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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Om relationer och maktstrukturer inom delat ledarskap : Lustfull relation eller obalanserad soppa?

Bjuringer, Fanny, Hedblom, Sofia January 2014 (has links)
The aim of this study is to create an increased understanding of shared leadership and how it takes shape in the relationship between first-line managers in human service organizations. Shared leadership is seen as a complement to the traditional one-man leadership and briefly means that two managers share the role that usually is held by a single leader. The study has a qualitative approach based on semi-structured interviews with managers in human service organizations. The interviews mention the mangers thoughts and experiences about shared leadership and gain approval in the hermeneutic science field. The study is analyzed based on symbolic interactionism where perspectives from the theoreticians Mead and Goffman are used. The relationship between the two managers is also analyzed using Foucault's meaning about the concept of power. The results show that shared leadership, on a voluntary basis, has great potential to create satisfaction, personal development, and provide higher quality of decision-making. Communication is seen in the result as one of the most important factors to a successful shared leadership. To share leadership implicate a requirement of clear power structures. The power structure lays groundwork for the shared leaderships success or failure.
2

Attention et supervision : une étude de l'attention des managers de proximité dans leur activité de supervision / Attention and supervision : a study of first-line managers' attention in their activity of supervision

Théron, Christelle 30 November 2015 (has links)
La supervision des opérations a toujours été une dimension clé du travail des managers de proximité, mais les publications récentes et le discours ambiant pointent en direction d'un affaiblissement de celle-ci au profit d'autres activités, tournées vers le développement des collaborateurs. Malgré la dispersion possible de l'attention des managers que peut engendrer la multi-activité, certaines études signalent un maintien de la supervision parmi leurs activités. Pour comprendre l'exercice actuel de la supervision dans un environnement managérial dynamique marqué par le morcellement des activités, la thèse étudie l'attention des managers de proximité et présente une étude de cas multiples : quatre managers ont été observés (shadowing), sur des périodes de deux semaines ; des entretiens inspirés de la méthode de l'instruction au sosie ont également été conduits. 1968 épisodes attentionnels de supervision managériale ont été identifiés et analysés. Cette analyse, qui met à jour différentes modalités de mise en œuvre et d'articulation des épisodes attentionnels, est complétée par une étude de la perspective attentionnelle des managers (les éléments structurant leur sensibilité quotidienne). La thèse identifie quatre composantes de l'activité de supervision, identiques d'un manager à l'autre: articulation et stimulation des actions,« advertance », pédagogie. Les processus attentionnels permettent aux managers d'exercer leur supervision de manière souple et d'assimiler la complexité et la variabilité des opérations. La recherche révèle la richesse de l'activité de supervision des managers, notamment à travers la mise à jour des composantes d' « advertance » et de pédagogie. / Supervision used to be one important side of first-line managers' daily activities. Recent research work and publications point out the fact that this activity is now losing its relevance compared to others dedicated to co-workers’ development. First-line managers themselves seem to have little attention left for supervision because of the myriad of activities in which they engage and which are prone to scatter their attention. However, some studies still find that the core of the supervisory activity remains. To better understand how managers exert supervision in a dynamic environment and among their fragmented activities, the thesis studies managers' attention. A multiple-case study made of four managers is presented. Data is collected through a two-week shadowing (mobile observation method) per manager. Interviews drawing on the interview-to-the double method are also conducted. 1968 attentional episodes of managerial supervision have been identified and analysed. This analysis reveals different modes of implementing and articulating attentional episodes and discovers aspects from managers' attentional perspective structuring their sensitivity to operations. The thesis identifies four components of managers' supervisory activity common to the managers: articulating actions, stimulating actions, "advertant", pedagogical. Through their attentional processes managers exert swiftly their supervision and subsume the complexity and variability of the operations they are responsible for. The thesis reveals the richness of managers' supervisory activity , particularly through the pedagogical and "advertant" components.
3

Le support offert aux gestionnaires par une équipe de gestion du changement lors de l'implantation d'un système de gestion intégré

