 136, 154 e 171 do gene prnp que codifica a proteína priônica. Os animais podem ser susceptíveis ou resistentes, de acordo com as sequências alélicas observadas nos referidos códons. No Brasil ocorreram apenas casos de animais que foram importados, sendo o país considerado livre da doença. Neste trabalho foi realizada a genotipagem dos diferentes polimorfismos associados ao desenvolvimento do scrapie e a categorização em animais susceptíveis e resistentes. Foram sequenciadas 118 amostras provenientes de ovinos da raça Santa Inês criados em propriedades localizadas no Estado de São Paulo. Destas amostras foram identificados 6 alelos e 11 genótipos (ARQ/ARQ, ARR/ARQ, ARQ/AHQ, ARQ/VRQ, AHQ/AHQ, ARR/ARR, ARR/AHQ, VRQ/VRQ, ARQ/TRQ, TRR/TRR, TRQ/TRQ), dentre os quais o genótipo ARQ/ARQ teve ocorrência de 56,7%. Em nosso estudo foi detectada a presença da tirosina no códon 136, observação rara na medida em quenão existem relatos nacionais e relatos envolvendo a raça Santa Inês descrevendo este polimorfismo. Com os resultados obtidos, foi possível determinar a existência de grande variabilidade genética relacionada à raça Santa Inês no Estado de São Paulo, apesar da variabilidade, apenas 1,69% dos genótipos observados são extremamente resistentes ao scrapie. Estes dados demonstram que a raça nativa Santa Inês pode ser considerada potencialmente susceptível ao scrapie. Enzootic paraplexia or scrapie is a fatal neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly sheep and rarely goats. The disease is influenced by polymorphisms at codons 136, 154 and 171 of prnp gene that encodes the prion protein. The animals may be susceptible or resistant to the development of the disease according to the allelic sequences observed in these codons. In Brazil there were only cases of scrapie in imported animals, therefore the country is considered free of the disease. This study performed the genotyping of different polymorphisms associated to the development of scrapie. Then, based on these findings the animals were categorized in resistant and susceptible. A total of 118 samples were sequenced from the Santa Ines sheep raised on properties located in the State of Sao Paulo. From these samples, 6 alleles and 11 genotypes were identified (ARQ / ARQ, ARR / ARQ, ARQ / AHQ, ARQ / VRQ, AHQ / AHQ, ARR / ARR, ARR / AHQ, VRQ / VRQ, ARQ / TRQ, TRR / TRR, TRQ / TRQ), the genotype ARQ / ARQ presented a frequency of 56.7%. It was also detected the presence of tyrosine at codon 136, which may be considered a rare observation, since there is no report regarding Santa Ines breeding presenting this polymorphism. These results showed the great genetic variability in Santa Ines in Sao Paulo and only 1,69% of the genotypes observed are extremely resistant to scrapie. These data demonstrate that the Santa Ines sheep can be considered potentially susceptible to scrapie.
