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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Utveckling av juridisk universitetsutbildning i Laos. För att stärka Rule of Law. / Developing Legal University Education in Laos PDR. In order to Strengthen Rule of Law.

Birgersson, Lina, Nordbrandt, Lisa January 2015 (has links)
No description available.
2

Developing Legal University Education in Lao PDR : In order to Strengthen Rule of Law

Nordbrandt, Lisa, Birgersson, Lina January 2015 (has links)
No description available.
3

Desempenho e qualidade de carne em novilhas de corte alimentados com dois níveis de concentrado e proteína não degradável no rúmen e influência da maturidade fisiológica sobre parâmetros qualitativos da carcaça e da carne bovina / Performance and meat quality of beef heifers fed with two levels of concentrate and ruminally undegradable protein and Influence of physiological maturity on carcass yield and meat quality parameters

Duarte, Marcio de Souza 22 February 2010 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2015-03-26T13:54:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 texto completo.pdf: 847490 bytes, checksum: 96b19b5b36a4040238163990d01928e6 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2010-02-22 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico / The present work was developed based on two experiments. The first experiment was conducted aiming to evaluate the effects of ruminal energy-protein synchronization on feed intake, nutrients digestibility, feed conversion, animal performance, carcass yields and composition, composition of the carcass gain, percentage of commercial cuts and meat quality of feedlot heifers. In this trial, twenty crossbreed heifers (240+6kg) were used, all of them coming from the same contemporary group. At the beginning, four animals were slaughtered as reference group and the sixteen animals remaining were assigned to a completely randomized design in 2x2 factorial schemes, two levels of concentrate (40 and 80%, based on dry matter) and two levels of ruminally undegradable protein (RUP). These animals were individually fed during 112 days and slaughtered at the end of the trial. There was no interaction (P>0.05) between the level of concentrate and RUP. The dry matter intake (DMI), feed intake and nutrients digestibility were not affected (P>0.05) by RUP level. However, the animals fed higher level of RUP diets had higher (P<0.05) average daily gain (ADG) compared with the animals fed lower level of RUP diets. The level of concentrate did not affect (P>0.05) the DMI, feed conversion and ADG, but the intakes of TDN, NDFcp and EE, were superior (P<0.05) in the animals fed higher concentrate diets. The digestibilities of all nutrients, except the NDFcp, were greater (P<0.05) for the 80% concentrate diets. There was no affect (P>0.05) of RUP level on carcass yields. Similarly, the percentage of commercial cuts, the composition of the carcass and the composition of the carcass gain were not affected (P>0.05) by the level of RUP and concentrate. However, the animals fed 80% concentrate diets had a larger (P<0.05) rib eye area (REA) compared with the animals fed 40% concentrate diets. No differences (P>0.05) in Warner-Bratzler shear force, myofibrillar fragmentation index, percentage of total cooking loss, and chemical composition of the Longissimus dorsi, were found among the levels of concentrate and RUP. It can be concluded that the level of RUP did not affect the feed intake and nutrients digestibilities, but improved the feed conversion and increased the ADG. Neither level of RUP nor level of concentrate affected the carcass composition, composition of carcass gain, percentage of commercial cuts and the meat quality of the feedlot heifers. The second experiment was conducted to evaluate the beef carcass traits and meat quality of cattle differing in numbers of permanent incisors. Sixty-three Nellore bulls, non-castrated, all from the same farm and grown on pasture, were used. The animals were selected at a large commercial