Lemieux, Nathalie January 2009 (has links)
Cette thèse porte sur la gestion du changement et plus particulièrement sur le support offert aux gestionnaires par une équipe de gestion du changement lors de l'implantation d'un système de gestion intégré (SGI). Hydro-Québec nous a offert un excellent terrain de recherche par son projet Système Information Clientèle (SIC) qui consiste à l'implantation du logiciel SAP R/3. L'équipe de gestion du changement du projet nous a ouvert ses portes d'autant plus qu'elle désirait faire le point sur les services offerts aux gestionnaires durant la première phase du projet pour ensuite ajuster celles des deux phases subséquentes. La première phase, pour une livraison en mars 2005, inclut le volet mesurage. La deuxième phase regroupe les volets affaires et commercial pour une livraison en janvier 2006. Quant à la troisième phase, elle concerne le volet résidentiel pour une livraison en janvier 2008. Afin de supporter l'équipe de gestion du changement à Hydro-Québec, les connaissances théoriques relatives aux équipes de gestion du changement, aux gestionnaires en situation de changement et aux implantations de SGI ont guidé et alimenté la recherche. Bien que comportant un nombre impressionnant de références, ce champ d'études renferme toutefois peu d'études empiriques (Melkonian, 2008; Stewart et Kringas, 2003; Venkatesh, 2006, Wang, Klein et Jiang, 2006). De plus, il se dégage, d'une recension de vingt-deux modèles en gestion du changement, un manque de précision sur les activités de gestion du changement et sur les intervenants impliqués dans ces activités. Considérant ces deux constats, la présente étude doctorale vise à répondre à la question suivante : Comment une équipe de gestion du changement soutient-elle les gestionnaires lors de l'implantation d'un système de gestion intégré? Pour ce faire, les objectifs poursuivis sont, d'abord, d'identifier et de décrire les activités développées et réalisées par une équipe de gestion du changement destinées à soutenir les gestionnaires; ensuite, de rendre compte de la satisfaction des gestionnaires intermédiaires et de premier niveau à l'égard du soutien offert par l'équipe de gestion du changement et; finalement, de générer un modèle des interventions d'une équipe de gestion du changement destinées à soutenir les gestionnaires. Adhérant au paradigme épistémologique constructiviste, cette étude doctorale se distingue par ses allers-retours entre le terrain et les connaissances théoriques lui accordant un statut de recherche abductive. Mettant l'accent sur la compréhension de dynamiques se déroulant dans un environnement unique et visant l'exploration, la description et l'explication d'un phénomène pour en dégager une modélisation, l'étude de cas s'avère une méthode de recherche appropriée (Gummesson, 2000; Hlady Rispal, 2002; Nieto et Pérez, 2000; Robson, 1993; Tashakkori et Teddlie, 1998). Les quatre outils de cueillette de données se sont avérés être la recherche documentaire, les entrevues semi-structurées avec des gestionnaires intermédiaires et de premier niveau, l'observation-participation des activités de gestion du changement ainsi que des documents produits et discutés avec l'équipe de gestion du changement. L'analyse de ces données a suivi trois étapes soient une première étape de codage pendant la collecte de données, une deuxième étape d'analyse avec le logiciel d'analyse qualitative Atlas.ti et une troisième étape de modélisation. Bien qu'ayant suivi trois étapes, l'analyse de données s'est davantage présentée comme un processus itératif avec des activités concomitantes de mises à jour de la littérature, de codage, de création de catégories conceptualisantes et de modélisation. Cette façon de procéder s'appuie sur les méthodes de Hlady Rispal (2002), Laperrière (1997b), Miles et Huberman (2003) et Paillé et Mucchielli (2003). Les principaux résultats de recherche émanant de l'étude de cas sont la description et l'évaluation d'activités de gestion du changement réalisées par une équipe de gestion du changement afin de soutenir les gestionnaires intermédiaires et de premier niveau. Les entrevues avec les gestionnaires appuient le choix d'activités offert par l'équipe de gestion du changement à Hydro-Québec ainsi que celles émanant de la littérature. Le côté original issu des entrevues avec les gestionnaires consiste à l'émergence de principes opératoires. En effet, les améliorations suggérées par les gestionnaires prennent la forme de principes opératoires venant ainsi guider l'équipe de gestion du changement dans la réalisation de leurs activités. Il se dégage alors un modèle composé de six groupes d'activités et de trois principes opératoires. Les activités sont les suivantes : Implication des gestionnaires et des employés, Communication, Ateliers de préparation au changement, Ateliers et formation sur la gestion du changement, Plan de gestion du changement et Formation. Quant aux principes opératoires, il s'agit de : Activités génériques de plus en plus spécifiques, Contextualisation des activités et Intervention de la ligne hiérarchique. Lorsque cette liste d'activités est comparée aux activités communes aux équipes de gestion du changement (Collerette et ses collaborateurs, 2002, 2003a, 2003c, 2004; Fabi, Martin et Valois, 1999; Grenier et Gowigati, 2002; Prosci, 2006a, 2006b, 2006c; Rondeau, 1999; Sherer, Kohli et Baron, 2003; Victor et Franckeiss, 2002) et aux gestionnaires (Bareil, 2004; Collerette, Schneider et Legris, 2003c; Coyle-Shapiro, 1999; Doyle, 2002; Fabi et al., 1999; Prosci, 2006b) issues de la littérature, il ressort que toutes les activités de la littérature sont incluses dans celles émergentes de l'étude de cas réalisée à Hydro-Québec. De plus, le modèle provenant de l'étude de cas se démarque des autres modèles présents dans la littérature par deux principaux éléments. D'abord, les activités ne sont pas uniquement nommées, elles sont richement décrites et accompagnées d'exemples. Puis, les activités sont accompagnées de principes opératoires pour enrichir les activités de gestion du changement et guider leur réalisation. En contrepartie, les gestionnaires rencontrés à Hydro-Québec soulignent que les activités de gestion du changement réalisées par l'équipe GCC ne prennent pas suffisamment en compte les aspects humains dont la qualité de la relation établie entre l'équipe GCC et les gestionnaires ainsi que l'identification des besoins des gestionnaires suivie de l'ajustement des activités pour répondre à ces besoins. Il apparait en effet que l'équipe GCC aurait eu avantage à favoriser davantage les échanges de négociations avec les gestionnaires, aspect d'ailleurs soulevé par Collerette, Schneider et Legris (2003b) et Giroux (1998). Quant à l'identification des besoins et des ajustements aux activités, il semble que l'équipe GCC désirait s'en tenir à son programme initial. Lorsque les participants aux activités (gestionnaires et employés) émettaient des critiques, l'équipe GCC semblait peu ouverte l'état psychologique des participants. À titre illustratif, au lieu d'envisager des ajustements à une activité de formation, la décision de l'équipe GCC a plutôt été de l'annuler. Il faut toutefois mentionner, qu'en contre partie, des efforts ont été déployés par l'équipe GCC pour ajuster les activités entourant les Supers utilisateurs. Nonobstant ces améliorations possibles, le modèle émergeant de l'étude de cas à Hydro-Québec pourrait être transférable dans d'autres milieux organisationnels pour guider des équipes de gestion du changement dans le cadre de projet d'implantation de SGI. Outre le fait d'offrir un modèle d'intervention pour une équipe de gestion du changement transférable dans d'autres milieux organisationnels, cette recherche doctorale permet également d'accroître le nombre d'études empiriques dans un domaine qui en contient peu. Cette thèse offre ainsi une étude de cas portant sur le fonctionnement d'une équipe de gestion du changement dans un projet d'implantation de SGI tout en présentant une panoplie d'activités précises en gestion du changement accompagnées du niveau de satisfaction de gestionnaires intermédiaires et de premier niveau à l'égard de ces activités.
4

