Problem Framing in Problem-Oriented Policing:An Examination of Framing from Problem Definition to Problem ResponseGallagher, Kathleen M. 12 September 2014 (has links)
No description available.
“Vi gör nog många saker som är rätt, men vi vet nog inte vilka saker som gör vad” : - En kvalitativ studie om polisers attityd kring forskning och evidensbaserade polisiära metoder / “We do a lot of things, but we don’t know what we’re doing right” : - a qualitative study about police officers’ attitude towards research and evidence based methods of policingJuntunen Lindberg, Linda, Lindström, Therese Thette January 2020 (has links)
Syftet med studien var att undersöka polisanställdas attityd kring forskning och evidensbaserade polisiära metoder inom det brottsförebyggande arbetet. Vi genomförde semistrukturerade intervjuer med 9 poliser och analyserade dessa med en kvalitativ innehållsanalys. Studiens resultat visade att delar av evidensbaserade metoder gick att återfinna i Polisens arbete, framförallt Problem Oriented Policing och Community Oriented Policing. Dock fanns varken struktur i hur metoderna används eller kunskap i hur metoderna fungerar. De intervjuade poliserna efterfrågade forskning och menade att forskning gärna får ta större plats för att kunna utveckla arbetet och göra det mer effektivt. / The aim of the study was to examine police officers’ attitudes towards research and evidence-based methods of policing in the field of crime prevention. We conducted semi-structured interviews of 9 police officers’ and performed a qualitative content analysis. Our results showed that the police are using parts of evidence-based methods, specifically Problem Oriented Policing and Community Oriented Policing. There were no organization around which methods were used and no knowledge about how the methods work. The police interviewed wanted research to play a larger role in their work and believed incorporating research would make their crime-prevention work more effective.
As a proactive, information-based policing approach, problem-oriented policing emphasizes the use of crime analysis techniques in the analysis of the underlying causes of the problems that police deal with. In particular, analysis applications can be powerful tools for criminal investigation, such as crime reconstruction, profiling, IAFIS, VICAP, and CODIS. The SARA Model represents a problem-solving strategy of problemoriented policing. It aims to address the underlying causes of the problems and create substantial solutions. However, implementing problem-oriented policing requires a significant change in both the philosophy and structure of police agencies. Not only American policing but also the Turkish National Police should consider problem-oriented policing as an alternative approach for solving criminal activities.
Problemorienterat polisarbete i Sverige : En kvalitativ intervjustudie av två lokalpolisområdens tillämpning av metoden / Problem-oriented policing in SwedenBjörnqvist, Josefin January 2018 (has links)
Syftet med studien var att belysa den svenska polisens tillämpning av problemorienterat polisarbete på lokal nivå. Tolv semistrukturerade intervjuer genomfördes i en pendlingskommun nära storstad och i en större stad. Huvudresultatet visade att det verkar saknas en tydlig riktlinje om hur problemen i lokalpolisområdet formuleras, men att polisen har många olika källor till information. Polisen använder en rad olika metoder för att lösa de problem som finns i lokalpolisområdet, både i samverkan med andra samhällsaktörer och själva. Det framkommer att polisen utvärderar effektiviteten av sitt arbete, dock efter bästa förmåga och många intervjupersoner efterfrågar vägledning och stöd i utvärderingsprocessen. / The aim of this study was to describe how the Swedish police puts the problem- oriented approach to practice on a local level. Twelve semistructured interviewes was conducted in two separate cities and the results showed a lack of guidelines in formulating the problems which the police was meant to solve. Furthermore the results indicated a wide range of sources of information as well as a variety of problemsolving methods. The methods was carried out with or without help from other agencies. Finally the study showed that the police do evaluate their work, although many police officers expressed a need for guidance in the process.
