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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
31

Efeito da utiliza??o de ?leo de nim (Azadirachta indica) por via d?rmica e da moxidectina por via subcut?nea na preven??o de infesta??es artificiais por Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae) em bovinos. / Effect of application of neen oil (Azadirachta indica) dermal and moxidectin subcutaneously in the prevention of infestations artificials by Dermatobia hominis (Linnaeus Jr., 1781) (Diptera: Cuterebridae) in cattle.

Vilela, Joice Aparecida Rezende 04 March 2008 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:15:30Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2008- Joice Aparecida Rezende Vilela.pdf: 1244449 bytes, checksum: 335f88e6cd41b29936d7ce97d585c143 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008-03-04 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico / Dermatobia hominis, the human botfly, has obligatory parasitic larval forms of the subcutaneous tissue of domestic animals, wildlife and man, causing nodule myiasis. Its importance for the cattle industry is related to the economic damages caused by those larvae. The conventional chemical control has facing some problems such as the accelerated development of resistance and residues in animal products. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevention of botfly myiasis through the use of phytotherapic neen and of the moxidectin observing the capacity of interference in the evolution of parasite biology. For later infestation, third instar larvae were collected and kept in BOD at temperature of 27 ? 1?C and 10% R.U for pupation. After 24 to 31 days, emerged adults were placed in cages with Musca domestica and Chrysomya albiceps, used as a vector for oviposition of D. hominis. The vector carrying eggs were captured and placed in BOD. After 4 to 6 days, first instar larvae were maintained in BOD at 19? C, until host infestation. In the experimental lineation was used 12 male cattle free of D. hominis natural infestation. The animals were previously placed in screened stalls in the W.O. NEITZ Research Station at UFRRJ, receiving concentrated feed, grass, and water. The cattle was distributed into three groups with four animals and submitted to the treatments, being a control animal (treated with water pouredon), two animals treated with commercial products A and B of neem oil (Azadirachta indica, 2000 ppm of the active principle Azadirachtin) applied as a pour-on (50 ml for animal), and one animal treated with moxidectin 10% long action injected subcutaneously (1ml/100 kg) in the back of the ear. Each animal was infested with 30 first instar larvae (L1) on days 03, 07, 14, and 21 after treatment. The outbreak of L1 was stimulated by thermal source and larvae were transferred with a fine brush to a shaved region along the bovine back. The infestations were mapped for monitoring every two days to evaluation of efficacy and residual effect of treatments in accordance with the larval survival at different periods of infestation. With the purpose of verify possible collateral effects, were accomplished clinical and laboratorial examinations of the animals, before and 15 days after the treatments. Regarding efficacy, the neem products applied as pour-on had statistical not significant effectiveness for inhibition of larvae development. On the other hand, injectable moxidectin 10% showed 100% efficacy until day 14 and although larvae penetration was not precluded, larvae development was inhibited, but from day 