Becoming a manager in a contact centre

Cureton, Peter John January 2014 (has links)
This thesis uses an abductive research strategy to discover how individuals in a UK contact centre became first-line managers. Managers play a significant role in organisations as supervisors of staff, yet there is no general agreement as to what they do or how. Adopting an idealist ontology and a constructionist epistemology, this ethnographic project uncovered stories of becoming by using questionnaires, observations and interviews with twelve participants. The context was a private / public sector partnership to provide advice and guidance to a local community. The use by organisations of contact centres is maturing in the private sector and growing in the public sector. It is an especially important arena to explore in the UK economy as currently many contact centres that were outsourced to cheaper, high quality labour markets are returning to the UK. Analysis of data showed clearly that learning to become a first-line manager occurred throughout the life course in three distinct stages; formative development, and reflecting the values and behaviours of parents and teachers; pre-management occupational development, and the experience of being managed; and development actually in the role of a first-line manager. The thesis makes four contributions to the extant literature. Firstly, these three stages were shown to be the route in the transition from legitimate peripheral participation to mastery. Situated learning theory provides no such clarification. Secondly, learning to become a first-line manager did not necessarily change identity as many writers claim. Identities of first-line manager evolved by building on personal and occupational identities that had been developed earlier. Thirdly, teachers made a vital contribution to developing future first-line managers by affirming and strengthening family values. They also encouraged their pupils to recognise the connection between effort and gaining reward for achievement. Finally, the messy terrain of learning theory has been clarified, not as grand theory, but as mid-range theorising through a new conceptual framework. This schema synthesizes learning orientations with learning metaphors and learning viewed as a noun or a verb, and the various influences on learning from structure and agency. The four learning modes are adapt, assimilation, accommodation and aspire.
5