beef plant. Immediately after the slaughter, the numbers of incisors were recorded after a visual examination by looking directly at the teeth and the carcasses were grouped in four categories according to teeth maturity (two, four, six or eight). After 24-h chill, data of carcass weight, pH, rib eye area (REA) and 12th rib fat thickness were collected. After carcass data collection, a boneless Longissimus section between the 9th and 11th rib was removed, vacuum packaged, frozen and held at -200C. The REA and the 12th rib fat thickness increased (P<0.05) as the number of permanent incisors increased. However, no differences (P>0.05) in carcass ultimate pH were found among the four dental classes. There was no effect (P>0.05) of dental maturity on percentage of evaporative and total cooking losses, but differences in percentage of thawing and drip losses were found (P<0.05) among the four dental classes. The Longissimus intramuscular fat and water content were affected (P<0.05) by the dental maturity. However, there was no difference (P>0.05) in percentage of protein and ashes among the dental classes. With the exception of b* values, the dental maturity did not affect (P>0.05) the instrumental color of the Longissimus. The Warner-Bratzler shear force (WBSF), the myofibrillar fragmentation index (MFI) and collagen solubility were affected (P<0.05) by dental maturity, whereas the WBSF has increased while the MFI and collagen solubility decreased as the number of permanent incisors increased. An increase of WBSF was associated (P<0.01) with decreased MFI (r = -0,36) and collagen solubility (r = - 0,14). It can be concluded that the physiological maturity, based on dental classification, affects the carcass traits and meat quality of Nellore cattle. It can also be concluded that meat from non-castrated Zebu cattle up to four permanent incisors has a desirable tenderness. / O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido a partir de dois experimentos. O primeiro foi conduzido para de avaliar o efeito da adequação de energia e proteína na dieta sobre o consumo, digestibilidade dos nutrientes, conversão alimentar, desempenho, características e composição físico-química da carcaça, composição do ganho de carcaça, rendimento de cortes comerciais e características qualitativas da carne de novilhas confinadas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 20 novilhas mestiças, provenientes de um mesmo grupo contemporâneo e com peso corporal médio inicial de 240 kg. Quatro animais foram abatidos no inicio do experimento para constituir o grupo referência e os 16 animais restantes foram distribuído em quatro tratamentos em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2x2, 40 e 80 % de concentrado, e dois níveis de proteína não degradável no rúmen (PNDR). Os animais permaneceram em média 112 dias em confinamento, sendo alimentados individualmente e foram abatidos ao final do período experimental. Não foi verificada interação (P>0,05) entre o nível de concentrado na dieta e a degradabilidade da proteína. Não houve efeito da PNDR (P>0,05) sobre o consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes. Entretanto, PNDR influenciou (P>0,05) o ganho de peso médio diário (GMD) dos animais. O nível de concentrado na dieta não influenciou (P>0,05) o consumo de matéria seca (CMS), a conversão alimentar e o GMD dos animais. Entretanto, o consumo de nutrientes digestíveis totais (NDT), fibra em detergenteneutro corrigido para cinzas e proteína (FDNcp) e extrato etéreo (EE) dos animais alimentados com dietas contendo 80% de concentrado mostrou-se superior (P<0,05) em relação aos animais alimentados com a dieta contendo 40% de concentrado. A dieta contendo 80% de concentrado propiciou maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade (P<0,05) de todos os nutrientes, comparado-se a dieta contendo 40% de concentrado, exceto para a FDNcp. As novilhas alimentadas com os diferentes níveis de concentrado apresentaram composição físico-química da carcaça e do ganho de carcaça similar (P>0,05). O nível de