21, did not inhibit the development of the penetrated larvae. The third instar larvae that developed after the treatments were collected and kept in BOD for observation of some biological parameters. It was observed that larvae from all treatments showed regular pupation, emergence of morphologically normal flies and the presence of viable postures. / Dermatobia hominis, a mosca do berne, possui formas larvais parasitas obrigat?rios do tecido subcut?neo de animais dom?sticos, silvestres e do homem, provocando mi?ase nodular. Sua import?ncia na bovinocultura relaciona-se aos preju?zos econ?micos determinados pelas formas evolutivas larvais. No controle qu?mico convencional tem sido observado desenvolvimento acelerado de resist?ncia e res?duos nos produtos animais. Os objetivos do experimento foram avaliar a preven??o da dermatobiose atrav?s do uso do fitoter?pico nim e da moxidectina, observando a capacidade de interfer?ncia na evolu??o da biologia parasit?ria. Para a infesta??o, foram coletadas larvas de terceiro instar, que foram mantidas em estufa B.O.D. ? temperatura de 27 ? 1?C e 70 ? 10% U.R para a pupa??o. Ap?s 24 a 31 dias, os adultos que emergiram foram colocados em gaiolas com Musca domestica e Chrysomya albiceps, vetores para oviposi??o de D. hominis. Os vetores portadores de ovos foram capturados e acondicionados em estufa B.O.D. Ap?s 4 a 6 dias, as larvas de primeiro instar, em eclos?o foram mantidas a 19?C, at? o momento da infesta??o. No delineamento experimental utilizaram-se 12 bovinos machos, livres de infesta??o por D. hominis. Os animais foram estabulados em baias teladas na Esta??o de Pesquisas Parasitol?gicas W.O. NEITZ, da UFRRJ, recebendo ra??o concentrada, capim picado e ?gua ad libitum. Os bovinos foram distribuidos em tr?s grupos com quatro animais e submetidos aos tratamentos, sendo um animal controle (tratado com ?gua aplicada pour-on), dois animais tratados com produtos comerciais A e B ? base de ?leo de nim (Azadirachta indica, concentra??o de 2000 ppm do princ?pio ativo Azadirachtina) em aplica??o pour-on ao longo do dorso dos animais, dose de 50 ml por animal, e um tratado com moxidectina ? 10% Longa A??o, dose de 1ml/100 kg, em inje??o subcut?nea na parte posterior da orelha. Cada animal foi infestado com 30 larvas L1 nos dias 03, 07, 14 e 21 ap?s os tratamentos. A eclos?o das L1 foi estimulada por fonte t?rmica, e as mesmas colocadas com um pincel fino sobre a regi?o tricotomizada ao longo do dorso. As infesta??es foram mapeadas para acompanhamento a cada dois dias para avalia??o da efic?cia e tempo residual dos tratamentos de acordo com a sobreviv?ncia larval nos diferentes per?odos de infesta??o. Com a finalidade de se verificar poss?veis efeitos colaterais foram realizados exames cl?nico e laboratorial dos animais, antes e 15 dias ap?s os tratamentos. N?o foram observados altera??o dos par?metros cl?nico-laboratoriais. Com rela??o ? efic?cia, os produtos do Nim tiveram efic?cia estatisticamente n?o significativa na forma de aplica??o pour-on, na inibi??o do desenvolvimento parasit?rio. A moxidectina ? 10% apresentou efic?cia de 100% at? o 14? dia, n?o impedindo a penetra??o da larva mas a evolu??o parasit?ria, e a partir do 21? dia n?o inibiu o desenvolvimento das larvas penetradas. As larvas L3 que se desenvolveram ap?s os tratamentos, foram coletadas e mantidas em B.O.D para observa??o de alguns par?metros biol?gicos. Constatou-se que as larvas das L3 provenientes de todos tratamentos evoluiram para pupa??o, emerg?ncia de moscas morfologicamente normais e presen?a de posturas vi?veis.
32