Tillgänglighet, meningsfullhet och utsatthet : En kvalitativ studie om hur enhetschefer inom äldreomsorgen upplever och hanterar sin yrkesroll / Availability, meaningfulness and exposure : A qualitative study of how first-line managers experience and handle their profession

Emmertz, Nina, Sten, Elin January 2016 (has links)
Elderly care and its first-line managers are an essential part of social work. As the demographic changes since the demands for efficiency in elderly care are increasing. The profession of the first-line managers is complex. They need to make well-balanced priorities for the good of the organizations and the wellbeing of patients and employees. Based on that our study aims at increasing the knowledge about how first-line managers of elderly care experience and handle their profession. Furthermore the study aims to explore how support around first-line managers can look like and how they achieve balance between their profession and private life. To answer the aim of the study six semi-structured interviews were performed with first-line managers, who are active in elderly care, equally many men as women. The first-line managers are active in publicly organized elderly care in three municipalities in southern Sweden. The results show that the first-line managers experience of their profession is positive, all of them experiencing a meaningfulness. However, the results show that the first-line managers are experiencing demands of availability and the management position in itself implies an exposure. Based on this study, we can conclude that the six first-line managers included in this study perceive their profession as stimulating and meaningful, which is also in line with previous research. Only two of six first-line managers have negative experiences related to their profession. The first-line managers use both work experience as well as a functioning support structure to handle the demands and expectations. In order to achieve a balance between profession and private life the professional distance to their employees is crucial.
6

Creating a Force of Development in Swedish Healthcare : A Contribution from the First-Line Managers’ Perspective When Driving Improvement Work Based on Lean

Kahm, Therese January 2019 (has links)
This thesis is about the healthcare managers, working at operational levels, defined as the first-line managers. These managers often are given the role and responsibility to integrate improvements into daily work. A stronger development ability of Swedish healthcare requires first-line managers with a developed ability to lead change. Thereby efforts must be made to provide these managers with supportive work conditions when leading and developing organizations. One approach to organizational development is Lean, which refers to a strong improvement culture based upon a supportive and highly engaged leadership as well as a strong customer focus. The purpose of this thesis is to contribute to knowledge about and an understanding of the conditions that influence first-line healthcare managers’ abilities to drive improvement work based on Lean. Some of the conditions investigated are; time, receiving support from the own manager, feeling joy in improvement work and being assured about the effects of Lean. The thesis is based on three separate analyses of a web-based survey, which relate to the two research questions. The study was conducted in a Swedish healthcare organization two years after the initiation of Lean. The analyses are presented in three separate papers. The first research question considers; How can an instrument be developed that investigates first-line managers’ views on their role, conditions and ability to drive improvement work based on Lean? The second question is; What can be learned from using the instrument that investigates first-line managers’ views on their role, conditions and ability to drive improvement work based on Lean? A qualitative study based on a hermeneutic, inductive, qualitative research approach was conducted in order to meet the research purpose and answer the research questions. The thesis is mainly based on three papers. In paper 1 it is stated that the assuredness about the effects of Lean was quite high among the managers when the survey was conducted, such as that Lean contributes to a greater patient focus and to the development of an improvement culture. In paper 2 it is noted that the first-line managers view their role as crucial in improvement work based on Lean. Time, support from coworkers, and a clear vision and clear goals were the three conditions they considered to be most important for their ability. The results presented in paper 3 show that to initiate improvement work based on Lean, they ask for own managers who are assured about Lean and include them in discussions. They view their role and responsibility in relation to their coworkers as extensive, for instance increating a culture where problems and mistakes are viewed as possibilities to improve and for encouraging that new work procedures are tested. The findings indicate a need for a deeper understanding of Lean. It is concluded that a thorough understanding of Lean is a main condition for the first-line managers´ ability to drive improvement work based on the approach. Developing a common view of Lean takes time, which is important to emphasize in the practical setting to motivate for a long-term perspective. This development takes highly motivated, assured and persistent leaders with a continuous improvement attitude and a mission to improve healthcare together. There is also an applied research question; How can the use of the instrument contribute to developing first-line managers’ role, conditions, and ability to drive improvement work based on Lean? In its essence, Lean is concerned with improving a system and since the instrument raises questions about relationships between organizational members, it sets focus on the system and calls on a system view. The responsibility for one management level must continuously be set I relation to another, when putting the pieces together in the “improvement puzzle”. Change depends on adjustments in human behavior and the instrument establishes a focus on the people in the processes necessary for development and results. The instrument also provides opportunity and structure to investigate and talk about the soft conditions important for the ability, such as receiving support from the own manager, and feeling inspiration and being assured. The practice of Lean requires changes in attitudes, new habits, new skills in the whole system, meaning in each individual from the executive management to the front-line workers. Thereby self-reflection becomes important, which requires forums for dialogue. It is concluded that such forums can influence first-line healthcare managers’ abilities to drive improvement work based on Lean. In dialogue forums improvement work can be reflected upon and learned from together. / <p>Vid tidpunkten för framläggningen av avhandlingen var följande delarbeten opublicerade: delarbete 2 (accepterat), delarbete 3 (inskickat).</p><p>At the time of the defence the following papers were unpublished: paper 2 (accepted), paper 3 (submitted).</p>
7

