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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Dis-covering gender differentiation and discrimination in the English language

Weatherall, Ann January 1994 (has links)
No description available.
2

FEMINIST, LINGUISTIC, AND RHETORICAL PERSPECTIVES ON LANGUAGE REFORM

Dorner, William 07 May 2010 (has links)
As people become aware that society treats women unfairly, they also perceive related shortcomings in the way that Modern English references women. For example, many have objected to the so-called generic he, the third-person masculine pronoun employed to refer to a person of unknown gender, and provided several alternatives, few of which have been widely adopted. Nonetheless, change is evident in the case of they becoming an increasingly common solution to refer to a person of unidentified gender. The intentional reform of the Modern English language, both in the past and present, has been a result of people s reactions to what is often perceived as a bias or a deficiency with what is possible to say given the words at their disposal. The rhetorical significance of reform is profound, and scholars continually broach the subject from the perspective of different disciplines. Explored here are the approaches of three of those fields, feminism, linguistics, and rhetoric; how each reacts to and even influences reform is an important part of the study. What is evident is that, regardless of the particular field, reform remains a force of change, even while it may not be broadly recognized. Further, traditional grammatical rules provide an insufficient means for tackling inequalities in Modern English, and are in part responsible for such imbalance. As such, writers must be aware of the present expectations of their audience and the situation of particular words. / M.A. / Department of English / Arts and Humanities / English MA
3

Sexist Language : Gender marking of occupational terms and the non-parallel treatment of <em>boy </em>and <em>girl</em>

Magnusson, Sophia January 2008 (has links)
<p>In everyday life women are exposed to sexist language. Terms and usages that exclude or discriminate women are referred to as sexist language. This takes into account that one presumes that maleness is the standard, the norm, and that femaleness is the non-standard, or the exception. The aim of this paper was to find whether gratuitous modifiers such as <em>girl, lady, female </em>and <em>woman </em>are used more frequently than the male markings and whether <em>girl </em>is used to a wider extent than <em>boy</em> to denote an adult. The aim includes two aspects of sexist language. Firstly, the aspect of calling women <em>girls</em> and men <em>men</em>, called non-parallel treatment. Secondly, the fact that it is more common for unmarked terms to refer to males while when referring to females a marked term is needed. As primary source for the study the Time Corpus was used, which is an online corpus containing over 100 million words and ranges from 1923-2007. The conclusion of this essay was that the female sex is more commonly marked and that <em>woman/women</em> are the most commonly used premodifiers. Gender markings most likely apply to occupations and labels which are thought of as either typically male or female. Furthermore, it was found that <em>girl </em>was used to a wider extent than <em>boy</em> to denote an adult. In addition, the results presented a possible change of trends where <em>girl</em> referred to a child to a larger extent in contemporary English.</p>
4

Mulheres como eu, mulheres como as outras: desvelando o assédio moral e sexual no âmbito do trabalho das comerciárias do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte / Les femmes comme moi, les femmes comme les autres: dévoilement le harcèlement moral et sexuel dans la sphère de travail dans le commerce de lÉtat de Rio Grande do Norte