concentrado na dieta influenciou (P<0,05) a área de olho de lombo (AOL), e as novilhas alimentadas com dietas contendo 80% de concentrado apresentaram maior AOL em relação às novilhas alimentadas com dietas contendo 40% de concentrado. O rendimento dos cortes comerciais e as características qualitativas da carne não foram influenciadas (P>0,05) pela quantidade de PNDR presente na dieta nem pelo nível de fornecimento de concentrado. O nível de PNDR na dieta não alterou o consumo e digestibilidade dos nutrientes; melhorou a conversão alimentar e o desempenho de novilhas confinadas; não alterou a composição físico-química da carcaça, do ganho de carcaça e as características qualitativas da carne. As novilhas alimentadas com 80% de concentrado apresentam composição físico-química da carcaça, composição do ganho de carcaça e características qualitativas da carne semelhantes às novilhas alimentadas com dietas contendo 40% de concentrado. Conclui-se o maior fornecimento de PNDR na dieta de novilhas confinadas não implica em melhorias nas principais características de carcaça e qualidade da carne. Conclui-se ainda que novilhas confinadas alimentadas níveis moderados de concentrado na dieta (40% na matéria seca total) apresentam características de carcaça e da carne semelhantes às novilhas alimentadas com altos níveis de concentrado (80% na matéria seca total). No segundo experimento objetivou-se avaliar as características de carcaça e a qualidade da carne de bovinos em diferentes estádios de maturidade fisiológica, avaliada através da contagem do número de dentes incisivos permanentes (d.i.p.) na arcada dentária. Foram utilizados 63 animais da raça Nelore, todos machos não castrados e criados a pasto. Os animais foram selecionados em frigorífico comercial previamente ao abate. As carcaças dos animais selecionados foram agrupadas em quatro categorias de acordo com o número de d.i.p presentes na arcada dentária (2, 4, 6 e 8 d.i.p.). Após o período de resfriamento, as carcaças foram pesadas e realizou-se a mensuração do pH, área de olho de lombo (AOL) e espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS). Em seguida foram coletadas amostras do músculo Longissimus entre a 9a e a 11a costela para realização das análises de qualidade de carne. A maturidade alterou (P<0,05) o peso da carcaça fria, AOL e a espessura de gordura subcutânea (EGS) da carcaça sendo observado aumento dessas características com o aumento do número de d.i.p na arcada dentária dos animais. Entretanto, a maturidade não alterou (P>0,05) o pH final da carcaça sendo o valor médio encontrado para essa característica igual a 6,4. Em relação as perdas das carne, à exceção das perdas por descongelamento e gotejamento, não foram detectadas diferenças (P>0,05) entre os grupos de dentição. Não houve diferença (P>0,05) entre os grupos de dentição para o teor de proteína e cinzas do músculo Longissimus. Entretanto, foram verificadas diferenças (P<0,05) entre os grupos de dentição quanto ao teor de água e extrato etéreo presentes no Longissimus. Os valores de luminosidade (L*) e intensidade de vermelho (a*) da carne não diferiram (P>0,05) entre os grupos de dentição. Entretanto, verificou-se que a maturidade alterou (P<0,05) a intensidade de amarelo (b*). A força de cisalhamento (FC), o índice de fragmentação miofibrilar (IFM) e o teor de colágeno solúvel foram influenciados (P<0,05) pela maturidade sendo observado o aumento da FC e redução dos valores de IFM e colágeno solúvel com o aumento no número de d.i.p. A FC apresentou-se negativamente correlacionada (P<0,01) com o IFM (r = -0,36) e com o teor de colágeno solúvel (r = -0,14). Conclui-se que a maturidade fisiológica avaliada pela análise da arcada dentária, influencia as características de carcaça e os principais parâmetros qualitativos da carne de bovinos Nelore. Conclui-se ainda que para animais zebuínos inteiros abatidos em frigorífico comercial, a carne pode ser considerada com maciez aceitável nos animais com até 4 dentes incisivos permanentes, ou seja, animais de até 36 meses, aproximadamente.
4