abstract: Problem-oriented policing (POP) dynamically addresses unique community issues in a way that allows police departments to be cost-effective and efficient. POP draws upon routine activities and rational choice theories, at times incorporating elements of crime prevention through environmental design. A recent systematic review found POP to be hugely popular, but not rigorously assessed or implemented. In 2009, the Glendale, Arizona Police Department and researchers from Arizona State University received funding through the Bureau of Justice Assistance’s (BJA) Smart Policing Initiative (SPI) to target crime at convenience stores through a problem-oriented policing approach. The Glendale SPI team devised an approach that mirrored the ideals put forth by Goldstein (1990), and provided a thorough undertaking of the SARA model. A comprehensive response plan was developed with several proposed responses, including: intervention with Circle K leadership, suppression, and prevention at the six highest-activity stores. Despite a thorough POP implementation, the initial descriptive evaluation of the Glendale SPI reported positive effects on crime, but left questions about the intervention’s long-term impact on convenience store crime in Glendale, Arizona. The policy and theoretical influence of the initiative warrants a more rigorous evaluation. Supplanting the original assessment, a difference in difference model, negative binomial regression, and relative effect size are calculated to ascertain the SPI’s long-term effects on target and comparison stores. Phi and weighted displacement quotient are calculated to determine the existence of displacement of crime or diffusion of benefits. Overall, results indicate support for the project’s effectiveness on crime reduction. Further, none of the six intervention stores experienced crime displacement. Five of the six stores, however, experienced a diffusion of benefits in the surrounding 500-yard area; that is, a crime reduction was observed at the intervention stores and in the surrounding areas of five of these stores. Disorder and property crimes at the targeted stores were most affected by the intervention. One of the intervention stores did experience an increase in violent crime, however. Future studies should strengthen the methodological design when evaluating POP projects and seek to flesh out more precisely the crime control effects of unique problem-oriented strategies. / Dissertation/Thesis / Doctoral Dissertation Criminology and Criminal Justice 2016
Rapporten syftar till att undersöka hur medborgarlöften styr polisens lokala verksamhet. Datainsamlingen genomfördes med semistrukturerade intervjuer med kommunpoliser. I intervjuerna framkommer det att medborgarlöftena tas fram via en process som grundar sig i både statistiska data och medborgardialoger. Medborgarlöftenas huvudsakliga fokus ligger på tre punkter, ’Trygghet’, ’Brottsförebyggande’ och ’Ökad kontakt med lokalsamhället’. Utifrån dessa tre fokuspunkter styr medborgarlöftena polisens verksamhet genom att producera ett strategiskt och långsiktigt mål för den lokala polisverksamhetens brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande arbete.
Områdespolisernas roll - En kvalitativ studie om områdespolisernas upplevelse av sina arbetsförutsättningarAlnesved, Annica, Macauley, Belinda January 2019 (has links)
Den stora Polisreformen 2015 benämns som den största omorganiseringen i modern tid. Medborgarlöften som syftar till att förebygga brott, öka tryggheten, stärka förtroendet för Polisen samt öka medborgarnas och lokalsamhällets delaktighet i det brottsförebyggande och trygghetsskapande arbetet, är en betydelsefull del av arbetet i den nya organisationen. Även att arbeta utifrån en tydlig problembild. Områdespoliser i Sverige är av stor vikt i detta arbete. Studien syftar till att belysa arbetssituationen för Områdespoliser i Sverige, huruvida förutsättningar finns för att till fullo uppfylla sina arbetsdirektiv samt belysa om arbetsuppdraget anses som tydligt. Kvalitativ design ligger till grund för berörd studie; resultaten baseras på fyra semistrukturerade intervjuer av områdespoliser från olika orter i Polisregion Syd med särskilt utsatta områden. Tidigare forskning kring organisationer, omorganisation, påverkan av denna på anställda, samt implementering av arbetsmetoder som Problem Oriented Policing (POP) och Community Policing (COP) ligger till grund för studien. Av resultatanalysen framgår att det i stort råder tydlighet kring arbetsbeskrivningen men att den subjektiva tolkningen och även arbetsledningens tolkning är av relevans. Områdespoliserna arbetar på bästa sätt utifrån de förutsättningar som idag finns men personalbrist leder till att områdespoliserna ofta blir kommenderade till att utföra andra polisiära uppdrag, vilket leder till brist på kontinuitet i arbetet. Av resultatet framgår även vikten av ledningsstöd. Stöd av tidigare forskning finnes avseende vikten av ett tydligt arbetsuppdrag för det polisiära arbetet, ledningsstöd, den anställdes subjektiva upplevelse av dennes arbetssituation, samt vikten av adekvat personal och att vid omorganisationer inkludera medarbetaren. Longitudinell framtida forskning kring påverkan av omorganisation hos anställda rekommenderas. Detta för möjlighet av insyn i såväl organisationens förändring samt anställds upplevelse därav. / The major police reform in 2015 is referred to as the largest reorganization in modern times. Citizens' pledges aimed at preventing crime, increasing security, strengthening confidence in the police and increasing citizens' and local communities' involvement in crime prevention and efforts aimed at increasing the perceived feeling of safety, are an important part of the work of the new organization. Also working from a clear problem description. Community police in Sweden are of great importance in this work. The study aims to shed light on the work situation for community police in Sweden, whether conditions allow them to fully comply with their role specification and to clarify whether the work assignment is considered clear. Qualitative design forms the basis of the study concerned; the results are based on