Seleção de genótipos de feijoeiro Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) (Leguminosae) resistentes aos carunchos Acanthoscelides obtectus (Boh.) e Zabrotes subfasciatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) e o seu uso associado com inseticidas botânicos / Selection of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) (Leguminosae) resistant genotypes to the weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Boh.) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its association to botanical insecticides

Élio César Guzzo 04 April 2008 (has links)
Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris resistentes aos carunchos Acanthoscelides obtectus e Zabrotes subfasciatus, bem como avaliar o efeito associado desses genótipos resistentes com inseticidas de origem vegetal. Para tanto, foram utilizados acessos de P. vulgaris do Banco de Germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas e inseticidas comerciais de origem botânica. No screening inicial, amostras dos genótipos foram infestadas com cada uma das espécies de bruquídeos separadamente, avaliando-se o número de insetos emergidos aos 50 dias após a infestação. Dos 49 genótipos testados contra A. obtecus, não houve emergência naqueles com números de acesso 525, 584 e 615, podendo ser considerados os mais resistentes. Em relação a Z. subfasciatus, os genótipos com números de acesso 2, 35, 251, 570, 583, 584, 610, 621, 634, 816, 818 e 819 se mostraram mais resistentes entre os 185 avaliados. Destes, os genótipos portadores de arcelina 583, 584, 816, 818 e 819, além de 570 e 610, foram selecionados como os mais promissores para os testes subseqüentes, juntamente com a variedade Bolinha, que foi utilizada como controle de suscetibilidade. Não foi observada correlação entre as características morfoagronômicas dos genótipos de P. vulgaris e a sua resistência às espécies de bruquídeos avaliadas, indicando que a resistência a estas pragas não está associada às características da flor, vagem, semente e fenologia dos genótipos. A massa de mil sementes, que é indicativa da origem dos genótipos, foi um dos descritores analisados, mostrando também que a resistência de P. vulgaris a A. obtectus e a Z. subfasciatus não está relacionada à origem dos genótipos. Em testes de livre escolha e de confinamento, avaliou-se o efeito dos genótipos selecionados no screening, juntamente com a variedade Bolinha, sobre o comportamento e biologia de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se que a avaliação da preferência de Z. subfasciatus por genótipos de P. vulgaris em teste de livre escolha pode ser feita com 1 dia após a infestação e que \'Bolinha\', apesar de ser suscetível a Z. subfasciatus e favorecer o seu desenvolvimento, apresenta antixenose para oviposição em relação à praga. Nos testes realizados, os genótipos contendo arcelina tenderam a ser mais resistentes que os demais sem essa proteína, sendo que os seus efeitos sobre Z. subfasciatus incluíram o aumento da mortalidade no período de desenvolvimento, alongamento desse período e redução do peso de adultos emergidos, mantendo-se, de certa forma, estáveis ao longo de duas gerações da praga. A resistência conferida pela arcelina revelou ser do tipo antibiose, tendo como causas a impropriedade nutricional e a ação no metabolismo do inseto. Com relação aos inseticidas botânicos, foram testados 3 produtos comerciais, sendo 2 à base de azadiractina e um à base de rotenona. Entre estes, o produto que mais afetou o desenvolvimento de Z. subfasciatus foi NeemPro®, derivado de nim (Azadirachta indica), o qual apresentou efeito ovicida e prolongou a duração do período de desenvolvimento de Z. subfasciatus. Frente a isto, avaliou-se o efeito associado de NeemPro® com o genótipo resistente portador de arcelina 818 sobre alguns parâmetros biológicos de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se que os efeitos mais severos sobre Z. subfasciatus foram causados pelo genótipo resistente, independentemente do inseticida à base de nim e que o uso associado de ambos não provoca efeito aditivo ou sinérgico, não sendo recomendado para o manejo de Z. subfasciatus. / This research was carried out to identify Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes resistant to the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, as well as to evaluate the effect of these genotypes in association with botanical insecticides. To reach this objective, P. vulgaris accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and commercial insecticides from botanical origin were tested. In the initial screening, samples of bean genotypes were infested with the weevil species separately and the number of adults emerged at the 50th day after infestation was evaluated. There was no A. obtectus emergence in genotypes 525, 584 and 615, among the 49 ones screened against this pest. In relation to Z. subfasciatus, genotypes with accession numbers 2, 35, 251, 570, 583, 584, 610, 621, 634, 816, 818 and 819 showed themselves resistant among 185 screened ones. The arcelin-containing genotypes 583, 584, 816, 818 and 819, plus 570 and 610 (both lacking this protein), were selected as the most promising for additional evaluations. Bolinha variety was also used as the susceptible standard. No correlation between morpho-agronomical characteristics of the P. vulgaris genotypes and their resistance to the weevils was observed, indicating that resistance to these two pests is not associated to genotypes flower, pod and seed characters or plant phenology. The mass of 1000 seeds, which indicates the origin of genotypes, was one of the used descriptors, showing that P. vulgaris resistance to A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus is not related to genotypes origin too. In free- and no-choice tests, it was evaluated the effect of the screened genotypes on Z. subfasciatus behavior and biology, compared to \'Bolinha\'. It was verified that in free-choice tests, the evaluation of Z. subfasciatus preference for P. vulgaris genotypes can be done 1 day after infestation. Despite being susceptible to Z. subfasciatus and supporting its development, \'Bolinha\' holds antixenosis for oviposition in relation to the pest. In the bioassays carried out, genotypes containing arcelin tended to be more resistant than those lacking this protein and their effects on Z. subfasciatus include increasing of the mortality in the developmental period, enlargement of this period and reduction in adult weight, also being stable during two pest generations. The resistance provided by arcelin revealed itself to be antibiosis, by acting as antinutrients and also as antimetabolics. In relation to botanical insecticides, 3 commercial products, 2 of them based on azadirachtin and 1 based on rotenone, were evaluated. The insecticide NeemPro®, extracted from neem (Azadirachta indica) was the only one significantly causing ovicidal effect and enlarging Z. subfasciatus developmental period. Based on these results, the associated effect of NeemPro® and the resistant arcelin-containing P. vulgaris genotype 818 on some Z. subfasciatus biological parameters was evaluated. It was verified that the most severe effects on Z. subfasciatus were caused by the resistant bean genotype, independently of the neem based insecticide. The associated use of these two control methods no results in additive or synergistc effect and is not recommended for the management of Z. subfasciatus.
33

Avaliação do efeito sistêmico de nanoformulações à base de derivados de nim (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) sobre Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biótipo B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) em tomateiro / Evaluation of the systemic effect of neem (Azadirachta indica A. Juss) nanoformulations against Bemisia tabaci (Genn.) biotype B (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) in tomato plants

