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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

El ingreso de la República Popular China a la OMC y sus efectos sociales y económicos más relevantes.

Monsalve Carvajal, Sergio, Ríos Espíndola, Jorge January 2004 (has links)
Memoria (licenciado en ciencias jurídicas y sociales) / Nuestro trabajo pretende analizar el desarrollo económico chino durante el último siglo, dando al mismo tiempo una vista general a la Organización Mundial del Comercio, y en especial a la Ronda Uruguay - considerada como la ronda de negociaciones más importante - y que definió claramente los principios de la OMC. Debido a que la OMC ha previsto una clasificación de las economías de los países en vías de desarrollo, consideraremos a China, en parte, como uno de ellos. Tras ello, seguiremos con un resumen de las relaciones que hasta ahora ha tenido China con la OMC, el transcurso de las negociaciones de ingreso a la organización, y los efectos que para China resultan de dicho ingreso
2

O Sistema de Solução de Controvérsias da OMC : um estudo de caso sobre os subsídios da União Européia ao açúcar

Silva Rodrigues, Alberto January 2005 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-12T17:21:21Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 2 arquivo5999_1.pdf: 1073177 bytes, checksum: ffb66a0cabddd4b7627c5c3e795f2b62 (MD5) license.txt: 1748 bytes, checksum: 8a4605be74aa9ea9d79846c1fba20a33 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2005 / Esta Dissertação teve por objetivo analisar o Sistema de Solução de Controvérsias da Organização Mundial do Comércio, realizando um estudo sobre as raízes do GATT, da OMC e dos acordos de regulamentação do comércio internacional. Após a Conferencia de Bretton Woods o mundo passa a buscar o caminho da multilateralidade, que difere do modo bilateral que os países conduziam suas relações comerciais at então. Realizando um estudo sobre as origens das regulamentações do comércio internacional, desde o fim da Segunda Guerra Mundial, até os dias atuais, torna-se possível um melhor entendimento sobre o comércio global e seus desdobramentos nas economias dos países ricos e pobres. Este trabalho apresenta no seu último capítulo um estudo de caso atual, relatando a disputa comercial travada pela Austrália, Brasil e Tailândia contra a União Européia. O objeto da controvérsia é questão dos subsídios da UE destinados aos produtores de açúcar do bloco e através desse estudo é possível visualizar o funcionamento do Sistema de Solução de Controvérsias na prática. Tendo em vista que um dos principais objetivos citados no acordo constituti o da OMC é o incentivo ao desenvolvimento emelhorias das condições de vida dos cidadãos dos países através do comércio, a temática dadisputa comercial se torna de extrema importância no que tange os interesses dos países em desenvolvimento, fortemente dependentes do setor agrícola.
3

La libéralisation des services du commerce électronique dans l'Union Européenne et dans l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce / Liberalization of electronic services in EU and WTO