four semi-structured interviews of community police from different locations in Police Region South with particularly vulnerable areas. The study is based on previous research of organizations, reorganization, the influence of reorganization on employees and the implementation of working methods such as Problem Oriented Policing (POP) and Community Policing (COP). The results show that there is general clarity about the stated work description but that the subjective interpretation and also the interpretation of the management is of relevance. The community police work in the best way on the basis of the conditions that exist today, but staff shortages lead to the community police often being commanded to carry out other tasks within the organization, which leads to a lack of continuity in the work. The results also show the importance of management support. The results largely confirm previous research. Support from previous research is found in the importance of a clear job description, the importance of management support, the importance of the employee's subjective experience of his work situation and the importance of adequate staff. Also the importance of including employees during reorganization. Longitudinal future research on the influence of reorganization among employees is recommended. This allows for the possibility of transparency in the organization's change as well as its impact on employees.
Implementation of Community Policing within the Brisbane Metropolitan North Police Region: Issues and ProblemsThorne, Colin Stanley January 2003 (has links)
Abstract The role of policing within western democratic countries has become increasingly clouded. This nebulous role of policing has been impacted upon by such issues as, the diversity and complexity of social change, the advances achieved within the technology field and the increasing amount of legislation that has been passed in an endeavour to accommodate such changes. Over the decades these developments have required policing organisations to shift their focus from the original crime prevention in conjunction with community collaboration to one which is predominantly incident driven and enforcement focused. Through the adoption of various strategies utilising technology, beginning with the motor vehicle, the police organisation has also progressively widened the gap between itself and the community being policed. With the widening of this gap such traits as trust, familiarity, co-operation and information exchange between the two parties has declined. This appears to have a domino effect on the fear of crime and social disorder within the community, thus impacting on the quality of life of community members. Within recent decades some of the traditional policing practices - including random preventive patrol, rapid response and the need for additional police because of increasing crime - have been questioned and researched. The findings of these research projects have not supported the effectiveness of such policing strategies. The role of policing, thus comes into question and a return to the historical role of policing espoused when Sir Robert Peel established the London Metropolitan Police and drafted the Principles of Policing, which was issued to each newly appointed constable, is being revisited. This has been promoted in the form of the 'community policing' concept. This community policing concept is stated as consisting of three core components - personalised policing through a police officer being stationed within a set geographic area; police-community partnership and problem-solving. However, in order to establish and maintain a viable partnership, both parties must participate and be aware of what the partnership entails. Similarly, with problem-solving both the community and police must identify and prioritise the local community problems. Both of these core components are bonded together through the appointment of a police officer within the community providing personalised policing. This shift in policing focus would necessitate changes both within the police organisation and the community itself. It must be remembered that the reactive, incident driven model of policing has been in existence for several decades and changing such a model will require some time. Thus, the effective implementation of community policing requires an agreement as to what community policing means and then a marketing and training program so that at the outset both parties are on an equal footing. As for the problem solving component of community policing, the parties to the partnership need to accommodate the differing foci of the opposite party. From the policing perspective, this requires accepting input from the community rather than maintaining a controlling demeanour. The police therefore, need to adopt an approach espoused by Wilson and Kelling (1982) in their article titled, 'Broken Windows: The Police and Neighbourhood Safety' which has been discussed in several literary works dealing with the community policing concept [Edwards 2001; Kenney (ed) 1989; Trojanowicz & Bucqueroux 1994]. The community also needs to be involved and this can be achieved initially, by maintaining support and enthusiasm for the community policing activities initiated. The success of implementing community policing relies on the adoption of the core components. The two community policing components, police-community partnership and problem-solving are impacted on by the third core component of personalised policing within a particular area. The personalised policing component is the need to have stable and reasonably enduring police personnel deployed to respective community locales. By adding this factor to the community policing components there is provided a degree of continuity and thus both parties develop a degree of familiarity which can lead to trust and confidence. The implementation of community policing to this extent needs to be holistically addressed through the police organisational dimensions, namely the philosophical, the strategic and the programmatic. Through these dimensions a comprehensive development of the community policing concept can be undertaken.