Sheila Salles de Carvalho 05 October 2012 (has links)
A nanotecnologia é cada vez mais empregada em métodos alternativos de controle de pragas. Em virtude disso, nanoformulações foram preparadas com nanocápsulas (NC) utilizando os polímeros poli-metacrilato de metila (PMMA), poli-?-caprolactona (PCL) e poli- ?-hidroxibutirato (PHB) como agentes encapsulantes de duas moléculas inseticidas (azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol), e tendo como matriz oleosa o óleo de nim ou o óleo comercial Azamax®, ambos com teor de azadiractina enriquecido. O objetivo foi avaliar a eficácia de 19 nanoformulações no controle de ninfas de Bemisia tabaci biótipo B, importante praga nas condições tropicais, por meio da ação sistêmica do ingrediente ativo liberado. Primeiramente foi estimada a CL50 para ação sistêmica de soluções contendo óleo de nim em tomateiro sobre ninfas da mosca-branca. As plantas de tomateiro utilizadas nesse experimento foram congeladas e analisadas quanto ao teor de azadiractina. Posteriormente, cinco lotes de nanoformulações, os quais variaram no tipo e na quantidade dos polímeros e da matriz oleosa, foram testados quanto à ação sistêmica. Duas nanoformulações em suspensão aquosa foram selecionadas (NC L5-2 e NC L6-1) por causarem mortalidade comparável à do óleo comercial, e, juntamente com uma nanoformulação em pó (NC L5-3) foram avaliadas quanto ao seu efeito residual. Os valores estimados para a CL50 foram diferentes sendo 180,67 ppm de azadiractina no primeiro e 54,75 ppm no segundo ensaio. As nanoformulações dos lotes 2, 3 e 4 causaram mortalidade acumulada inferior a 30%, mesmo quando aplicadas no dobro da concentração do segundo ensaio da CL50. Os lotes 5 e 6 apresentaram mortalidades superiores, sendo o lote 6 aquele com maior eficiência ocasionando mortalidade variável de 73,43 a 91,11%. Verificou-se que a ação sistêmica de óleos e nanoformulações contendo compostos de nim depende das condições ambientais em que são aplicados; quando soluções de azadiractina e 3-tigloilazadiractol são aplicadas no solo, as maiores concentrações da primeira substância são encontradas na parte superior da planta e da segunda nas folhas inferiores; o óleo comercial Azamax® não afeta a oviposição e a viabilidade dos ovos da mosca-branca quando aplicado no solo no momento da infestação, as nanoformulações selecionadas são bioativas mesmo cerca de 30 dias após a aplicação, não diferindo, porém, do óleo comercial. / Nanotechnology is more used as an alternative method of pest control. Therefore, nanoformulations were prepared with nanocapsules (NC) using the polymers methyl polymethacrylate (PMMA), poly-å-caprolactone (PCL) e poly-â- hydroxybutyrate (PHB) as encapsulating agents of two insecticide molecules (azadirachtin and 3-tigloylazadirachtol). Neem oil or commercial oil Azamax®, both with level of azadirachtin-enriched, were used as oily matrix. The objective was to evaluate the effectiveness of 19 nanoformulations against nymphs of Bemisia tabaci biotype B, an important pest in tropical conditions, by means of systemic action of the released active ingredient. Firstly, the LC50 was estimated for a systemic action of neem oil solutions applied on tomato plants against nymphs of whitefly. The tomato plants used in this experiment were frozen and the level of azadirachtin was quantified. After that, five lots of nanoformulations, which varied in type and amount of polymers and oily matrix, were tested by means of a systemic action. Two nanoformulations in aqueous suspension were selected (NC L5-2 and NC L6-1) because they provoked both mortality and commercial oil. To these a powder nanoformulation (NC L-3) was included, and all of them were evaluated according to their residual effect. The value of LC50 estimated was different in two experiments: 180.67 ppm of azadirachtin in the first one and 54.75 ppm in the second one. The lots 2, 3 and 4 of nanoformulations caused cumulative mortality in less than 30%, although, in some cases, it had been applied in concentration equal to twice the LC50 of the second experiment. The lots 5 and 6 showed higher mortality, and the lot 6 presented higher efficiency causing mortality between 73.43 and 91.11%. It was observed that the systemic action of oils and nanoformulations containing compounds from neem depends on environmental conditions in which they are applied; when azadirachtin solutions are applied to the soil, the highest concentrations of this substance are found at the top of the plant and to the 3-tigloilazadirachtol, the higher concentration is in the lower leaves; the commercial oil Azamax® does not affect the oviposition and egg viability of whitefly when applied to the soil at the time of infestation; the selected nanoformulations are bioactive at least 30 days after their application. However, they are not different from commercial oil.
34

Efic?cia do nim (Azadirachta indica) no controle dos ectoparasitos dos animais dom?sticos. / Efficacy of neem (Azadirachta indica) on the control of ectoparasites of domestic animals.