Kommunikation, Motivation &amp; Relationer : En kvalitativ studie om enhetschefers erfarenheter av ledarskapets inverkan på hälsan bland anställda / Communication, motivation and relationships : A qualitative study of leadership influence on the health of employees from first line managers experiences

Hedstig, Adam, Åberg, Olof January 2015 (has links)
The aim of this study is to understand first line managers experiences of the impact leadership have on the health of employees. The study focuses on leadership behaviours and actions, experienced by first line managers working in elderly care, with either positive or negative outcomes on the employees health. To answer the purpose of the study a qualitative method was used and the data was collected through seven individual interviews. The analyse was conducted using theories of transformational, transactional and laissez-faire leadership. To enable a broader dimension to the study the concept of health-promotion leadership was also used in the analysis. The first line managers experiences showed that communication, motivation and relationships were important parts of a leadership that could affect the employees health both positive and negative. Overall a leaders communication should be clear and meaningful, a leader should motivate the employees by showing interest in their work and a leader should build a relationship with the employees that are based on equality.
8

Helsefremmende lederskap : en utforskende studie blant førstelinjeledere ved et norsk helseforetak / Health promoting leadership : an explorative study among first-line managers employed at a Norwegian health trust.

Palm, Marianne January 2010 (has links)
Formål: Å få frem førstelinjelederes oppfatninger om hva som ligger til grunn for måten de utøver sitt lederskap på, og om det helsefremmende aspektet spiller inn i forhold til hvordan de utøver sin personalledelse. Metode: Studien er gjennomført som en singel case studie. Data er innhentet fra et helseforetak med flere driftsenheter i Norge. Det er brukt data- og metodetriangulering. Spørreskjemaer ble sendt ut til 15 førstelinjeledere. Svarene fra disse dannet grunnlaget for intervju med tre førstelinjeledere. Dokumenter som handlingsplaner og funksjonsbeskrivelser ble hentet inn og gransket. Intervjuene ble analysert ved hjelp av innholdsanalyse. Resultater: Tilretteleggelse for et helsefremmende lederskap hadde stor plass i arbeidet som leder. Lederne hadde stort fokus på å tilrettelegge for et godt både fysisk- og psykososialt arbeidsmiljø. De opplevde seg som rollemodeller, og mente at deres lederstil kunne ha betydning både for trivsel og i noen grad produktivitet og måloppnåelse. Valg av lederstil var basert på kunnskaper og erfaring, men krav til aktivitet og effektivitet var også styrende elementer i utøvelsen av lederskapet. I spørreskjemaundersøkelsen svarte nesten alle lederne at de hadde faste treffpunkter med de ansatte, alle svarte at de involverte dem i planlegging og målarbeid. Imidlertid kom det frem at det ikke var like enkelt for alle lederne å ta selvstendige avgjørelser. I dokumentgranskningen kom det frem at overordnede ledere forventet at førstelinjeledere skulle legge til rette for et godt arbeidsmiljø, dette for både å sikre de ansatte gode arbeidsforhold, og for å sikre god kompetanse og kvalitet i utøvelse av arbeidsoppgavene.   Konklusjon: Funnene tyder på at førstelinjelederne var bevisste i forhold til å ha et helsefremmende perspektiv i sitt lederskap. Men det kom også frem at det å sitte som førstelinjeleder, kan sammenlignes med ”å sitte mellom barken og veden”. / Intention: This study aimed to explore the perceptions of first-line managers regarding the reasons they practice leadership, and to determine whether health-promoting aspects are essential to personnel management skills. Method: The study was conducted as a single case study that triangulated both data and methods. Data were collected from a multi-site health trust in Norway. I sent questionnaires to 15 first-line managers, whose responses provided the basis for interviews with three first-line managers. I also collected and examined documents such as action plans and work instructions. I used content analysis to analyze interviews. Results: Arrangements for health-supporting leadership were a major focus in the leaders’ daily work. They also focused on arrangements that could figure importantly in attaining good physical and psychosocial working environments. The leaders considered themselves role models, and they thought that their way of practicing leadership could influence the well-being of their employers as well as worker productivity and goal attainment. While their options for practicing leadership were based primarily on knowledge and experience, demands concerning activity and effectiveness were also important elements of their leadership. Results from the questionnaires showed that almost all first-line managers met regularly with their employers, and all respondents indicated that they involved their employers in the determination of plans and goals. However, making independent decisions did not come easily for all first-line managers. Examination of work instructions showed that their superiors expected first-line managers to emphasize arrangements that would lead to good working environments, thus ensuring good working conditions, and securing professional competence and high quality service provision. Conclusion: Findings indicate that first-line managers want to include a health-promoting aspect in their leadership skills. Interestingly first-line managers feel they -“sit between the devil and the deep sea”-. / <p>ISBN 978-91-85721-83-2</p>
9