The nature and extent of policing alcohol related crime and reducing violence in and around late night entertainment areasPalk, Gavan Roger Mark January 2008 (has links)
The misuse of alcohol is well documented in Australia and has been associated with disorders and harms that often require police attention. The extent of alcohol-related incidents requiring police attention has been recorded as substantial in some Australian cities (Arro, Crook, & Fenton, 1992; Davey & French, 1995; Ireland & Thommeny, 1993). A significant proportion of harmful drinking occurs in and around licensed premises (Jochelson, 1997; Stockwell, Masters, Phillips, Daly, Gahegan, Midford, & Philp, 1998; Borges, Cherpitel, & Rosovsky, 1998) and most of these incidents are not reported to police (Bryant & Williams, 2000; Lister, Hobbs, Hall, & Winlow, 2000). Alcohol-related incidents have also been found to be concentrated in certain places at certain times (Jochelson, 1997) and therefore manipulating the context in which these incidents occur may provide a means to prevent and reduce the harm associated with alcohol misuse. One of the major objectives of the present program of research was to investigate the occurrence and resource impact of alcohol-related incidents on operational (general duties) policing across a large geographical area. A second objective of the thesis was to examine the characteristics and temporal/spatial dynamics of police attended alcohol incidents in the context of Place Based theories of crime. It was envisaged that this approach would reveal the patterns of the most prevalent offences and demonstrate the relevance of Place Based theories of crime to understanding these patterns. In addition, the role of alcohol, time and place were also explored in order to examine the association between non criminal traffic offences and other types of criminal offences. A final objective of the thesis was to examine the impact of a situational crime prevention strategy that had been initiated to reduce the violence and disorder associated with late-night liquor trading premises. The program of research in this doctorate thesis has been undertaken through the presentation of published papers. The research was conducted in three stages which produced six manuscripts, five of which were submitted to peer reviewed journals and one that was published in a peer reviewed conference proceedings. Stage One included two studies (Studies 1 & 2) both of which involved a cross sectional approach to examine the prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-related incidents requiring police attendance across three large geographical areas that included metropolitan cities, provincial regions and rural areas. Stage Two of the program of research also comprised two cross sectional quantitative studies (Studies 3 & 4) that investigated the temporal and spatial dynamics of the major offence categories attended by operational police in a specific Police District (Gold Coast). Stage Three of the program of research involved two studies (Studies 5 & 6) that assessed the effectiveness of a situational crime prevention strategy. The studies employed a pre-post design to assess the impact on crime, disorder and violence by preventing patrons from entering late-night liquor trading premises between 3 a.m. and 5 a.m. (lockout policy). Although Study Five was solely quantitative in nature, Study Six included both quantitative and qualitative aspects. The approach adopted in Study Six, therefore facilitated not only a quantative comparison of the impact of the lockout policy on different policing areas, but also enabled the processes related to the implementation of the lockout policy to be examined. The thesis reports a program of research involving a common data collection method which then involved a series of studies being conducted to explore different aspects of the data. The data was collected from three sources. Firstly a pilot phase was undertaken to provide participants with training. Secondly a main study period was undertaken immediately following the pilot phase. The first and second sources of data were collected between 29th March 2004 and 2nd May 2004. Thirdly, additional data was collected between the 1st April 2005 and 31st May 2005. Participants in the current program of research were first response operational police officers who completed a modified activity log over a 9 week period (4 week pilot phase & 5 week survey study phase), identifying the type, prevalence and characteristics of alcohol-related incidents that were attended. During the study period police officers attended 31,090 alcohol-related incidents. Studies One and Two revealed that a substantial proportion of current police work involves attendance at alcohol-related incidents (i.e., 25% largely involving young males aged between 17 and 24 years). The most common incidents police attended were vehicle and/or traffic matters, disturbances and offences against property. The major category of offences most likely to involve alcohol included vehicle/traffic matters, disturbances and offences against the person (e.g., common & serious assaults). These events were most likely to occur in the late evenings and early hours of the morning on the weekends, and importantly, usually took longer for police to complete than non alcohol-related incidents. The