Ribeiro-Alves, Gleisse 04 July 2011 (has links)
Cette thèse qui avait pour objet de comprendre l'état actuel de la libéralisation des services du commerce électronique afin d'apporter l'éclairage sur la question de savoir comment les instruments de la libéralisation des services interagissent au niveau régional comme au niveau international. De quelle façon cette interaction permet la libéralisation des services du commerce électronique? Pour comprendre le sens de cette question, il faut examiner le processus d'intégration et de réalisation du marché global. Ce processus, qui se traduit par l'ouverture des économies nationales sur un marché mondial libéral, se matérialise par la multiplication des flux des biens, des services, des informations, de l'argent comme aussi par les déplacements humains. La concrétisation de ce marché global nécessite la suppression des mesures qui restreignent la libre circulation des produits et services. Selon le regard juridique, il est nécessaire que les marchés soient réglementés par un système juridique uniforme afin d'empêcher des barrières réalisée par les États. Ainsi, les pays ont commencé à s'engager dans des politiques spécifiques pour régler ou pour éliminer les barrières à ce commerce. L'Union Européenne - comme organisme régional - et l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce - comme organisme multilatéral - sont deux instances très importantes pour le développement des politiques diverses et des études touchant à la libéralisation. Nous analysons donc la libéralisation des services du commerce électronique sous le prisme de la comparaison entre les deux organismes. L'enjeu de notre étude est de montrer les points de convergence mais aussi de divergences entre l'Union Européenne et l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce. D'un côté, au niveau de l'Union Européenne la coopération joue un rôle intégrateur fondamental sous l'impulsion de la Cour de Justice européenne. De l'autre, l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce, issue de préoccupations majoritairement, si ce n'est strictement, économiques et dont le but est de faciliter la libre concurrence du commerce sur un plan mondial. / This study provides an analysis of the current state of liberalization of electronic services. It aims to answer the question on how instruments of services liberalization interact in regional and international levels and how this interaction permits the liberalization of electronic services. In order to understand the meaning of this question, it is necessary to analyze the process of integration and operation of the global market. This process, which results in the opening of national economies to a liberal market, increases the trade of goods, services, information, money and also human displacements. The achievement of this global market requires the elimination of measures or barriers that may limit free trade of goods and services. From a legal point of view, markets need to be regulated by a legal system that is uniform as to prevent trade barriers created by States. Thus, some countries are recognizing specific policies in order to regulate and even eliminate possible barriers to the trade of electronic services. The European Union - as a regional organization - and the World Trade Organization - as a multilateral organization - are two very important forums that develop policies and studies on liberalization. Therefore, in this thesis, the liberalization of electronic services will be analyzed by comparing these two organizations. The challenge of our study is to show the present situation of convergence and of divergences between the European Union and the World Trade Organization in what concerns the liberalization of electronic services. It will be presented the level of integration in the European Union where the European Court of Justice has a very important stimulating role and on the other hand, it will be presented how the World Trade Organization facilitates free competition in trade.
4

GATT/OMC: uma análise institucional / GATT/WTO: an institutional analysis

Tatiana de Macedo Nogueira Lima 20 September 2004 (has links)
A dissertação analisa como, ao longo do tempo, o GATT adquiriu características de instituição (North) e como seu funcionamento tornou possível a criação de uma organização internacional do comércio (OMC). / This work reports how GATT became an institution and how it made possible the creation of the WTO.
5

Desenvolvimento de carbonos mesoporosos ordenados para aplicação em sensores eletroquímicos / Development of ordered mesoporous carbon for electrochemical sensors application