Fernandes, Julio Israel 12 August 2009 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-04-28T20:16:32Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 2009 - Julio Israel Fernandes01.pdf: 241205 bytes, checksum: acf25f30582f3e1be75cca7a9fed8334 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2009-08-12 / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cient?fico e Tecnol?gico / The objective of the study was to evaluate the efficacy of the aqueous neem (Azadirachta indica) extract on the control of major ectoparasites of domestic animals through in vitro and/or in vivo assays. The product presented effect similar to arthropod growth regulators, inhibiting the development of subsequent stages of Ctenocephalides felis felis and Musca domestica, in which was possible to observe morphological alterations on pupae. Miticidal effects were observed on Otodectes cynotis and, Sarcoptes scabiei on dogs, Notoedres cati on cats and Psoroptes ovis on rabbits, where a dose dependent effect could be observed. Neem did not present efficacy on the control of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus ticks. High concentrations of neem lead to a moderate efficacy on the control of R. sanguineus engorged females in vitro. However, tests in vivo showed low efficacy when used at high concentrations. Already with adults of the same species, the percentage of hatch of larvae was the main parameter to submit the amendment. The neem emulsion did not showed efficacy on the control of canine demodicosis. However, a significant clinical improvement was observed, possibly due to anti-inflammatory properties of the phytotherapic. Despite considered safe to domestic animals, the product lead to grave side effects in all daily treated rabbits, occasioning erythematous areas with alopecia, macules and papules. Similar effects were observed in a single dog which presented sensibility to the product. Cats presented intense transitory sialorrhea caused by ingestion of small quantity of the product during self-grooming. Other animals did not showed adverse effects following product application. / Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a efic?cia da emuls?o de nim (Azadirachta indica) no controle dos principais ectoparasitos dos animais dom?sticos atrav?s de testes in vitro e/ou in vivo. Verificou-se efeito similar aos reguladores de crescimento de artr?podes, inibindo o desenvolvimento dos est?gios subsequentes de Ctenocephalides felis felis. Efeitos adulticidas foram observados ao administrar o nim em Otodectes cynotis, e Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis em c?es, Notoedres cati, em gatos e Psoroptes ovis em coelhos, onde o efeito dose dependente pode ser observado. O nim n?o apresentou efic?cia no controle dos carrapatos das esp?cies Amblyomma cajennense e Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus. Altas concentra??es de nim levaram a uma efic?cia moderada no controle de f?meas ingurgitadas do carrapato R. sanguineus em testes in vitro. Entretanto, os testes in vivo apresentaram baixa efic?cia quando utilizado em altas concentra??es. J? com adultos da mesma esp?cie, o percentual de eclos?o das larvas foi o principal par?metro a apresentar altera??o. A emuls?o de nim n?o apresentou efic?cia no controle da sarna demod?cica em c?es, entretanto houve melhora das les?es cl?nicas possivelmente devido ?s propriedades anti-inflamat?rias do fitoter?pico. Embora o produto seja considerado seguro para animais dom?sticos, graves efeitos colaterais foram observados em todos os coelhos tratados diariamente com o produto fitoter?pico, ocasionando ?reas eritematosas com alopecia, m?culas e p?pulas. Efeitos similares foram observados em apenas um c?o que demonstrou sensibilidade ao produto. J? os gatos apresentaram intensa sialorr?ia transit?ria causada pela ingest?o de pequena quantidade de produto devido ao h?bito de se lamber dos felinos. Nos demais animais n?o foram observados efeitos adversos ap?s a aplica??o do produto.
35

Seleção de genótipos de feijoeiro Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) (Leguminosae) resistentes aos carunchos Acanthoscelides obtectus (Boh.) e Zabrotes subfasciatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) e o seu uso associado com inseticidas botânicos / Selection of common bean Phaseolus vulgaris (L.) (Leguminosae) resistant genotypes to the weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus (Boh.) and Zabrotes subfasciatus (Say) (Coleoptera: Bruchidae) and its association to botanical insecticides

