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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Flying blind with badly behaving technology: a case study of integrating 1:1 computers in middle school

Richmond, Gary January 1900 (has links)
Doctor of Education / Department of Educational Leadership / Kakali Bhattacharya / David C. Thompson / Information and communication technology is becoming more affordable and available to schools. In response to the emerging need to produce students with academic skills appropriate for 21st-century learners, many schools are investing large sums of money into this technology in an effort to create learning environments where students have a 1:1 ratio with access to tools such as laptops, tablets, or other types of portable devices. While there is evidence demonstrating that 1:1 student device adoptions can influence instruction and student learning, there is an ever-present, evolving need for scholarship concerning the experiences of teachers participating in such initiatives. The premise of this study is that teachers can provide valuable understanding concerning 1:1 computer adoptions, as they are one of the primary instruments in its success. The purpose of this study was to explore how two middle school teachers in a Midwestern city described the effects of ubiquitous computer access for students on their instructional practices and overall student learning as they participated in a district-wide 1:1 computer initiative. Participants for this qualitative case study were selected through purposeful- and criterion-based sampling. The participants were chosen from a pool of classroom teachers participating in the early phase of their district’s 1:1 initiative. Additionally, the participants’ eagerness to participate in the study as well as their comfort level with technology played a role in selection. Symbolic interactionism provided the lens through which to analyze the participants’ meaning making and the framework of TPACK afforded the substantive lens for discussing their experiences. Many of the individual aspects of the findings of this study are not new or particularly insightful by themselves and largely confirm existing findings in the scholarship. However, the significance of this study lies not in the corroboration of existing scholarship, but instead in illustration of the anatomy of change. In the end, this study investigating ICT integration wasn’t about technology at all. It was about the experience of transition. This study, with rich detail and context, shows the anatomy of transition for the two participants’ pedagogical practices and beliefs from the start of the process to the end. It provides insight into how things come to be and the way in which they come to be. It provides insight into how and why participants moved back and forth across the TPACK domains as they assimilated their fundamental beliefs with their lived experiences. The outcomes of this research suggest avenues for policy makers, administrators, teachers, and professional development organizers to increase the influence of 1:1 initiatives. It is necessary for all involved stakeholders to understand the importance of professional development in affecting technology-related change and to include training in any 1:1 adoption plan. It is equally important for teachers to understand that they will need to leverage formal and informal avenues of professional development to further their professional learning. Professional development organizers need to be cognizant of the needs of the staff and provide targeted, content-specific training in a timely manner. Last, district and building leaders should be aware of their organizational culture and the underlying goals for their 1:1 initiative and keep these in mind as they lead their staff through the change process.
2

O desenvolvimento do conhecimento pedagógico tecnológico do conteúdo de professores do ensino fundamental / Knowledge development of educational technology teacher content elementary school