Maria Ilidiana Diniz 01 December 2014 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Les transformations dans lespace de travail et son impact entre hommes et femmes dans le contexte de la socialité capitaliste, ainsi que les tendances actuelles dans le travail des femmes, qui, entre autres choses accentuent les processus de hiérarchisation sont systématiquement traduits dans la violence au travail sous la forme de harcèlement moral et sexuel qui se caractérisent par lexposition de les travailleurs à des situations difficiles et humiliantes prolongées pendant au cours de la journée de travail sur lexercice de ses fonctions, et à son tour, les femmes étaient les plus victime de sorte que ces aspects intensifient la division sexuelle du travail et apporter des engagements sérieux à la liberté de ces sujets. Il est à noter que ces types de harcèlement se produisent aussi bien dans les relations dordre supérieur, comme dans les relations avec pas de hiérarchie supérieure, peuvent se produire entre pairs du même niveau hiérarchique. Toutefois, la tendance est la prévalence des relations qui est présent sous une forme de hiérarchie, que ce soit le genre ou dun rôle au sein de lentreprise. La question centrale qui a guidé cette travail était: comme visent le harcèlement moral e sexuel dans les situations de précarisation du travail des travailleuses du commerce de lÉtat du Rio Grande do Norte? Nous avons effectué les recherches bibliographique, le documentaire et de terrain. Ce dernier a été développé par la conduite dentretiens structurés avec dix-sept travailleurs de commerce dans les villes de Natal, Mossoró et Pau dos Ferros. En termes daspects concluants: 1. Le harcèlement moral e sexuel accentuent la intensification de la précarisation du travail des femmes qui a été principalement matérialisent par crainte de diverses façons: (a) la crainte de perdre leur emploi; (B) la crainte dêtre persécuté si dénonce les pratiques de harcèlement (c) peur d'être agressés verbalement (d) la crainte de voir les aspects exposés de la sexualité; 2. Le harcèlement moral e sexuel constituent comme des expressions de la violence sexiste contre les femmes en milieu de travail dans la contemporanéité ; 3. Les femmes vitimes de situations de violence dans le marché du travail ne didentifient pas les services publiques pour lesquels faire appel, les gouvernements dans les niveaux municipaux ou dÉtat, navons pas des services de prévention et de lutte contre ce phénomène mettant l'accent la précarisation du travail des femme; 4. À mon avis, la lutte contre ces violations implique un mouvement élargi de protestation contre les conditions de dégradation humaine imposée par le capitalisme et en même temps faire face aux conséquences désastreuses de patriarcat, le racisme et loppression subie par les femmes, historiquement construit et légitimés, mais qui sont susceptibles dêtre déconstruit et transformé, exigeant lorganisation collective. Tout effort de prévention/intervention ne peut pas ne pas tenir compte la nature de genre du harcèlement moral e sexuel qui constituent lune des formes les plus pernicieuses de la violence contre les femmes. / As transformações no âmbito do trabalho e sua repercussão entre homens e mulheres no contexto da sociabilidade capitalista, bem como, as tendências atuais do trabalho feminino, que, dentre outros aspectos acentuam os processos de hierarquização têm sistematicamente se traduzido em violências no mundo do trabalho sob a forma de assédio moral e sexual que se caracterizam pela exposição dos (as) trabalhadores (as) a situações humilhantes e constrangedoras prolongadas durante a jornada de trabalho relativa ao exercício de suas funções, tendo, por sua vez, as mulheres como as mais vitimizadas, de modo que, tais aspectos intensificam a divisão sexual do trabalho e trazem sérios comprometimentos para a liberdade desses sujeitos. Vale ressaltar que esses tipos de assédio se dão tanto no âmbito das relações hierarquicamente superiores, como no âmbito das relações sem hierarquia superior, podendo ocorrer entre colegas do mesmo nível hierárquico. Contudo, a tendência é a prevalência nas relações a qual está presente alguma forma de hierarquia, seja ela de gênero ou de função no interior da empresa. A questão central que orientou este trabalho foi: como se objetivam o assédio moral e o assédio sexual em situações de precarização do trabalho das comerciárias no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte? Realizamos pesquisas bibliográfica, documental e de campo. Essa última foi desenvolvida por meio da realização de dezessete entrevistas semiestruturadas com trabalhadoras do comércio das cidades de Natal, Mossoró e Pau dos Ferros. Em nível dos aspectos conclusivos destacamos: 1. O assédio moral e o assédio sexual potencializam a intensificação da precarização do trabalho feminino se concretizando fundamentalmente a partir do medo nas mais variadas formas: (a) medo de perder o emprego; (b) medo de ser perseguida, caso denuncie as práticas de assédio (c) medo de ser agredida verbalmente (d) medo de ver expostos aspectos da sexualidade; 2. O assédio moral e o assédio sexual se constituem como expressões da violência sexista contra as mulheres no âmbito do trabalho na contemporaneidade; 3. As mulheres que vivenciam/vivenciaram situações de violência na esfera laboral não identificam os serviços púbicos para os quais recorrer, haja vista os governos seja nas esferas municipal ou estadual não disporem de serviços de prevenção e combate a este fenômeno agravando a precarização do trabalho feminino; 4. O enfrentamento a essas violações pressupõe, no meu entender, um movimento ampliado de contestação das condições de degradação humana impostas pelo capitalismo e ao mesmo tempo enfrentar as nefastas consequências do patriarcado, do racismo e da opressão sofridas pelas mulheres, construídos e legitimados historicamente, mas que são passíveis de serem desconstruídos e transformados, exigindo organização coletiva para tal. Qualquer esforço de prevenção/intervenção não pode deixar de levar em conta a natureza genrada do assédio sexual e moral, o qual se constituem numa das formas mais perniciosas de violência contra as mulheres.
5