Improved diagnostics and management of classical swine fever in the Lao People's Democratic Republic

Conlan, James V Unknown Date (has links) (PDF)
Classical Swine Fever (CSF) is a highly contagious viral disease of swine that causes major losses to pig production. CSF virus is a member of the genus Pestivirus of the family Flaviviridae and is closely related antigenically to other Pestiviruses, Bovine Viral Diarrhoea (BVD) virus and Border Disease (BD) virus. In the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Laos), CSF has been recognised as a disease that causes significant loss to the smallholder pig sector. However, there exists in Laos a deficiency in fully understanding the epidemiology and impact of CSF, together with limitations in being able to reliably detect CSF outbreaks in a timely manner. (For complete abstract open document)
5

Photoevaporation des disques protoplanétaires par les photons UV d’étoiles massives proches : observation de proplyds et modélisation / Photoevaporation of protoplanetary disks by UV photons from nearby massive stars : observations of proplyfs and modelling

Champion, Jason 25 September 2017 (has links)
Les disques protoplanétaires entourant les jeunes étoiles sont les embryons des systèmes planétaires. A différentes phases de leur évolution, ils peuvent subir d'importantes pertes de masse par photoévaporation : des photons énergétiques, issus de l'étoile centrale ou d'une étoile voisine, chauffe le disque qui perd en masse sous l'échappement des particules. Cependant, ce mécanisme et la physique sous-jacente n'ont que peu été contraints par les observations. Les objectifs de cette thèse sont d'étudier la photoévaporation dans le cas particulier où elle est due à des photons FUV, d'identifier les principaux paramètres physiques (densité, température) et processus (chauffage et refroidissement) impliqués, et d'estimer son impact sur l'évolution dynamique des disques. L'étude repose sur le couplage observations - modélisations des disques photoévaporés par les photons UV en provenance d'étoiles massives proches. Ces objets, appelés "proplyds", ont leur disque entouré d'une large enveloppe nourrie des flots de photoévaporation. A l'aide d'un modèle 1D d'une région de photodissociation, j'ai développé un modèle pour l'émission dans l'infrarouge lointain des proplyds. Ce modèle a été utilisé pour interpréter les observations, issues principalement de Herschel, pour quatre proplyds. Il apparait que les conditions physiques en surface de leur disque sont similaires: une densité de l'ordre de 10 6 par cm cube et une température d'environ 1000 K. Cette température est maintenue par un équilibre dynamique : si la surface se refroidit, la perte de masse diminue et l'enveloppe se réduit. L'atténuation UV produite par l'enveloppe diminue alors et le disque, recevant plus de photons UV, chauffe. La majorité du disque peut s'échapper sous forme de flots de photoévaporation avec des taux de perte de masse de quelques 10 -7 masse solaire par an ou plus, en accord avec les observations précédentes des traceurs du gaz ionisé. A la suite de ce travail, j'ai développé un modèle hydrodynamique 1D pour étudier l'évolution dynamique d'un disque en photoévaporation par un champ de rayonnement externe. [...] / Protoplanetary disks are found around young stars, and represent the embryonic stage of planetary systems. At different phases of their evolution, disks may undergo substantial mass-loss by photoevaporation: energetic photons from the central or a nearby star heat the disk, hence particles can escape the gravitational potential and the disk loses mass. However, this mechanism, and the underlying physics regulating photoevaporation, have not been well constrained by observations so far. The aims of this thesis are to study photoevaporation, in the specific case when it is driven by far-UV photons, to identify the main physical parameters (density, temperature) and processes (gas heating and cooling mechanisms) that are involved, and to estimate its impact on the disk dynamical evolution. The study relies on coupling observations and models of disks being photoevaporated by UV photons coming from neighbouring massive star(s). Those objects, also known as "proplyds", appear as disks surrounded by a large cometary shaped envelope fed by the photoevaporation flows. Using a 1D code of the photodissociation region, I developed a model for the far-IR emission of proplyds. This model was used to interpret observations, mainly obtained with the Herschel Space Observatory, of four proplyds. We found similar physical conditions at their disk surface: a density of the order of 10 6 cm and a temperature about 1000 K. We found that this temperature is maintained by a dynamical equilibrium: if the disk surface cools, its mass-loss rate declines and the surrounding envelope is reduced. Consequently, the attenuation of the UV radiation field by the envelope decreases and the disk surface, receiving more UV photons, heats up. Most of the disk is thus able to escape through photoevaporation flows leading to mass-loss rates of the order of 10 -7 solar mass per year or more, in good agreement with earlier spectroscopic observations of ionised gas tracers. Following this work, I developed a 1D hydrodynamical code to study the dynamical evolution of an externally illuminated protoplanetary disk. [...]
6

Evaluation of drift correction strategies for an inertial based dairy cow positioning system. : A study on tracking the position of dairy cows using a foot mounted IMU with drift correction from ZUPT or sparse RFID locations. / Utvärdering av strategier för driftkorrigering i ett tröghetsbaserat positioneringssystem för mjölkkor.