Guzzo, Élio César 04 April 2008 (has links)
Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de identificar genótipos de feijão Phaseolus vulgaris resistentes aos carunchos Acanthoscelides obtectus e Zabrotes subfasciatus, bem como avaliar o efeito associado desses genótipos resistentes com inseticidas de origem vegetal. Para tanto, foram utilizados acessos de P. vulgaris do Banco de Germoplasma do Instituto Agronômico de Campinas e inseticidas comerciais de origem botânica. No screening inicial, amostras dos genótipos foram infestadas com cada uma das espécies de bruquídeos separadamente, avaliando-se o número de insetos emergidos aos 50 dias após a infestação. Dos 49 genótipos testados contra A. obtecus, não houve emergência naqueles com números de acesso 525, 584 e 615, podendo ser considerados os mais resistentes. Em relação a Z. subfasciatus, os genótipos com números de acesso 2, 35, 251, 570, 583, 584, 610, 621, 634, 816, 818 e 819 se mostraram mais resistentes entre os 185 avaliados. Destes, os genótipos portadores de arcelina 583, 584, 816, 818 e 819, além de 570 e 610, foram selecionados como os mais promissores para os testes subseqüentes, juntamente com a variedade Bolinha, que foi utilizada como controle de suscetibilidade. Não foi observada correlação entre as características morfoagronômicas dos genótipos de P. vulgaris e a sua resistência às espécies de bruquídeos avaliadas, indicando que a resistência a estas pragas não está associada às características da flor, vagem, semente e fenologia dos genótipos. A massa de mil sementes, que é indicativa da origem dos genótipos, foi um dos descritores analisados, mostrando também que a resistência de P. vulgaris a A. obtectus e a Z. subfasciatus não está relacionada à origem dos genótipos. Em testes de livre escolha e de confinamento, avaliou-se o efeito dos genótipos selecionados no screening, juntamente com a variedade Bolinha, sobre o comportamento e biologia de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se que a avaliação da preferência de Z. subfasciatus por genótipos de P. vulgaris em teste de livre escolha pode ser feita com 1 dia após a infestação e que \'Bolinha\', apesar de ser suscetível a Z. subfasciatus e favorecer o seu desenvolvimento, apresenta antixenose para oviposição em relação à praga. Nos testes realizados, os genótipos contendo arcelina tenderam a ser mais resistentes que os demais sem essa proteína, sendo que os seus efeitos sobre Z. subfasciatus incluíram o aumento da mortalidade no período de desenvolvimento, alongamento desse período e redução do peso de adultos emergidos, mantendo-se, de certa forma, estáveis ao longo de duas gerações da praga. A resistência conferida pela arcelina revelou ser do tipo antibiose, tendo como causas a impropriedade nutricional e a ação no metabolismo do inseto. Com relação aos inseticidas botânicos, foram testados 3 produtos comerciais, sendo 2 à base de azadiractina e um à base de rotenona. Entre estes, o produto que mais afetou o desenvolvimento de Z. subfasciatus foi NeemPro®, derivado de nim (Azadirachta indica), o qual apresentou efeito ovicida e prolongou a duração do período de desenvolvimento de Z. subfasciatus. Frente a isto, avaliou-se o efeito associado de NeemPro® com o genótipo resistente portador de arcelina 818 sobre alguns parâmetros biológicos de Z. subfasciatus. Verificou-se que os efeitos mais severos sobre Z. subfasciatus foram causados pelo genótipo resistente, independentemente do inseticida à base de nim e que o uso associado de ambos não provoca efeito aditivo ou sinérgico, não sendo recomendado para o manejo de Z. subfasciatus. / This research was carried out to identify Phaseolus vulgaris genotypes resistant to the bean weevils Acanthoscelides obtectus and Zabrotes subfasciatus, as well as to evaluate the effect of these genotypes in association with botanical insecticides. To reach this objective, P. vulgaris accessions from the Germplasm Bank of Instituto Agronômico de Campinas and commercial insecticides from botanical origin were tested. In the initial screening, samples of bean genotypes were infested with the weevil species separately and the number of adults emerged at the 50th day after infestation was evaluated. There was no A. obtectus emergence in genotypes 525, 584 and 615, among the 49 ones screened against this pest. In relation to Z. subfasciatus, genotypes with accession numbers 2, 35, 251, 570, 583, 584, 610, 621, 634, 816, 818 and 819 showed themselves resistant among 185 screened ones. The arcelin-containing genotypes 583, 584, 816, 818 and 819, plus 570 and 610 (both lacking this protein), were selected as the most promising for additional evaluations. Bolinha variety was also used as the susceptible standard. No correlation between morpho-agronomical characteristics of the P. vulgaris genotypes and their resistance to the weevils was observed, indicating that resistance to these two pests is not associated to genotypes flower, pod and seed characters or plant phenology. The mass of 1000 seeds, which indicates the origin of genotypes, was one of the used descriptors, showing that P. vulgaris resistance to A. obtectus and Z. subfasciatus is not related to genotypes origin too. In free- and no-choice tests, it was evaluated the effect of the screened genotypes on Z. subfasciatus behavior and biology, compared to \'Bolinha\'. It was verified that in free-choice tests, the evaluation of Z. subfasciatus preference for P. vulgaris genotypes can be done 1 day after infestation. Despite being susceptible to Z. subfasciatus and supporting its development, \'Bolinha\' holds antixenosis for oviposition in relation to the pest. In the bioassays carried out, genotypes containing arcelin tended to be more resistant than those lacking this protein and their effects on Z. subfasciatus include increasing of the mortality in the developmental period, enlargement of this period and reduction in adult weight, also being stable during two pest generations. The resistance provided by arcelin revealed itself to be antibiosis, by acting as antinutrients and also as antimetabolics. In relation to botanical insecticides, 3 commercial products, 2 of them based on azadirachtin and 1 based on rotenone, were evaluated. The insecticide NeemPro®, extracted from neem (Azadirachta indica) was the only one significantly causing ovicidal effect and enlarging Z. subfasciatus developmental period. Based on these results, the associated effect of NeemPro® and the resistant arcelin-containing P. vulgaris genotype 818 on some Z. subfasciatus biological parameters was evaluated. It was verified that the most severe effects on Z. subfasciatus were caused by the resistant bean genotype, independently of the neem based insecticide. The associated use of these two control methods no results in additive or synergistc effect and is not recommended for the management of Z. subfasciatus.
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A protocol for professional nurses regarding the management of nurse initiated management of antiretroviral therapy (NIMART) in the Ehlanzeni District, Mphumalanga Province, South Africa