Measurement of Attitudes Toward Feminism

Tofte-Tipps, Sharry J. 08 1900 (has links)
The relationship of two sexist attitude questionnaires (Attitudes Toward Women Scale and Sexism Scale) was explored. Responses on the Bem Sex Role Inventory were compared with attitude responses to assess the effect of sex-role concept on degree of sexism. Various demographic variables were included to determine if any related to sexist attitude responses. Subjects were 53 male and 113 female undergraduate psychology students, aged 17-47. Test instruments and a demographic data survey were administered, and statistical analyses performed. Attitude measures were significantly correlated and could not be differentiated on the basis of variables included for study. Factor analysis of instruments revealed 3 separate factors: masculinity, femininity,and "sexist" attitudes. Sex-role concept was unrelated to sexist attitude responses. Only the demographic variable ofage was significantly related to attitude scores.
6

Mulheres como eu, mulheres como as outras: desvelando o assédio moral e sexual no âmbito do trabalho das comerciárias do Estado do Rio Grande do Norte / Les femmes comme moi, les femmes comme les autres: dévoilement le harcèlement moral et sexuel dans la sphère de travail dans le commerce de lÉtat de Rio Grande do Norte

Maria Ilidiana Diniz 01 December 2014 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Les transformations dans lespace de travail et son impact entre hommes et femmes dans le contexte de la socialité capitaliste, ainsi que les tendances actuelles dans le travail des femmes, qui, entre autres choses accentuent les processus de hiérarchisation sont systématiquement traduits dans la violence au travail sous la forme de harcèlement moral et sexuel qui se caractérisent par lexposition de les travailleurs à des situations difficiles et humiliantes prolongées pendant au cours de la journée de travail sur lexercice de ses fonctions, et à son tour, les femmes étaient les plus victime de sorte que ces aspects intensifient la division sexuelle du travail et apporter des engagements sérieux à la liberté de ces sujets. Il est à noter que ces types de harcèlement se produisent aussi bien dans les relations dordre supérieur, comme dans les relations avec pas de hiérarchie supérieure, peuvent se produire entre pairs du même niveau hiérarchique. Toutefois, la tendance est la prévalence des relations qui est présent sous une forme de hiérarchie, que ce soit le genre ou dun rôle au sein de lentreprise. La question centrale qui a guidé cette travail était: comme visent le harcèlement moral e sexuel dans les situations de précarisation du travail des travailleuses du commerce de lÉtat du Rio Grande do Norte? Nous avons effectué les recherches bibliographique, le documentaire et de terrain. Ce dernier a été développé par la conduite dentretiens structurés avec dix-sept travailleurs de commerce dans les villes de Natal, Mossoró et Pau dos Ferros. En termes daspects concluants: 1. Le harcèlement moral e sexuel accentuent la intensification de la précarisation du travail des femmes qui a été principalement matérialisent par crainte de diverses façons: (a) la crainte de perdre leur emploi; (B) la crainte dêtre persécuté si dénonce les pratiques de harcèlement (c) peur d'être agressés verbalement (d) la crainte de voir les aspects exposés de la sexualité; 2. Le harcèlement moral e sexuel constituent comme des expressions de la violence sexiste contre les femmes en milieu de travail dans la contemporanéité ; 3. Les femmes vitimes de situations de violence dans le marché du travail ne didentifient pas les services publiques pour lesquels faire appel, les gouvernements dans les niveaux municipaux ou dÉtat, navons pas des services de prévention et de lutte contre ce