Markovska, Maria, Svensson, Ruben January 2019 (has links)
This thesis investigates the feasibility and performance of an inertial based positioning system for dairy cows in a barn environment. The investigated positioning method is pedestrian dead reckoning using inertial navigation with MEMS sensors. While this method is well known for human positioning applications, there has not been a lot of studies of its use on terrestrial animals. Since inertial based positioning systems are dependent on drift correction, the focus of the research is drift correction methods. Two methods, zero velocity update (ZUPT) and sparse locations, are compared with regards to positioning accuracy, energy consumption and sensor placement.  The best positioning estimates are achieved by using ZUPT corrections at a sample rate of 10 Hz, resulting in a mean position drift of 0.2145 m=m. Using a proposed equidistant sample time based sleep mode scheme, this would require a theoretical supply current of 0.21 mA. It is also seen that better position estimates are obtained for sensors that are placed low and on the front legs. The sparse locations method suffers from severe position drift between the locations, resulting in unusable positioning data. A combination of ZUPT and sparse location yields less accurate positioning than ZUPT only. / Denna masteruppsats undersöker genomförbarhet och prestanda av ett tröghetsbaserat positioneringsssystem för mjölkkor i en lada. Den undersökta metoden är död räkning för fotgängare mha. tröghetsnavigering med MEMSsensorer. Denna metod är välkänd för positionering av människor, men få studier har gjorts kring dess användbarhet för djur. Eftersom tröghetsbaserad navigering är beroende av driftkorrigering är detta fokuset för forskningen. Två olika metoder utvärderas, zero velocity update (ZUPT) och sparse locations, och en jämförelse görs med avseende på positionsnoggrannhet, energiförbrukning och sensorplacering.Bäst positionering uppnås med ZUPT-korrigeringar vid en samplingsfrekvens på 10 Hz, vilket ger ett medelvärde av positionsdrift på 0.2145 m=m. Om ett föreslaget ekvidistant samplingstidsbaserat schema för viloläge används skulle 10 Hz kräva en teoretisk matningsström på 0.21 mA. Vidare fås bättre positioneringsresultat för sensorer som är placerade lågt och på frambenen. Korrektionsmetoden med sparse locations ger en svår positionsdrift mellan platserna, vilket resulterar i oanvändbar positionsdata. En kombination av ZUPT och sparse locations ger sämre precision än om endast ZUPT används, samt ökar energiförburkningen på grund av behovet av ytterligare sensorer.
7

Contradictions of Neoliberal Development Interventions and Market Transition in Northern Lao PDR

Polonyi, Anna Elizabeth 24 July 2013 (has links)
This thesis examines the trajectory and role of development within the context of transition from a command to market economy, in a northern region of the Lao PDR. It looks at how the long-term effects of development interventions have contributed to a context of regional integration where the role of foreign investment and the private sector are increasing. In particular, it examines the role of development interventions in the processes of diversification and differentiation that accompany market integration. The village of Ban Jai illustrates this process as a site where despite the failures of development projects a diversification of livelihoods have developed. The implementation of UNDP projects in Ban Jai raises questions regarding the role of international projects and suggests that rather than alleviating poverty they produce a chain of effects that contribute to the tensions that result from structural changes to the village household economy. My analysis examines the tensions produced by such shifts and how villagers negotiate their engagement with the market economy. The experience of women traders illustrates how relations of solidarity are reworked in an attempt to negotiate tensions produced through processes of market integration. As structural shifts take place with increasing economic integration, international agencies also respond in particular ways by shifting strategies. I also ask what changes shifts in strategy introduce at the local level and how this intersects with the way policies are rationalized by local officials and the UNDP. An examination of this trajectory over a period of two decades, suggests that changing strategies in development have involved a shifting role between international development organizations and the private sector. I ask what kind of context this intersection of structural shifts, policy shifts and institutional shifts produces on the ground and how such shifts are negotiated locally.
8

Improving high dose rate and pulsed dose rate prostate brachytherapy - alternative prostate definition and treatment delivery verification methods