Lang, Affonso Manoel Righi [UNESP] 05 May 2016 (has links)
Submitted by AFFONSO MANOEL RIGHI LANG null (affonsollang@hotmail.com) on 2016-07-14T13:48:35Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertação de mestrado Affonso Manoel Righi Lang.pdf: 1693502 bytes, checksum: afae7462d86cb9ff65b7a25954867fcb (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Ana Paula Grisoto (grisotoana@reitoria.unesp.br) on 2016-07-18T19:55:33Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 lang_amr_me_rcla.pdf: 1693502 bytes, checksum: afae7462d86cb9ff65b7a25954867fcb (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-07-18T19:55:33Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 lang_amr_me_rcla.pdf: 1693502 bytes, checksum: afae7462d86cb9ff65b7a25954867fcb (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-05-05 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / As tecnologias de informação e comunicação (TIC) são cada vez mais comuns nos educandários do Brasil. Um dos principais programas de inserção das TIC nas escolas brasileiras foi o PROUCA, que destinou um Laptop Educacional para cada aluno das instituições de ensino participantes. Estudos apontam que tanto no PROUCA, como em educandários que receberam aparatos tecnológicos por meio de outros programas, o uso das TIC nem sempre esteve direcionado a modificar as experiências de aprendizagem, sendo muitas vezes utilizadas com o propósito de fortalecer o processo tradicional de ensino. Neste contexto, pelos menos desde 2006, um conjunto de estudos tem elaborado um modelo teórico denominado Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), com o propósito de compreender quais conhecimentos são mobilizados pelos professores para utilizar as TIC em sala de aula, particularmente, na perspectiva de potencializar experiências de aprendizagens significativas. O modelo apresenta o TPACK como a capacidade de determinado professor reconhecer as potencialidades no uso de algumas TIC para melhorar e/ou expandir o conhecimento do aluno sobre determinado conteúdo. Por outro lado, os estudos sobre o TPACK não têm aprofundado as pesquisas em relação ao processo de transformação desse conhecimento quando os professores se envolvem em processos de formação continuada. Em outras palavras, pouco se sabe quais são os entraves e as experiências que podem potencializar o desenvolvimento do TPACK de professores que usam pouco as TIC em sala de aula. Por este motivo, este estudo propôs uma pesquisa qualitativa em uma escola do noroeste gaúcho que está inserida no projeto um computador por aluno (PROUCA). A pesquisa visou analisar o desenvolvimento do Conhecimento Tecnológico e Pedagógico de Conteúdos de professores do Ensino Fundamental participantes de um grupo colaborativo de formação continuada sobre a o uso de ferramentas digitais em sala de aula. O estudo foi constituído de três momentos: (A) diagnóstico inicial com o intuito de conhecer o contexto da instituição e o uso das TIC na escola, (B) desenvolvimento de encontros de formação continuada colaborativa que visou problematizar o uso das TIC em sala de aula, bem como estudar possibilidades de uso das mesmas, (C) entrevistas finais para potencialmente capturar as possíveis modificações do TPACK das docentes envolvidas. Os resultados obtidos na fase “A” mostraram-se parecidos aos visualizados em outros estudos. Durante esse período, foram identificadas dificuldades em utilizar as TIC como ferramentas que auxiliassem no movimento de ensino-aprendizagem, pois normalmente as propostas seguiam um caminho direcionado à busca de informação para responder perguntas repassadas pelas docentes. O estudo mostrou também alguns apontamentos sobre a necessidade de as professoras compreenderem a diferença conceitual entre meio de ensino e processos de ensino. Além disso, foi percebida a necessidade de elaborarem propostas de uso das TIC como Ferramentas Cognitivas, possibilitando aos alunos serem sujeitos ativos no processo de ensino-aprendizagem. Uma dificuldade notada foi o não desligamento do cotidiano em sala de aula para pensar novas possibilidades. / The information and communication technologies (TIC) are becoming increasingly common in schools in Brazil. One of the main insertion programs of TIC in Brazilian schools was PROUCA, which allocated a Laptop Education for each student participating educational institutions. Studies show that both PROUCA, the schools receiving technological devices through other programs, the use of TIC has not always been directed to modify the learning experiences, often used for the purpose of strengthening the traditional process of education. In this context, at least since 2006, a number of studies have developed a theoretical model called Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK), in order to understand what knowledge is mobilized by teachers to use TIC in the classroom, particularly in view to enhance the experiences of meaningful learning. The model shows the TPACK as the ability of a particular teacher recognize the potential use of some TIC to improve and/or expand the student's knowledge about certain content. On the other hand, studies have TPACK depth research on the process of transformation of this knowledge when teachers engage in continuing education processes. In other words, little is known what are the barriers and experiences that can enhance the development of TPACK teachers who make little use of ICT in the classroom. For this reason, this study proposed a qualitative research in a gaucho Northwest school that is part of the project one computer per student (PROUCA). The research aimed to analyze the development of Technological Knowledge and Pedagogical Content of elementary school teachers participating in a collaborative group of continuing training on the use of digital tools in the classroom. The study consisted of three stages: (A) initial diagnosis in order to meet the institution's context and the use of TIC in school, (B) the development of collaborative continuing education meetings that aimed to question the use of the room in TIC class and study use the same opportunities, (C) final interviews to potentially capture TPACK possible modifications of the teachers involved. The results obtained in phase "A" is shown displayed, similar to other studies. During this period, difficulties were identified in using TIC as a tool that would help in the teaching-learning movement, because normally the proposals followed a path directed to the search for information to answer questions forwarded by teachers. The study also showed some notes about the need for teachers to understand the conceptual difference between means of teaching and learning processes. In addition, the need to draw up proposals use of TIC as Cognitive Tools was perceived, enabling students to be active subjects in the teaching-learning process. A noticeable difficulty was not routine shutdown in class to think about new possibilities.
3