phénomène mettant l'accent la précarisation du travail des femme; 4. À mon avis, la lutte contre ces violations implique un mouvement élargi de protestation contre les conditions de dégradation humaine imposée par le capitalisme et en même temps faire face aux conséquences désastreuses de patriarcat, le racisme et loppression subie par les femmes, historiquement construit et légitimés, mais qui sont susceptibles dêtre déconstruit et transformé, exigeant lorganisation collective. Tout effort de prévention/intervention ne peut pas ne pas tenir compte la nature de genre du harcèlement moral e sexuel qui constituent lune des formes les plus pernicieuses de la violence contre les femmes. / As transformações no âmbito do trabalho e sua repercussão entre homens e mulheres no contexto da sociabilidade capitalista, bem como, as tendências atuais do trabalho feminino, que, dentre outros aspectos acentuam os processos de hierarquização têm sistematicamente se traduzido em violências no mundo do trabalho sob a forma de assédio moral e sexual que se caracterizam pela exposição dos (as) trabalhadores (as) a situações humilhantes e constrangedoras prolongadas durante a jornada de trabalho relativa ao exercício de suas funções, tendo, por sua vez, as mulheres como as mais vitimizadas, de modo que, tais aspectos intensificam a divisão sexual do trabalho e trazem sérios comprometimentos para a liberdade desses sujeitos. Vale ressaltar que esses tipos de assédio se dão tanto no âmbito das relações hierarquicamente superiores, como no âmbito das relações sem hierarquia superior, podendo ocorrer entre colegas do mesmo nível hierárquico. Contudo, a tendência é a prevalência nas relações a qual está presente alguma forma de hierarquia, seja ela de gênero ou de função no interior da empresa. A questão central que orientou este trabalho foi: como se objetivam o assédio moral e o assédio sexual em situações de precarização do trabalho das comerciárias no Estado do Rio Grande do Norte? Realizamos pesquisas bibliográfica, documental e de campo. Essa última foi desenvolvida por meio da realização de dezessete entrevistas semiestruturadas com trabalhadoras do comércio das cidades de Natal, Mossoró e Pau dos Ferros. Em nível dos aspectos conclusivos destacamos: 1. O assédio moral e o assédio sexual potencializam a intensificação da precarização do trabalho feminino se concretizando fundamentalmente a partir do medo nas mais variadas formas: (a) medo de perder o emprego; (b) medo de ser perseguida, caso denuncie as práticas de assédio (c) medo de ser agredida verbalmente (d) medo de ver expostos aspectos da sexualidade; 2. O assédio moral e o assédio sexual se constituem como expressões da violência sexista contra as mulheres no âmbito do trabalho na contemporaneidade; 3. As mulheres que vivenciam/vivenciaram situações de violência na esfera laboral não identificam os serviços púbicos para os quais recorrer, haja vista os governos seja nas esferas municipal ou estadual não disporem de serviços de prevenção e combate a este fenômeno agravando a precarização do trabalho feminino; 4. O enfrentamento a essas violações pressupõe, no meu entender, um movimento ampliado de contestação das condições de degradação humana impostas pelo capitalismo e ao mesmo tempo enfrentar as nefastas consequências do patriarcado, do racismo e da opressão sofridas pelas mulheres, construídos e legitimados historicamente, mas que são passíveis de serem desconstruídos e transformados, exigindo organização coletiva para tal. Qualquer esforço de prevenção/intervenção não pode deixar de levar em conta a natureza genrada do assédio sexual e moral, o qual se constituem numa das formas mais perniciosas de violência contra as mulheres.
7

Exploring past school experiences to shape the practice of anti-oppressive pedagogy