Jaqueline Ruiz Maluta 11 August 2017 (has links)
O desenvolvimento de novos materiais para a aplicação em eletroanalítica, uma atividade extremamente atraente, visa produzir compostos com condutividade elétrica alta, estabilidade mecânica e química e grandes áreas superficiais. Assim, nesta tese foram desenvolvidos Carbonos Mesoporosos Ordenados, um tipo de material carbônico recentemente explorado para diversas aplicações devido às suas propriedades específicas e facilmente manipuláveis. A produção inicia-se com a síntese da sílica mesoporosa utilizada como template, seguida pela impregnação por molhamento incipiente utilizando moléculas que são concomitantemente, fontes de carbono e de um heteroátomo (S, N ou O). Após a polimerização e carbonização em atmosfera não-oxidante, removeu-se o template de sílica, obtendo-se um material altamente organizado de estrutura mesoporosa, caracterizado pelas análises de BET, MET e DRX em ângulos baixos. Os materiais sintetizados apresentaram área superficial grande e acessível, indicadas pelas as análises de BET, o que ofereceu uma alta eficiência de pré-concentração de analitos. A fim de garantir um carbono com características grafíticas e boa condutividade, partiu-se de fontes carbônicas aromáticas e utilizou-se o óxido de ferro como catalisador da polimerização. Com isso, obteve-se materiais com carácter grafítico, mostrado pelas análises de DRX e Raman, com excelentes propriedades elétricas e transferência eletrônica mais rápida, mostrado pelas análises eletroquímicas (VC e EIE) garantindo um material com excelente atividade eletrocatalítica. Os três diferentes tipos de dopagem geraram três materiais distintos, que diferem não apenas na composição química, mas também nas propriedades físicas, elétricas e em sua resposta eletroanalítica. Os materiais sintetizados foram aplicados na detecção do cloranfenicol, um antibiótico com propriedades antibacterianas e farmacocinéticas excelentes, porém proibido em produtos destinados ao consumo humano. A metodologia desenvolvida apresentou boa sensibilidade e limites de detecção e quantificação, além da capacidade de analisar diretamente leite em pó, sem a necessidade de etapas trabalhosas de preparo de amostra. / The development of new materials for electroanalitycal application aims to produce materials with high electric conductivity, mechanical and chemical stability, and high surface areas. So, in this thesis, it was developed Ordered Mesoporous Carbon, a carbonic material recently explored in several applications due its specific plasticity properties. The production starts with the mesoporous silica synthesis. It is used as template, followed by the incipient wetness impregnation using molecules that are both a carbon source and heteroatom precursor (S, N or O). After the polymerization and the non-oxidant atmosphere carbonization, the template was removed, what yielded a highy ordered mesoporous structure, demonstrated by BET, TEM and low-angle XRD analysis. The synthetized materials showed high and accessible surface area, demonstrated by BET, which allowed high pre-concentration efficiency with a fast diffusion process. In order to get a graphitic carbon with good conductivity, it was used aromatic carbon precursors and iron as polymerization catalyst. Consequently, a material with graphitic character was getting, as we can see at XRD and Raman, with excellent electric properties and faster electronic transference, showed by electrochemical analysis (CV and EIS), leading to a material with excellent electrocatalytic activity. The three different doping types leading to three distinct materials, which differ not only at chemical composition, but also at physical, electrics and electroanalytical properties. The materials was applied at chloramphenicol detection, an antibiotic with excellent antibacterial and pharmacokinetics properties. However, it is forbidden in edible products. The developed methodology has good sensibility, and limits of detection and quantification. In addition, was possible to analyze powder milk directly, without any other timing consuming procedure of sample preparing.
6

Desenvolvimento de carbonos mesoporosos ordenados para aplicação em sensores eletroquímicos / Development of ordered mesoporous carbon for electrochemical sensors application