Howie, Andrew Gordon, howie.andrew@gmail.com January 2009 (has links)
Brachytherapy is a form of radiotherapy in which radioactive sources are placed at short distances from, or even inside the target volume. The use of high dose rate brachytherapy is a widely accepted and clinically proven treatment for some stages of prostate cancer. The aim of this project was to investigate potential improvements on two of the most important aspects of high dose rate (HDR) and pulsed dose rate (PDR) prostate brachytherapy - prostate definition and treatment delivery verification. The use of magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in addition to the conventional computed tomography (CT) imaging methods currently used routinely for brachytherapy planning may provide some benefit in accurately defining the prostate and surrounding critical structures. The methods used in this project involved analysis of data sets provided by two Radiation Oncologists. The results presented showed inter-observer and intra-observer variations in the size and shape of the prostate, as well as analysis of the dosimetric differences that may be reported due to the differences in prostate size and shape. The results also included analysis of critical structure dosimetry - dose to the surrounding radio-sensitive rectum and urethra. In summary, the results showed that the prostate was defined to be smaller using MR imaging than CT, however the consistency between Oncologists was not significantly improved using MR imaging. MR imaging may be useful in reducing the dose to normal tissue surrounding the prostate and in obtaining better coverage of the smaller target volume, without compromising the critical structures. The use of LiF:Mg,Ti thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) is a potential avenue for in vivo dose verification of an HDR or PDR prostate brachytherapy treatment plan. This project included a phantom study of these TLDs with the aim to determine their feasibility for clinical use. Cylindrical TLD rods (6 mm length x 1 mm diameter) were used, as these fit inside the brachytherapy needles implanted into the prostate, and therefore had potential to be used clinically to verify the dose delivered in the prostate. This study was extended to include determination of a correction factor to allow an independent radiation source (6 MV photon beam from a linear accelerator) to be used to obtain control readings for this relative dosimetric method. The results showed these TLDs to be a promising in vivo dosimeter for prostate brachytherapy with potential errors in the order of 4%. Their potential lies in the fact that they could detect and flag significant calculation errors in treatment plans, and they utilise equipment used routinely for external beam radiotherapy dosimetry in many treatment facilities, reducing the cost of implementing such a procedure.
9

Socio-Economic Transformation and Gender Relations in Lao PDR

Khouangvichit, Damdouane January 2010 (has links)
The aim of this study is to examine socio-economic transformation and gender relations in Lao PDR after the adoption of economic liberalization by the Lao government in the late 1980s. Against a background of general socio-economic transformation in Laos the main focus of the study is on the local level, with emphasis on how people in their everyday lives have engaged with and handled the changes. The application of economic liberalization shaped new conditions for people in local communities, and various livelihoods strategies were adopted under the new circumstances. The study examines gender relations, livelihoods and actors of change in two different contexts of globalization. The first context is the case of foreign direct investment in the Sepone mine, the largest gold-copper mine in the country located in Vilabury district, Savannakhet province. Five villages located close to the mine and directly affected by the operation were chosen as research site. The second case is the context of international tourism development in the small town of Vang Vieng, situated halfway between Vientiane Capital and the world heritage town of Luangprabang. The purpose with the two case studies is to examine how changes take place in different places of the same country under the same political direction and development policy. The study is inspired by theories of space and place and the view that phenomena are place-based and different places are constituted by different socio-spatial relations. The findings show that profound changes took place both in the economic and social-cultural spheres, including in gender relations. The two contexts experienced different processes of changes: in the context of Vilabury district, the transformation was produced through top-down development and created a dependency pattern where new social inequalities and social stratification emerged through unequal access to the new resources of the villagers. In the context of Vang Vieng and the expansion of international tourism, the development process proceeded more through a bottom-up pattern; the villagers perceived they were important actors of development, had more equal access to resources and could define livelihood strategies by themselves.
10

Across the Borders : A Study of Counter-Trafficking Work in Lao PDR

Hansson, Emma January 2009 (has links)
<p>In the wake of state borders becoming more porous the flows of people crossing them in search for opportunities have increased. This trend is evident in Greater Mekong Sub region where the economic boom of Thailand attracts thousands of migrant workers every year from neighboring countries making Thai industries dependent on the cheap labor. Alongside these developments, human trafficking, the slave trade of our time, has emerged as an increasing challenge.</p><p>In Lao PDR the historic ties to Thailand make for a long history of cross-border relations and flows. With the relative economic differences, labor migration to the richer neighbor is becoming an accepted way of improving family conditions. However, the risks involved, exploitation and trafficking, are not widely known in the communities.</p><p>Counter-trafficking work in Lao PDR has been evolving over the passed 10 years. This study has, through an ethnographic approach to organizational work combined with reflections and observations, tried to create a picture of the counter-trafficking work on the ground. Using semi-structured interviews projects, aims and assumptions could be derived and three main problems identified: Trafficking is hard to separate from labor migration, thus making it hard to effectively target; there is a dissonance between perceived and actual inter-sector communication, and; the trafficking sector is isolated from other sectors as dialogue across sector borders appear to be nonexistent. Reasons given for these discords mainly came down to dependency on donors and a need to meet their requirements. Essentially it seems that organizations working with this open-border phenomenon are rigidly closed to each other.</p>

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