Operationalising technological pedagogical content knowledge in UK teacher professional development

Heywood, Jonathan Paul January 2018 (has links)
Weaknesses in extant modes of teacher professional development relating to the use of technology to support teaching and learning are identified and recommendations sought regarding more effective modes of delivery. Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) is postulated as a theoretical lens through which to foster reflection and dialogue regarding teaching practice and a number of tools are developed to support a structured approach to professional development. These include a TPACK assessment tool to evaluate performance in each of TPACK's constituent subdomains and a new form of technology content representation, dubbed a 'T-CoRe', through which to scaffold thinking and practice relating to technology integration. Through iterative refinement, the assessment tool was able to indicate and afford visualisation of aspects of practice. T-CoRes and associated discussion were able to evidence stimulation of high-quality reflection and foster application of higher-order thinking, here termed 'TPACK thinking'. Impact was demonstrable both in terms of teacher practice and pupil outcomes. Teachers demonstrated a commitment to collegiality and reflected on their capacity to champion technology integration within their departments and schools. This study therefore demonstrates the potential to operationalise TPACK within a UK setting and offers a toolkit of resources to support consideration of the pedagogical affordance of technology by teachers for wider scrutiny, use and development.
4

ANALYZING EFL TEACHERS’ TECHNOLOGY PREPAREDNESS TO PROMOTE CALL IN INDONESIA

Mainake, Eugenie 01 May 2020 (has links)
In recent decades, technology has played a significant role in English language teaching. Current Indonesian policies in education encourage teachers to integrate technology into teaching and learning activities to bolster the effectiveness and efficiency of their teaching practice (Ministry of National Education Indonesia, 2013). Previous studies found that various technology-based pedagogies yielded rewarding results for learners’ language skills in Indonesia, yet teachers report a lack of skills and knowledge necessary for CALL (Computer Assisted Language Learning) integration (Cahyani & Cahyono, 2012; Ridwan, 2017). There are, however, limited studies examining teachers’ readiness and skills to implement technology use in their classroom instructions. Therefore, the present study investigates teachers’ technological skills to implement CALL-based English as Foreign Language (EFL) instructions, particularly in Maluku, Indonesia using the TPACK (Technology, Pedagogy, and Content Knowledge) Framework (Koehler & Mishra, 2006). EFL high school teachers (N=43) from Maluku, Indonesia participated in the study. The data were collected using an online TPACK survey (Schmidt et al, 2009; Sahin, 2011) and follow-up interviews (Nila, 2013). The teachers showed interest and awareness of the use of technology to facilitate efficient and effective EFL instruction. The majority of participants demonstrated their perceived understanding of utilizing and combining technology with their pedagogical practices. Further, the interviews uncovered the fact that a handful of technology tools were already employed to improve students’ practice of English inside and beyond classrooms. These findings shed light on the reality that Indonesian EFL teachers are prepared to enact CALL. Nevertheless, participants encountered challenges for effective enactment of CALL-based EFL instruction such as a lack of CALL training and accessible technology to facilitate learning. The findings then suggest a need for training modules for technology incorporation in ELT, quality school facilities, and assistance in developing technology based EFL teaching.
5

Lärares förutsättningar att undervisa i programmering : En studie om lågstadielärares kompetensutveckling mot det nya uppdraget programmering

Fors, Hanna, Flodén, Louise January 2019 (has links)
Syftet med studien var att få en förståelse för vilka förutsättningar lärarna fått för att undervisa matematikämnets programmering i årskurserna 1–3, och vilka pedagogiska-, ämnesmässiga- och digitala kunskaper lärarna har gällande matematikämnets programmering utifrån ramverket TPACK. Vår empiri byggde på 42 enkätsvar och åtta stycken intervjuer med fem lärare och tre rektorer. Resultatet visade på att lärare känner sig trygga med sin pedagogiska kunskap, medan deras ämnesmässiga och digitala kunskap kopplade till programmeringen behöver utvecklas. Enbart hälften av lärarna i studien har fått förutsättningen att kompetensutvecklas och utveckla kunskapen kring hur programmering kan undervisas. Däremot fanns det ett glapp mellan hur rektorerna och lärarna uppfattade den befintliga kunskapen. Lärare känner en osäkerhet för framtidens undervisning samtidigt som rektorerna anser att tillräckligt med kompetensutveckling har givits.
6