findings in Studies Three and Four suggest that serious traffic offences, disturbances and offences against the person share similar characteristics and occur in concentrated places at similar times. In addition, it was found that time, place and incident type all have an influence on whether an incident attended by a police officer is alcohol-related. Alcohol-related incidents are more likely to occur in particular locations in the late evenings and early mornings on the weekends. In particular, there was a strong association between the occurrence of alcohol-related disturbances and alcohol-related serious traffic offences in regards to place and time. In general, stealing and property offences were not alcohol-related and occurred in daylight hours during weekdays. The results of Studies Five and Six were mixed. A number of alcohol-related offences requiring police attention were significantly reduced for some policing areas and for some types of offences following the implementation of the lockout policy. However, in some locations the lockout policy appeared to have a negative or minimal impact. Interviews with licensees revealed that although all were initially opposed to the lockout policy as they believed it would have a negative impact on business, most perceived some benefits from its introduction. Some of the benefits included, improved patron safety and the development of better business strategies to increase patron numbers. In conclusion, the overall findings of the six studies highlight the pervasive nature of alcohol across a range of criminal incidents, demonstrating the tremendous impact alcohol-related incidents have on police. The findings also demonstrate the importance of time and place in predicting the occurrence of alcohol-related offences. Although this program of research did not set out to test Place Based theories of crime, these theories were used to inform the interpretation of findings. The findings in the current research program provide evidence for the relevance of Place Based theories of crime to understanding the factors contributing to violence and disorder, and designing relevant crime prevention strategies. For instance, the results in Studies Five and Six provide supportive evidence that this novel lockout initiative can be beneficial for public safety by reducing some types of offences in particular areas in and around late-night liquor trading premises. Finally, intelligent-led policing initiatives based on problem oriented policing, such as the lockout policy examined in this thesis, have potential as a major crime prevention technique to reduce specific types of alcohol-related offences.
Gun violence among criminal networks : A quantitative analysis of Swedish police officers’ perceptions on crime prevention workWest, Emma January 2022 (has links)
Purpose This study amied to explore how police officers perceived the crime prevention efforts taken against gun violence in Sweden. Of particularly interest was to examine how certain efforts were perceived by the police officers, to be more or less effective when it comes to prevent gun violence from occurring among criminal networks. In this study, I explored which perceived effect certain efforts included under the working methods of community policing and problem-oriented policing had, as well as other efforts undertaken by law enforcement. Method Police officers who either worked in Gothenburg or Malmö city were targeted by the study. In sum, I received responses from 99 participants, in an on-line based questionnaire. The participants were selected through convenience sampling. Descriptive statistics are offered, and bivariate analyses were employed to identify officers’ perception differences of policing efficacy in vulnerable areas compared to non-vulnerable areas, and efficacy of law enforcement. Results The analyzes in the study, showed that the police officers overall perceived that the method of community policing to be crime preventive. This was especially the case for the vulnerable areas and in relation to the effort of an increased local police presence. As for the other method, problem-oriented policing, the officers particularly perceived that the effort of secret data eavesdropping to have the strongest crime prevention effect in both areas. The effort was also perceived to have more of an effect then both efforts included under community policing. As for hot spot policing, the other effort included under problem-oriented policing, the effort was overall perceived to have less of an effect among the officers. This was the cases for both areas. As for the importance to particularly prevent criminal networks possessions and sales of illegal drugs and weapons, community policing and problem-oriented policing were not perceived to be effective enough. As for the effect of the efforts undertaken by the law enforcement, a tougher approach against crime was among the police officers perceived to have the most effect. Conclusion The results of the study show that there is a continued increased need for evaluations of crime prevention efforts. The study also showed that there is an increased need that we as researchers, needs to further collaborate with the police force in order to further develop the craft of policing. / <p>2022-09-16</p>
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