Maluta, Jaqueline Ruiz 11 August 2017 (has links)
O desenvolvimento de novos materiais para a aplicação em eletroanalítica, uma atividade extremamente atraente, visa produzir compostos com condutividade elétrica alta, estabilidade mecânica e química e grandes áreas superficiais. Assim, nesta tese foram desenvolvidos Carbonos Mesoporosos Ordenados, um tipo de material carbônico recentemente explorado para diversas aplicações devido às suas propriedades específicas e facilmente manipuláveis. A produção inicia-se com a síntese da sílica mesoporosa utilizada como template, seguida pela impregnação por molhamento incipiente utilizando moléculas que são concomitantemente, fontes de carbono e de um heteroátomo (S, N ou O). Após a polimerização e carbonização em atmosfera não-oxidante, removeu-se o template de sílica, obtendo-se um material altamente organizado de estrutura mesoporosa, caracterizado pelas análises de BET, MET e DRX em ângulos baixos. Os materiais sintetizados apresentaram área superficial grande e acessível, indicadas pelas as análises de BET, o que ofereceu uma alta eficiência de pré-concentração de analitos. A fim de garantir um carbono com características grafíticas e boa condutividade, partiu-se de fontes carbônicas aromáticas e utilizou-se o óxido de ferro como catalisador da polimerização. Com isso, obteve-se materiais com carácter grafítico, mostrado pelas análises de DRX e Raman, com excelentes propriedades elétricas e transferência eletrônica mais rápida, mostrado pelas análises eletroquímicas (VC e EIE) garantindo um material com excelente atividade eletrocatalítica. Os três diferentes tipos de dopagem geraram três materiais distintos, que diferem não apenas na composição química, mas também nas propriedades físicas, elétricas e em sua resposta eletroanalítica. Os materiais sintetizados foram aplicados na detecção do cloranfenicol, um antibiótico com propriedades antibacterianas e farmacocinéticas excelentes, porém proibido em produtos destinados ao consumo humano. A metodologia desenvolvida apresentou boa sensibilidade e limites de detecção e quantificação, além da capacidade de analisar diretamente leite em pó, sem a necessidade de etapas trabalhosas de preparo de amostra. / The development of new materials for electroanalitycal application aims to produce materials with high electric conductivity, mechanical and chemical stability, and high surface areas. So, in this thesis, it was developed Ordered Mesoporous Carbon, a carbonic material recently explored in several applications due its specific plasticity properties. The production starts with the mesoporous silica synthesis. It is used as template, followed by the incipient wetness impregnation using molecules that are both a carbon source and heteroatom precursor (S, N or O). After the polymerization and the non-oxidant atmosphere carbonization, the template was removed, what yielded a highy ordered mesoporous structure, demonstrated by BET, TEM and low-angle XRD analysis. The synthetized materials showed high and accessible surface area, demonstrated by BET, which allowed high pre-concentration efficiency with a fast diffusion process. In order to get a graphitic carbon with good conductivity, it was used aromatic carbon precursors and iron as polymerization catalyst. Consequently, a material with graphitic character was getting, as we can see at XRD and Raman, with excellent electric properties and faster electronic transference, showed by electrochemical analysis (CV and EIS), leading to a material with excellent electrocatalytic activity. The three different doping types leading to three distinct materials, which differ not only at chemical composition, but also at physical, electrics and electroanalytical properties. The materials was applied at chloramphenicol detection, an antibiotic with excellent antibacterial and pharmacokinetics properties. However, it is forbidden in edible products. The developed methodology has good sensibility, and limits of detection and quantification. In addition, was possible to analyze powder milk directly, without any other timing consuming procedure of sample preparing.
7

La problématique de la participation des pays en développement à l'OMC / The issue of the participation of developing countries was [sic] the WTO

Traore, Kadiatou 17 December 2015 (has links)
Longtemps considérés comme les parents pauvres du système commercial international et quémandeurs de traitements préférentiels, les pays en développement (PED) représentent aujourd’hui 50% du commerce mondial. Ils sont perçus à la fois comme de gigantesques marchés potentiels ou comme de dangereux concurrents pour les entreprises des pays développés. Leur place sur la scène commerciale internationale est plus que jamais à l'ordre du jour. La meilleure preuve en est le surnom de «cycle du développement» attribué au round de négociations lancé en novembre 2001 à l'issue de la Conférence ministérielle de Doha de l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce. En choisissant d’étudier la problématique de la participation des PED à l'OMC, nous nous fixons deux objectifs ; le premier consiste à mieux comprendre les enjeux de l'application des règles de l'OMC sur les PED. En examinant cette question, nous serons amenés à observer comment ces pays collaborent et contribuent d’une manière directe aux activités principales de cette organisation. Le deuxième objectif consiste à étudier la nécessité d’accorder un traitement spécial et différencié aux PED. Ainsi nous allons examiner les enjeux de la participation des PED à l'OMC (Partie I). La seconde partie (partie II) est consacrée, quant à elle, à une étude exhaustive de leur statut actuel au sein de l'Organisation Mondiale du Commerce. Les différentes dispositions relatives au traitement spécial et différencié en leur faveur sont mises en évidence, ainsi que leur efficacité parfois toute relative / Long time considered as weak entities of the international trading system and requesters for preferential treatment, developing countries account for 50% of global trade today. They are seen both as huge potential markets and as dangerous competitors for developed countries’ firms. Their place on the international trade scene is more than ever on the agenda. The best proof is their denomination «development round» attributed to the round of negotiations launched in November 2001 after the Doha Ministerial Conference of the World Trade Organization. By studying the issue of developing countries in the WTO's participation we set two goals. The first is to better understand the issues of the application of WTO rules on developing countries. When considering this question, we must bear in mind (or consider sans bear in mind) how these countries work together and contribute in a direct way to the main activities of this organization. The second purpose is to study the need for a special and differential treatment for developing countries. Thus, we examine the participation of developing countries in the WTO' issues (Part I). The second part (Part II) is devoted, in its turn, to a comprehensive study of their current status in the World Trade Organization. The various measures related to a special and differential treatment in their favor are highlighted and also their effectiveness, sometimes all link with
8