A trajetória de desenvolvimento do professor na utilização de tecnologias nas aulas de matemática em um contexto de formação continuada

Alcântara, Lucy Aparecida Gutiérrez de 16 June 2015 (has links)
Submitted by FERNANDA DA SILVA VON PORSTER (fdsvporster@univates.br) on 2016-04-19T18:01:07Z No. of bitstreams: 3 license_text: 22064 bytes, checksum: ef48816a10f2d45f2e2fee2f478e2faf (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) 2015LucyAparecidaGutierrezdeAlcantara.pdf: 1526315 bytes, checksum: 666e98b85e3409195f8e9f77fab2b982 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Ana Paula Lisboa Monteiro (monteiro@univates.br) on 2016-04-26T13:02:22Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 3 license_text: 22064 bytes, checksum: ef48816a10f2d45f2e2fee2f478e2faf (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) 2015LucyAparecidaGutierrezdeAlcantara.pdf: 1526315 bytes, checksum: 666e98b85e3409195f8e9f77fab2b982 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-26T13:02:22Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 3 license_text: 22064 bytes, checksum: ef48816a10f2d45f2e2fee2f478e2faf (MD5) license_rdf: 23148 bytes, checksum: 9da0b6dfac957114c6a7714714b86306 (MD5) 2015LucyAparecidaGutierrezdeAlcantara.pdf: 1526315 bytes, checksum: 666e98b85e3409195f8e9f77fab2b982 (MD5) / O presente trabalho é embasado em estudos sobre formação continuada de professores para a utilização das tecnologias. A investigação desenvolveu-se com duas professoras integrantes de um curso de formação continuada para a utilização de tablets nas aulas de Matemática. A proposta do curso, de uma formação ancorada na prática, incluiu não apenas as sessões presenciais, mas também um período considerável de integração do conhecimento teórico à prática de sala de aula das duas professoras. Essa ação apoiou-se no mentoring, apresentado por Amado (2007) como uma relação interpessoal, baseada na confiança e no apoio, que se desenvolveu por meio do acompanhamento da formadora/pesquisadora, tanto nas sessões do curso, quanto no planejamento e nas aulas em que as professoras utilizaram as tecnologias com os seus alunos. A sequência didática da formação embasou-se no modelo TPACK (Conhecimento Tecnológico e Pedagógico do Conteúdo), apresentado por Koehler e Mishra (2006, 2007, 2009) que consideram fundamental aos professores o desenvolvimento desse conhecimento para que possam integrar de modo eficiente as tecnologias nas suas aulas. Consistiu em uma tentativa de formação mais abrangente, que fosse além da instrução técnica e envolvesse o desenvolvimento individual, profissional e institucional da carreira docente. A pesquisa teve como objetivo verificar a trajetória de desenvolvimento das duas professoras na utilização das tecnologias e se desenvolveu por meio de uma abordagem qualitativa caracterizada como um estudo de caso. Com essa opção de pesquisa, pretendeu-se conhecer, de forma profunda e tão completa quanto possível, a trajetória de desenvolvimento das duas professoras no uso das tecnologias. Procurou-se, mediante a análise dos dois casos particulares, captar a densidade e a singularidade dos diferentes percursos, as situações específicas ocorridas durante a formação, que se supõem únicas em muitos aspectos. A opção metodológica e o objetivo da pesquisa levaram a estabelecer a coleta de dados por meio da observação participante, de entrevistas semiestruturadas, gravações e diário de bordo, que permitiram à pesquisadora estudar os fatos em seu ambiente natural. Os resultados apontaram que a proposta contribuiu no desenvolvimento profissional das duas professoras e que a estratégia de mentoring, ainda que produzindo reflexos diferenciados na trajetória de desenvolvimento de cada uma das professoras e no avanço do seu conhecimento tecnológico e pedagógico do conteúdo, foi decisiva para o progresso alcançado. / The present work is grounded in studies about continuing education for teachers on the use of technologies. The research study was developed with two teachers participants of a continuing education course for the use of tablets in Mathematics classes. The purpose of the course, a formation anchored on practice, included not only the attendance sessions, but also a considerable period of integration between the theoretical knowledge and the classroom practice of the teachers. This action was supported on mentoring, presented by Amado (2007) as an interpersonal relationship, based on trust and support, that was developed through the monitoring of the trainer/researcher, both in the sessions of the course and in the planning and classes where the teachers used the technology with their students. The didactic sequence of the formation was based on the TPACK framework (Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge), presented by Koehler and Mishra (2006, 2007, 2009), who consider essential to teachers the development of this kind of knowledge so that they can integrate efficiently the technologies in their classrooms. It consisted of an attempt to more broad formation, going beyond the technical instruction and involving the individual, professional and institutional development of the teacher career. The research aimed to determine the developmental trajectory of the two teachers in the use of technologies and evolved through a qualitative approach characterized as a case study. With this search option, it was intended to know, as deeply and thoroughly as possible, the developmental trajectories of the two teachers in the use of technologies. Through the analysis of two particular cases, the study sought to capture the density and the uniqueness of different trajectories and the specific situations occurred during the formation, which are supposed unique in many ways. The methodological option and the aim of the research led to establish the data collection through participant observation, semi-structured interviews, recordings and logbook, which allowed the researcher to study the facts in their natural environment. The results showed that the proposal contributed to the professional development of both teachers and that the mentoring strategy, although producing different effects on the development trajectory of each of the teachers and on the advancing of their technological knowledge, was decisive for the progress achieved.
7