Sekatane, Patricia Thato January 2014 (has links)
Thesis (M.Cur.) -- University of Limpopo, 2014 / The purpose of the study was to develop protocol for professional nurses regarding NIMART management that is based on data and specific challenges that are faced in the Ehlanzeni district by professional nurses. A quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research design was used for this study. The population consisted of all professional nurses who are NIMART trained, managing and initiating patients on ARV’s at primary health care clinics. Systematic random sampling method was used to select 135 respondents. Data was collected through the self-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire was pre tested. Reliability was ensured through self-administered questionnaire and with the guide of literature review. The questionnaire was also pre tested by conducting a pilot study. Validity was ensured through undertaking extensive literature review, giving operational definitions of concepts, questionnaires were given to supervisors, questions constructed according to the objectives of the study and congruence was ensured between research questions, objectives, findings and recommendations. Data analysis was done through descriptive studies, using SPSS statistics 21.0 programme of data analysis with the assistance of the statistician. The findings indicate that challenges faced by professional nurses regarding nurse initiated and management of antiretroviral therapy are be lack of professional nurses, fear of infecting themselves while treating HIV positive patients, patients do not come on their return dates, encountering problems when they trace defaulters and shortage of retroviral drugs. The study recommends that staff shortage should be addressed, medicine supply should be monitored, a competent HIV trained doctor should be appointed and dedicated outreach team should be appointed. Keywords: NIM-ART, HIV/AIDS, Professional nurse
37

A protocol for professional nurses regarding the management of nurse initiated management of antiretroviral therapy (NIMART) in the Ehlanzeni District, Mphumalanga Province, South Africa

Sekatane, Patricia Thato January 2014 (has links)
Thesis (M.CUR.) -- University of Limpopo, 2014 / The purpose of the study was to develop protocol for professional nurses regarding NIMART management that is based on data and specific challenges that are faced in the Ehlanzeni district by professional nurses. A quantitative, descriptive and cross-sectional research design was used for this study. The population consisted of all professional nurses who are NIMART trained, managing and initiating patients on ARV’s at primary health care clinics. Systematic random sampling method was used to select 135 respondents. Data was collected through the self-developed questionnaire. The questionnaire was pre tested. Reliability was ensured through self-administered questionnaire and with the guide of literature review. The questionnaire was also pre tested by conducting a pilot study. Validity was ensured through undertaking extensive literature review, giving operational definitions of concepts, questionnaires were given to supervisors, questions constructed according to the objectives of the study and congruence was ensured between research questions, objectives, findings and recommendations. Data analysis was done through descriptive studies, using SPSS statistics 21.0 programme of data analysis with the assistance of the statistician. The findings indicate that challenges faced by professional nurses regarding nurse initiated and management of antiretroviral therapy are be lack of professional nurses, fear of infecting themselves while treating HIV positive patients, patients do not come on their return dates, encountering problems when they trace defaulters and shortage of retroviral drugs. The study recommends that staff shortage should be addressed, medicine supply should be monitored, a competent HIV trained doctor should be appointed and dedicated outreach team should be appointed. Keywords: NIM-ART, HIV/AIDS, Professional nurse
38

Subtraction Games: Range and Strict Periodicity

Blackham, Bryce Emerson 01 April 2018 (has links)
In this paper I introduce some background for subtraction games and explore the Sprague-Grundy functions defined on them. I exhibit some subtraction games where the functions are guaranteed to be strictly periodic. I also exhibit a class of subtraction games which have bounded range, and show there are uncountably many of these.
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Multiplayer Games as Extension of Misère Games / 逆形ゲームの拡張としての多人数ゲーム