Les exceptions environnementales et sanitaires dans la jurisprudence de l'OMC / The environmental and sanitary exceptions in the WTO Case-Law

Choquet, Uriell 07 November 2015 (has links)
L’étude du sort des exceptions environnementales et sanitaires à l’OMC permet de mettre en lumière l’équilibre qu’assurent les organes de règlement des différends entre les valeurs commerciales et non-commerciales. Ces exceptions sont pourtant vouées à une ineffectivité systémique au sein du droit de l’OMC. Les organes de règlement des différends fonctionnent comme des régulateurs exclusivement portés par et pour les intérêts commerciaux. En refusant d’infléchir les principes du libre-échange au nom des exceptions inscrites dans les textes, ils appliquent un droit rigide, vecteur d’insécurité environnementale, sanitaire et alimentaire. Une première approche linéaire de la jurisprudence révèle que les organes de règlement des différends cultivent l’apparence d’une régulation équilibrée dans ces domaines. Cet équilibre de façade est néanmoins contredit par une recherche approfondie sur le véritable sort réservé aux exceptions environnementales et sanitaires. La présente étude démontre que les organes de règlement des différends ont en réalité interprété ces exceptions de manière tellement restrictive qu’elles en sont devenues ineffectives. Une seconde approche, plus transversale, révèle que la rigidité du multilatéralisme commercial est ancrée jusque dans les mécanismes juridiques et techniques du droit de l’OMC. Ainsi en va-t-il du droit de la preuve et de la reconnaissance des normes externes au droit de l’OMC qui neutralisent les exceptions environnementales et sanitaires. Pourtant, ces verrous actuels représentent les clefs potentielles de demain, à même de relever les défis contemporains. / The use of the environmental and sanitary exceptions’ study highlights the balance between commercial and non-commercial values provided by the WTO’s dispute settlement organs. Yet, these exceptions turn out to be mere decoys, since they are doomed to ineffectiveness in the WTO’s law. The dispute settlement organs appear to be exclusively motivated by and for commercial interests. By refusing to inflect the free trade’s principles on behalf of the textual exceptions, they turn WTO in a rigid law, vector of environmental, sanitary and alimentary insecurity. A first linear perspective shows that the dispute settlement organs claim to ensure a balanced regulatory activity in these areas. Nevertheless, a deeper study of what happens to the environmental and sanitary exceptions contradicts this apparent balance. As a matter of fact, the dispute settlement organs have adopted such a restrictiv interpretation of these exceptions, that they have become ineffective. A second cross perspective shows that the rigidity of the comercial multilateralism is deeply rooted into the technical juridical mechanisms of the dispute settlement. Such is the case of the rules on proof and the recognition of external norms: these locks in the present could be keys in the future that would enable the WTO’s law to meet the contemporary challenges.
9

L'adhésion de la Chine à l'OMC et le régime de protection de la propriété intellectuelle / China's accession to WTO and the system of intellectual property protection