Engaging higher education students with social media : MIB module case study

Pg Hj Besar, Dk Hjh Siti Norainna January 2016 (has links)
This thesis reports on a study which investigated the application of social media in teaching Malay Islamic Monarchy (MIB) in a University of Brunei. The aim was to complement the on-campus delivery of this module, encourage student engagement and produce more active than passive learners. However, tensions existed between social media and the content of the course because of the potential of social media to drown and influence Bruneian Malay cultures and Islamic beliefs in a way that is not consistent with MIB. A questionnaire to 362 undergraduate students at the University of Brunei Darussalam taking the PB1501 MIB module in the semester 1 2012/2013 provided an initial sense of social media use and expectations. Six MIB teachers were also selected to represent different perspective of using social media in MIB module. Furthermore, the observation of ten MIB Facebook groups spaces and content analysis of ten MIB Facebook groups' transcripts produced information on teaching and learning activities as well as findings as to how teachers facilitate student engagement. The findings of the study indicate that whilst social media is a tool that should be able to solve the pedagogical problems in the MIB course, at the same time cultural obstacles are perceived by some teachers in this particular setting, impacting on its acceptance. Findings suggest that the implementation of social media such as Facebook in order to solve a pedagogical problem have raised tensions in this specific cultural environment. The research also shows the MIB teachers have mixed feelings about the fact that social media could complement MIB education. A way of conceiving the tensions between these issues is provided by the Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPACK) framework developed by Koehler and Mishra (2009), which is used to understand teacher decisions with respect to MIB, MIB pedagogy and social media (TPACK). This shows the connections and interactions between the content of MIB, the MIB pedagogy and social media.
8

Implications for Integrating the Interactive Whiteboard and Professional Development to Expand Mathematics Teachers TPACK in an Urban Middle School

Young, Jamaal Rashad 2011 August 1900 (has links)
The Federal Government is dedicated to improving student achievement through technology. This dedication is most apparent in the area of federal spending. One explanation for the lack of results in student achievement is that teachers need appropriate training to effectively teach with technology. This study integrates the interactive whiteboard and professional development in order to develop middle school mathematics teachers' Technological Pedagogical Content knowledge (TPACK) in an urban school. Teacher TPACK is measured on a modified version of Survey of Teacher Knowledge to Teach with Technology. Student achievement is measured on the Texas Assessment of Knowledge and Skills (TAKS), a standardized mathematics assessment. Teachers in this study receive three weeks of professional development during their team planning periods to help them integrate the Interactive Whiteboard (IWB) into their mathematics instruction. Mean difference effect sizes are used to measure teacher gain in TPACK. Student achievement scores before and after the professional development are analyzed by Multi-way ANOVA after propensity scores are used to match participant students to a separate group of control students for comparison. The results indicate that the professional development increased teacher TPACK and that student achievement is differentiated across ethnicities. Implications for the technology professional development design and IWB integration in urban settings are provided.
9

IKT-pedagogik i slöjden : En studie om informations- och kommunikationsteknik i textilslöjden utifrån ett lärarperspektiv