Prospecção de assinaturas de seleção em regiões de QTL associadas com características reprodutivas em novilhas Nelore Prospection of selection signatures in QTL regions associated to reproductive features in Nelore heifersMontes Vergara, Donicer Eduardo [UNESP] 24 March 2016 (has links)
Submitted by DONICER EDUARDO MONTES VERGARA null (email@example.com) on 2016-04-11T17:24:33Z No. of bitstreams: 1 H.Tese-Donicer- Defensa Definitivo -08-04-2016.pdf: 1794206 bytes, checksum: a97a3f4dcd0f3e1489260272006d51af (MD5) Approved for entry into archive by Juliano Benedito Ferreira (firstname.lastname@example.org) on 2016-04-12T14:43:11Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 montesvergara_de_dr_jabo.pdf: 1794206 bytes, checksum: a97a3f4dcd0f3e1489260272006d51af (MD5) Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-12T14:43:11Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 montesvergara_de_dr_jabo.pdf: 1794206 bytes, checksum: a97a3f4dcd0f3e1489260272006d51af (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-03-24 Características reprodutivas, como a ocorrência de prenhez precoce, são mais importantes economicamente ao comparar-se com as características de crescimento. Desta forma, o aumento da taxa de fertilidade e emprego de animais geneticamente superiores é determinante no progresso da produtividade nas fazendas comerciais de produção de carne bovina. A seleção modifica as frequências alélicas de uma população ao transmitir as variantes gênicas mais interessantes. Considerando o desequilíbrio de ligação, alguns locos adjacentes às mutações favoráveis são transmitidos ao longo das gerações. Estes são conhecidos como assinaturas de seleção e podem ser identificados com o uso de “chips” de SNP e metodologias estatísticas adequadas. Com o objetivo de identificar assinaturas de seleção recentes em QTL previamente mapeados para características reprodutivas de fêmeas bovinas ligadas à precocidade sexual, foram genotipadas 2.035 fêmeas da raça Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) com o chip “Illumina BovineHD BeadChip”. Posteriormente foi inferida a fase de ligação dos SNPs e a reconstrução dos haplótipos. A detecção de assinaturas de seleção foi realizada por meio da aplicação da metodologia “Relative Extended Haplotype Homozygosity” (REHH). A identificação de genes que contribuem para a importância da característica nestas regiões foi feita com a ferramenta Map Viewer do “National Center for Biotechnology Information”- NCBI e GBrowse carregada com o genoma bovino versão UMD 3.1. Foram detectadas 2.756 regiões núcleo, com tamanho médio 27,6 ± 29,1 Kb, abrangendo 70,1 Mb dos 25 cromossomos estudados. Dos SNPs utilizados, 17.312 participaram da formação das regiões núcleo, com o mínimo de 10 no BTA27 e o máximo de 20 SNPs nos cromossomos 1, 3-7, 9-15,18-21, e 23-24. Foram identificadas 40 assinaturas de seleção recentes com diferentes níveis de significância e 56 genes A maioria dos genes localizados nas regiões de assinaturas de seleção tem relação com os processos biológicos de metabolismo mitocondrial, desenvolvimento pós-embrionário, regulação da taxa de ovulação e fertilidade, resposta imune, metabolismo de triglicerídeo, proliferação celular e neurônios receptores olfativos. A investigação de mecanismos regulatórios da expressão dos genes associados aos processos biológicos descritos pode oferecer conhecimentos sobre os mecanismos moleculares que afetam a característica ocorrências de prenhez precoce, na raça Nelore. Some reproductive traits such as early pregnancy are more profitable than those related to growth. Increasing fertility rate and using genetically superior animals are crucial in productivity of meat commercial farms. Artificial selection modifies allele frequencies of a cattle population by transmitting the most significant gene variants. Considering linkage disequilibrium, some loci adjacent to favorable mutations are transmitted across generations. Known as signatures of selection, such locations can be identified by the SNP chips, and appropriate statistical methods. To determine recent selection signature in quantitative trait loci (QTL) previously mapped for reproductive cow features linked to sexual precocity, 2,035 Nelore (Bos taurus indicus) females were genotyped by Illumina Bovine chip. After, inferring the connection phase of SNPs allowed haplotype reconstruction. Selection signatures were detected by Relative Extended Haplotype Homozygosity (REHH) method. Genes supposedly important were recognized by Map Viewer from the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI), and also through a loaded GBrowse with bovine genome UMD, version 3.1. A total of 2,756 core regions were detected, with an average size of 27.6 ± 29.1 Kb, covering 70.1 Mb of 25 chromosomes. 17,312 SNPs are involved in the formation of core regions with at least 10 on BTA27, and a maximum of 20 SNPs on 1, 3-7, 9-15, 18-21, and 23-24 chromosomes. We identify 40 possible recent selection signatures, with different levels of significance, and 56 positional candidate genes. Most of genes located in selection signature regions are related to biological processes of mitochondrial metabolism, post-embryonic development, ovulation rate regulation and fertility, immune response, triglyceride metabolism, cell proliferation, and olfactory receptor neurons. The investigation of regulatory mechanisms of gene expression associated with biological processes described can provide knowledge on the molecular mechanisms affecting characteristic of early pregnancy occurrences in Nellore.
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