Manai, Sarah 08 December 2011 (has links)
Récemment les droits relatifs à la protection intellectuelle ont joué un grand rôle à travers le monde. Comment est-il possible de protéger efficacement les droits de propriété intellectuelle. En tant qu’un des accords de l’OMC, l’Accord sur les aspects des droits de propriété intellectuelle qui touchent au commerce est un élément de réponse à cette question. En effet, la protection de ce dernier en termes de droit de propriété intellectuelle a atteint un niveau sans précédent. Après son entrée à l’OMC en 2001, la République Populaire de Chine a du mettre sa législation en matière de droit de la propriété intellectuelle en conformité avec l’ADPIC. En effet, l’intégration de la Chine dans l’économie mondiale ces dernières années a été accentuée par sa volonté à ouvrir son économie et à garantir certaines règles de droit quand le pays a accédé à l’OMC le 11 Décembre 2001. Les progrès de la Chine en matière de protection de la propriété intellectuelle ont été importants dans une période assez courte. Moins de vingt ans auparavant, le pays n’était pas doté d’un système de protection de la propriété intellectuelle. Aujourd’hui, la Chine possède un ensemble d’instruments juridiques modernes composé de lois et de procédures spécifiques aux aspects de propriété intellectuelle, sans aucune comparaison possible avec le reste du monde. Par conséquent, entre 1992 et 2001, beaucoup de réformes furent entreprises. La Chine a consenti à étendre son système de protection de la propriété intellectuelle à tous les domaines et d’augmenter le niveau de protection des droits de propriété intellectuelle par l'instauration de procédures d’acquisition ou de protection d’un droit de propriété intellectuelle, de mettre en place les mesures nécessaires pour contrôler les violations d’un droit de propriété intellectuelle et renforcer l’exécution et la mise en application des sanctions. Cependant, l’application de ce droit en Chine soulève certains problèmes. L’objet de cette thèse est d’illustrer les causes de l’apparition de ces problèmes en comparant l’accord ADPIC et le droit chinois de la propriété intellectuelle, et en analyser aussi les similarités et les différences entre les deux. Partant de ces différences, les imperfections de la loi chinoise seront illustrées par le différend devant l’Organe de règlement des différends de l’OMC dans le différend entre les Etats-Unis et la République Populaire de Chine quant aux mesures affectant la protection et le respect des droits de propriété intellectuelle en Chine (Règlement des différends: affaire DS 362: Chine — Mesures affectant la protection et le respect des droits de propriété intellectuelle) . Les causes des failles du système de protection de la propriété intellectuelle chinoise tiennent à son histoire, sa culture confucianiste, et sa conception du droit. Paradoxalement, le nouveau régime de propriété intellectuelle faciliterait grâce à sa transparence et à son efficacité, les transactions de produits porteurs de droits de propriété intellectuelle entre les entreprises chinoises et les entreprises étrangères. Par conséquent la capacité en matière d’innovation de la Chine s'est affirmée durant cette période de transition vers une économie qui accorderait une place plus importante à la création industrielle et à l’innovation comme Taiwan ou la République de Corée l’ont fait auparavant. En effet, l’émergence de la République populaire de Chine comme nation leader dans le domaine scientifique dynamise le droit de la propriété intellectuelle par une forte demande interne. L’objet de ce travail est donc d’établir un état des lieux de l’influence de l’ADPIC sur le droit de la propriété intellectuelle en Chine, avec d’une part, une législation nationale en matière de propriété intellectuelle conforme à l’ADPIC e d’autre part, un système d’application des droits de propriété intellectuelle en demi-teinte dans les faits / Recently, intellectual property rights protection played a major role in the world. How can this right be protected properly and people get interests from it as much as possible? This has become an issue during the last decade. Indeed, the protection of the latter in terms of intellectual property rights has reached an unprecedented level. After joining the WTO in 2001, the People's Republic of China has made its intellectual property laws compliant with the TRIPS Agreement. Indeed, the integration of China into the global economy in the last years has been accentuated by its willingness to open its economy and to respect the rule of law when the country joined the WTO on December 11 2001.The progress made by China in the area of protection of intellectual property rights were more than important in a short period. Less than twenty years ago, the country was not able to build the necessary infrastructure to protect intellectual property rights. Nowadays, China has a modern set of legal instruments composed substantive and procedural law for each specific aspect of intellectual property, with no possible comparison with the rest of the world. In fact, between 1992 and 2001, many reforms were undertaken. China has agreed to extend its system of protection of intellectual property in all areas and has increased the protection to a high level, strengthening the implementation and enforcement of its intellectual property laws. However, the enforcement of these laws in China raises some problems. The purpose of this thesis is to illustrate the causes of the occurrence of these problems by explaining the TRIPS Agreement and the Chinese law of intellectual property, and analyze the similarities and also differences between both of them. Based on these differences, the imperfections of Chinese law will be illustrated by the dispute before the Dispute Settlement Body of the WTO between the United States and the People's Republic of China on measures affecting the protection and respect for intellectual property rights in China (2007-2009). The causes of cracks in the system of protection of intellectual property have its roots in Chinese history, Confucian culture and the Chinese conception of law. The new intellectual property regime has enhanced the transparency and efficiency of transactions of products bearing intellectual property rights between Chinese enterprises and foreign enterprises, and has helped China to build its capacity for innovation in China in this period of transition to an economy that places greater emphasis on innovation as did Taiwan or the Republic of Korea before. Indeed, the emergence of China as a leading nation in science energizes the intellectual property law by a strong domestic demand for innovation and intellectual property rights. The purpose of this work is to establish an assessment of the positive impact of TRIPS on intellectual property law in China, with one hand, a national legislation on intellectual property in line with the TRIPS and on the other hand, the failure of the enforcement of intellectual property rights in practice
10