Suetsugu, Koki 25 March 2019 (has links)
Kyoto University (京都大学) / 0048 / 新制・課程博士 / 博士(人間・環境学) / 甲第21863号 / 人博第892号 / 新制||人||213(附属図書館) / 2018||人博||892(吉田南総合図書館) / 京都大学大学院人間・環境学研究科共生人間学専攻 / (主査)教授 立木 秀樹, 教授 日置 尋久, 准教授 櫻川 貴司, 特定講師 DE BRECHT Matthew / 学位規則第4条第1項該当
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Toxicidade do óleo de nim (Azadirachta indica A. JUSS) na espermatogênese de Ceraeochrysa claveru (NAVÁS, 1911)(Neuroptera: Chysopidae) : estudo citoquímico, imunocitoquímico e ultraestrutural /

Garcia, Ana Silvia Gimenes. January 2014 (has links)
Orientador: Patrícia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro / Coorientador: Daniela Carvalho dos Santos / Banca: Elaine Cristina Mathias da Silva Zacarin / Banca: Daniela Oliveira Pinheiro / Resumo: O uso da agricultura orgânica vem crescendo devido à conscientização da sociedade sobre a importância do consumo de alimentos livres de agrotóxicos e inseticidas tão prejudiciais à saúde. Assim, a busca pela preservação dos recursos naturais também está em crescimento, juntamente com a agricultura orgânica e do manejo integrado de pragas. Na busca por insetos que possam ser utilizados no controle biológico, sendo esta uma importante ferramenta na agricultura orgânica e manejo integrado de pragas, os crisopídeos vem se mostrando um forte agente controlador, uma vez que suas larvas são predadoras de diversos ovos e larvas de insetos pragas de diferentes culturas comerciais. Com o propósito de avaliar o efeito do óleo de nim, um extrato vegetal com propriedades bioinseticidas, sobre os crisopídeos, ovos de Diatraea saccharalis foram tratados com óleo de nim em três diferentes concentrações e oferecidos como alimento a larvas de Ceraeochrysa claveri, avaliando deste modo o efeito da ingestão do óleo de nim na fase larval sobre a morfologia do testículo durante o desenvolvimento de C. claveri, assim como sobre o processo de espermatogênese deste predador. Foram utilizadas a análise histológica, ultraestrutural e imunocitoquímica para a avaliação da toxicidade do óleo de nim sobre as células do testículo de C. claveri; sendo esta avaliação realizada em testículos de larvas de terceiro instar, pupas e adultos. As análises demonstraram que a morfologia dos testículos varia de arredondado em larvas, para alongado em pupas e espiralado em adultos, enquanto sua coloração varia de esbranquiçado a amarelo intenso, respectivamente. Os testículos são recobertos por túnica externa e túnica interna, esta última emitindo septos, que dividem o testículo em dois folículos. As células germinativas são agrupadas em cistos, rodeados por células císticas somáticas. Esses cistos são constituidos por ... / Abstract: The use of organic agriculture is growing due to the awareness of the society about the importance of eating foods free of pesticides and insecticides as harmful to health. Thus, the search for conservation of natural resources is also growing, along with organic agriculture and integrated pest management. In search of insects that can be used in biological control, which is an important tool in organic agriculture and integrated pest management, the lacewings has proved a strong controlling agent, since their larvae are predators of eggs and larvae of many insects pests of different commercial crops. In order to evaluate the effect of neem oil, a plant extract with insecticides properties on lacewings, Diatraea saccharalis eggs were treated with neem oil at three different concentrations and offered as food for the larvae of Ceraeochrysa claveri, thereby evaluating the effect of intake of neem oil on the larval morphology of testis during development of C. claveri, as well as on the process of spermatogenesis of this predator. Histological, ultrastructural, and immunohistochemistry analysis was used to evaluate the toxicity of neem oil on cells of the testis of C. claveri, and this evaluation performed in testes of third instar larvae, pupae and adults. The analyzes showed that the morphology of the testes varies from rounded shape in larvae to elongated shape in pupae and spiral shape in adults, while its color varies from whitish to bright yellow, respectively. The testes are covered by an outer layer and an inner layer, the latter septa emit, which divide the testis into two follicles. The germ cells are grouped into cysts, cystic surrounded by somatic cells. These cysts consist of spermatogonia, spermatocytes, spermatids and spermatozoa. The spermatogonia undergo mitotic division and give rise to spermatocytes, the cells of the cysts are interconnected by ring canals, which allow their synchronous ... / Mestre

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