Tid är pengar? : - En kvalitativ studie av argument för tidsplanering inom hemtjänst

Jadbrant, Frode January 2017 (has links)
The purpose of this study is to investigate what arguments business management in home services uses to motivate the choice of timeplanning-system with, and what effects this gives first-line executives.  Method: I have used a qualitative approach in this study, with standardized and semi-structured interviews as data-collection method. I interviewed five first-line executives and one operations manager. Two of those were from private sector and three from local government. The operations manager was active in local government. Theory:  empirical data is analyzed using Ritzer's thesis about McDonald's and theories of leadership, which helped thematization and examination of the subject of this study. Result:  The studys result is thematic from Ritzer's McDonaldization-thesis and compared to the effect of the different themes on leadership. The study results show that the timeplanning systems implemented in the business affect the managers of the first line, to the extent that this increases their leadership in the direction of system control, focusing on quantity rather than quality.
10

Chefsbefattningen blir du tilldelad, men ledarskapet kan ingen ge dig : En textanalys av första linjens chefers ledarskap inom äldreomsorg utifrån ett etiskt perspektiv / You will be assigned a managerial position but no one can give you the required leadership : A text analysis of first-line managers leadership in elderly care from an ethical perspective

Farreedun, Farzana January 2021 (has links)
The purpose of this study was to find out from an ethical perspective how researchers describe a good leadership. The study tried to investigate more specifically the leadership styles and attributes of first-line managers which according to an ethical perspective characterized a good leadership in elderly care. The background used was the reforms that occurred in elderly care, the implementation of national values in elderly care and the laws governing leadership in elderly care. The method used was a text analysis of two books which focussed on leadership in elderly care and in social work. An inductive approach was used meaning that the study took the facts from the two books as a starting point and applied the theory to it. The theory used in the study was normative ethics. An analysis was made and it could be seen that there were different views on what constituted a good leadership and different views on the leadership styles and attributes of first-line managers that were considered to characterize a good leadership. Sometimes would a good leadership be described in terms of values such as  achievement, human value and high performance. Sometimes would a good leadership be described in terms of values like dignity, knowledge, self-responsibility and responsibility for others.   The study also found out that there were different leadership styles of first-line managers that created the conditions for a good leadership. These were leadership styles that included empowerment, good attitude, good communication and empathy. Moreover, the attributes that were considered to make first-line managers into good leaders were clarity, accessibility, humor, courage, authority, communicative skills, language skills and especially empathy and an equal attitude. Some researchers even pointed out that there was no particular type of leadership that could be considered the best and that there was no leadership style either that could be considered as a template for all leaders and organizations in elderly care to follow. It was thus found that without ethics as a theory, all of these findings would have been very confusing. Thanks to normative ethics as a tool, it could be understood why there were so many different views on what was considered to be a good leadership. Ethics casted light upon the fact that there were different values, norms, virtues, and motives behind an action that were given priority in different contexts explaining why there were so many different types of leadership styles and attributes that were considered appropriate in different situations. The study found out that a special emphasis was laid on the fact that a leader should know himself or herself and his or her view on mankind as well as his or her ethical values. Then he or she would know what his or her strengths and weaknesses were. It was also observed in the study that the virtues of a good leadership were never-ending. This was why training of first-line managers was considered central and it was found that training was to be organized for them on a more regular basis.

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