O contencioso sobre os subsídios ao algodão entre Brasil e Estados Unidos na organização mundial do comércio (2002-2005)

Schimanski, Silvana January 2006 (has links)
O contencioso sobre os subsídios ao algodão é um conflito comercial entre Brasil e Estados Unidos, no âmbito da Organização Mundial do Comércio, a respeito da utilização dos subsídios agrícolas. Os subsídios agrícolas sempre consistiram um tema de difícil negociação no sistema multilateral de comércio. O Acordo sobre Agricultura, negociado durante a Rodada Uruguai, pretendia delimitar sua utilização e iniciar uma progressiva redução dessa prática, a fim de combater o protecionismo praticado principalmente pelos países desenvolvidos. Entretanto, alguns países continuam adotando essas práticas, em volumes e valores superiores aos permitidos pelas regras do Acordo sobre Agricultura, como é o caso dos subsídios internos e às exportações concedidos pelos Estados Unidos a seus produtores de algodão. Sendo cada vez mais difícil a negociação da redução dos subsídios por meio das rodadas multilaterais da OMC e tendo sido observada essa infração pelos Estados Unidos, o Brasil, optou por levar o caso à apreciação pelo Órgão de Solução de Controvérsias da OMC. Este trabalho procura identificar fatos e ações que favoreceram a abertura desse contencioso, bem como apresentar as principais dificuldades enfrentadas por um país em desenvolvimento para a utilização deste mecanismo. / The cotton case is a commercial conflict between Brazil and United States, at the World Trade Organization, about the practice of agricultural subsidies. Agricultural subsidies has always been a theme of difficult negotiation at the multilateral trading system. The Agreement on Agriculture negotiated during the Uruguay Round intended to limit its utilization and start a progressive reduction of this practice, in order to combat the protectionism, mainly used by the developed countries. Nevertheless, some countries still adopt those practices, in volumes and values above the allowed by Agreement on Agriculture rules, as is the case of the internal subsidies and to exports granted by the United States to its cotton producers. Being more and more difficult the negotiation to reduce subsidies through the Multilateral Rounds of the WTO and observing that United States disregarded the rules of the Agreement on Agriculture, Brazil decided bring the case to the appreciation by the Dispute Settlement body of the WTO. This work attempts to identify facts and actions that favored the opening of that dispute, as well as to present the main difficulties faced by a developing country for the use of this mechanism.

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