Mooney, Elizabeth 21 February 2006
This research explores the use of memories of past school experiences to help identify unnamed and unchallenged incidents of oppression that occurred in elementary and high school. What are the implications for educators when past school experiences indicate that racism, classism, sexism, homophobia, and other harmful practices took place, but went unexamined and unclaimed as such? Three inter-related reflective analyses are used to investigate the experiences of teacher candidates, the thesis author, and practicing teachers to fully explore this query. <p>The first section examines teacher candidates reactions to anti-oppressive education. Negative reactions by students are most often defined by scholars as resistance. This section reflects on the strengths and weaknesses of this definition. The memories students shared about their past schooling suggest looking beyond the current scope of theories that define negativity as resistance. The second section includes a retrospective analysis of the authors past school experiences where oppressive practices went unidentified and unchallenged as such. In the third section, Narrative Inquiry is used to gather stories from practicing teachers whose memories also indicate unnamed examples of oppression. Participants identify school memories that helped shape their current teaching practices and enhanced their commitment to addressing racism, classism, sexism and other issues in schools today.
8

Exploring past school experiences to shape the practice of anti-oppressive pedagogy

Mooney, Elizabeth 21 February 2006 (has links)
This research explores the use of memories of past school experiences to help identify unnamed and unchallenged incidents of oppression that occurred in elementary and high school. What are the implications for educators when past school experiences indicate that racism, classism, sexism, homophobia, and other harmful practices took place, but went unexamined and unclaimed as such? Three inter-related reflective analyses are used to investigate the experiences of teacher candidates, the thesis author, and practicing teachers to fully explore this query. <p>The first section examines teacher candidates reactions to anti-oppressive education. Negative reactions by students are most often defined by scholars as resistance. This section reflects on the strengths and weaknesses of this definition. The memories students shared about their past schooling suggest looking beyond the current scope of theories that define negativity as resistance. The second section includes a retrospective analysis of the authors past school experiences where oppressive practices went unidentified and unchallenged as such. In the third section, Narrative Inquiry is used to gather stories from practicing teachers whose memories also indicate unnamed examples of oppression. Participants identify school memories that helped shape their current teaching practices and enhanced their commitment to addressing racism, classism, sexism and other issues in schools today.
9

Occupational terms in The Daily Aztec & The San Diego Union Tribune : Non sexist vs. sexist language

Ericsson, Anna January 2008 (has links)
<p>Abstract</p><p>In English usages such as mankind and job titles ending in -man (fireman, chairman) when referring to people in general are considered sexist. Sexist language makes a distinction between women and men and it can exclude, trivialize or diminish women. Therefore, the aim of this paper was to study the sexist or non-sexist use of occupational terms in The San Diego Union Tribune and The Daily Aztec. The questions that were investigated were how the newspapers used affixed terms ending in –man and -woman, if they added female/woman/lady to refer to women, but also how they referred to traditional female professions (nurse, midwife). The study was conducted by hand by using a textual analysis, which was both qualitative and quantitative in nature. The study showed that the newspapers primarily use non-sexist occupational terms and avoid using female markings, even when reference is being made to women who have traditional male professions. The sexist usage that was most common was the affixed terms ending in –man and –woman. One conclusion that could be drawn was that The San Diego Union Tribune follows The Associated Press Stylebook’s policy about the usage of coined words such as chairperson and spokesperson.</p>
10

Generické maskulinum v pedagogické komunikaci / Generic Masculine in Educational Communication

Kryspinová, Barbora January 2011 (has links)
TITLE: The Generic Masculine in Educational Communication ABSTRACT: The thesis deals with the use of generic masculine in educational communication. The use of masculine nouns to refer to a group of people of both sexes is a target of frequent criticism from proponents of gender-neutral language. The theoretical part of my paper discusses and explains in general the importance of language for cognitive development of an individual and the principle of gender-sensitive expression. The empirical part of my paper is based on qualitative research that was conducted at a selected secondary school in order to verify the influence of language attributions of the generic masculine form on the mental representation of reality. The main technique of data collection was a survey inspired by the psycholinguistics association experiments. Attitudes and opinions of students on the subject of research were identified during group discussions. The results of my study among respondents points at the generic masculine to be significantly more often associated with mental representation of a male than to be perceived as gender-neutral. These findings thus correspond with some of the current theses of gender linguistics.

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