Hedkvist, Mirjam January 2013 (has links)
Studiens syfte har varit att, utifrån ett lärarperspektiv, bidra till ökad kunskap om hur IKT används i textilslöjden och hur förutsättningarna för detta ser ut. Avsikten var främst att ta reda på hur lärare använder sig av de resurser som finns på skolorna och i sina klassrum men även vad de skulle önskat att de hade tillgång till. Studien gjordes på några mellan- och högstadieskolor runt om i Sverige och datamaterialet insamlades genom kvalitativa intervjuer med fyra stycken verksamma textillärare. Fokus i intervjuerna var att finna positiva och/eller negativa aspekter med digitala verktyg i textilslöjden, hur lärares undervisning förändras, samt om slöjdens arbetsprocess förändras vid arbete med digitala verktyg. Resultatet visade att de intervjuade lärarna använde sig av IKT olika mycket men har många liknande tankar kring att det är tidssparande, inspirerande och utvecklande för eleverna att arbeta med i olika sammanhang. De är överens om att lärare måste anpassa sin undervisning om de ska arbeta med digitala verktyg och att det behövs tid att lära sig och för att planera. Den viktigaste slutsatsen blev att alla de positiva aspekterna med IKT var didaktiskt relaterade medan de negativa enbart hade med klassrumsmiljön att göra.
10

Assessing New Zealand high school science teachers' technological pedagogical content knowledge.

Owusu, Kofi Acheaw January 2014 (has links)
Technological pedagogical content knowledge (TPACK) is the knowledge required for effective technology integration in teaching. In this study, New Zealand high school science teachers’ TPACK was assessed through an online survey. The data and its analysis revealed that New Zealand’s high school science teachers in general had a high perception of their understanding of TPACK and its related constructs. Science teachers had high mean scores on all the constructs on a five- point Likert scale except technological knowledge. There is thus an indication that science teachers in New Zealand perceived themselves as being able to teach with technology effectively. Correlation analysis revealed that all six constructs correlated significantly with TPACK (also referred to as TPCK). Multiple and stepwise regression analyses revealed that Technological Pedagogical Knowledge (TPK) and Technological Content Knowledge (TCK) made statistically significant unique contributions to Technological Pedagogical Content Knowledge (TPCK). Pre-registered teachers indicated that their levels of TCK and Pedagogical Content Knowledge (PCK) were lower than more experienced teachers. This implied that recently graduated teachers found it difficult to appropriate the affordances of technology to affect the content they taught. Also, these recently graduated teachers lacked the experience to represent content in a format that made it comprehensible to their learners. The contextual factors that influenced teachers’ use of technology as well as teachers’ TPACK levels were investigated through multiple embedded case studies of six teachers who were regular users of technology in their teaching. The case studies revealed that science teachers used technology to support inquiry learning in a wide range of ways in lower levels of high school but mostly to clarify concepts and theories when it came to the senior level of high school. Teachers demonstrated different levels of expertise and engagement in the use of technology for transferring different types of knowledge from one teaching and learning context to another and for addressing differences amongst learners. This signalled that science teachers’ TPACK apparent developmental levels shifted depending on the context of the assessment requirements of the students. This is a major finding in this study because although previous researchers have assumed that context influences teachers’ TPACK characteristics and development, this study provides evidence of how specific aspects of context influences teachers’ TPACK. This evidence shows examples of how the development of an individual’s TPACK can be considered as dynamic where the interacting constructs and characteristics shift and change based on the context. The recommendations from this study propose that teacher education programmes should ensure that there is a focus on teaching preservice teachers how to appropriate the affordances of technology to teach specific content instead of teaching one technology skills based course. The evidence from this study indicates that teachers in New Zealand schools use collegial approaches in the use of technology. Therefore professional learning programmes should target groups of teachers in the same school or cluster of schools rather than targeting individual teachers. This will enable teachers to share ideas and provide leadership for their colleagues in terms of how to use technology. Again, technology related professional development programmes should move away from enriching teachers’ technological skills to emphasising how teachers can appropriate the affordances of technology in their classroom practices to meet their instructional goals as well as students’ learning outcomes. There is a consequent obligation for teacher educators, educationists and stakeholders to enable teachers to understand how best to harness the increased knowledge retrieval capacity that Information and Communication Technology affords, its information sharing abilities as well as the capacity to engage young people to act as experimenters, designers and creators of knowledge.

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