23 March 2016
Most research on employment gender inequality focuses on differences between men and women, reinforcing a binary conception of gender. This study uses the National Transgender Discrimination Survey to evaluate the employment outcomes of nonbinary transgender people (those who identify as a gender other than man or woman). The results of this study suggest that being out as a nonbinary transgender person negatively affects nonbinary transgender people's employment outcomes. Though all transgender people have higher unemployment rates than the general population, outness has different effects on nonbinary transgender people based on sex assigned at birth, with those assigned male at birth tending to be discriminated against in hiring but those assigned female at birth more likely to experience differential treatment once hired. Race also contributes to differential treatment in the workplace. In an additional comparison between all transgender groups, I find that transgender women tend to have worse employment experiences than nonbinary transgender people and transgender men, the latter two tending to have similar outcomes.
IEEE has recently finished its ratification of the IEEE Standard 802.3ba in June 2010 which set the target Ethernet speed as 100 Gbps. The studies on the future trends of the ever-increasing demands for higher speed optical fiber communications show that there is no sign of decline in the demand. Constantly increasing internet traffic and the bandwidth-hungry multimedia services like HDTV, YouTube, voice-over-IP, etc. can be shown as the main driving forces. Indeed, the discussions over the future upgrades on the Ethernet speeds have already been initiated. It is predicted that the next upgrade will enable 400 Gbps Ethernet and the one after will be toward enabling the astounding 1 Tbps Ethernet.Although such high and ultra high transmission speeds are unprecedented over any transmission medium, the bottlenecks for achieving them over the optical fiber remains to be fundamental. At such high operating symbol rates, the signal impairments due to inter- and intra-channel fiber nonlinearities and polarization mode dispersion get exacerbated to the levels that cripple the high-fidelity communication over optical fibers. Therefore, efforts should be exerted to provide solutions that not only answer the need for high-speed transmission but also maintain low operating symbol rates.In this dissertation, we contribute to these efforts by proposing nonbinary-LDPC-coded modulation (NB-LDPC-CM) schemes as enabling technologies that can meet both the aforementioned goals. We show that our proposed NB-LDPC-CM schemes can outperform their prior-art, binary counterparts called bit-interleaved coded modulation (BI-LDPC-CM) schemes while attaining the same aggregate bit rates at a lower complexity and latency. We provide comprehensive analysis on the computational complexity of both schemes to justify our claims with solid evidence. We also compare the performances of both schemes by using amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) noise dominated optical fiber transmission and short to medium haul optical fiber transmission scenarios. Both applications show outstanding performances of NB-LDPC-CM schemes over the prior-art BI-LDPC-CM schemes with increasing gaps in coding gain as the transmission speeds increase. Furthermore, we present how a rate-adaptive NB-LDPC-CM can be employed to fully utilize the resources of a long haul optical transport network throughout its service time.
Pronouns, Prescriptivism, and Prejudice: Attitudes toward the Singular 'They', Prescriptive Grammar, and Nonbinary Transgender PeopleEllis Hernandez (8788862) 05 May 2020 (has links)
Reviewing literature on the histories of and the attitude studies about transgender people, the use of ‘they’ as a gender-neutral third-person singular pronoun, prescriptive grammar ideology, and aversive prejudice theory provides insight into how these topics are interrelated and relevant to current issues surrounding nonbinary transgender people. This review inspired my research study. My participants (n = 722) completed an online survey in which they reported demographic variables and answered scales that measured ‘they’ attitudes in generic and queer contexts, attitudes toward trans people, and prescriptive grammar ideology. I found that the majority of participants approved of using the singular ‘they’. Regression analyses revealed that in a queer context, negative attitudes toward 'they' were best predicted by trans prejudice, while in a generic context, both valuing prescriptive grammar and anti-trans prejudice similarly predicted 'they' attitudes. This indicates that negative attitudes toward the singular 'they' are not merely an issue of taking a principled stance against "improper grammar". Additionally, both sexual orientation and gender (trans vs. cisgender) moderate the relationship between prescriptive grammar ideology and 'they' attitudes. Age, sexual orientation, and education level also influenced my pattern of results such that older participants, queer people, and more highly educated individuals were more likely to have positive attitudes toward the singular ‘they’. These findings have implications for LGBTQ+ individuals’ relationships with cisgender and heterosexual people as well as for theories of prejudice, particularly with regard to the increasingly important area of attitudes toward people with diverse gender identities.
Sarvepalli, Pradeep Kiran
10 October 2008
The importance of quantum error correction in paving the way to build a practical quantum computer is no longer in doubt. Despite the large body of literature in quantum coding theory, many important questions, especially those centering on the issue of "good codes" are unresolved. In this dissertation the dominant underlying theme is that of constructing good quantum codes. It approaches this problem from three rather different but not exclusive strategies. Broadly, its contribution to the theory of quantum error correction is threefold. Firstly, it extends the framework of an important class of quantum codes - nonbinary stabilizer codes. It clarifies the connections of stabilizer codes to classical codes over quadratic extension fields, provides many new constructions of quantum codes, and develops further the theory of optimal quantum codes and punctured quantum codes. In particular it provides many explicit constructions of stabilizer codes, most notably it simplifies the criteria by which quantum BCH codes can be constructed from classical codes. Secondly, it contributes to the theory of operator quantum error correcting codes also called as subsystem codes. These codes are expected to have efficient error recovery schemes than stabilizer codes. Prior to our work however, systematic methods to construct these codes were few and it was not clear how to fairly compare them with other classes of quantum codes. This dissertation develops a framework for study and analysis of subsystem codes using character theoretic methods. In particular, this work established a close link between subsystem codes and classical codes and it became clear that the subsystem codes can be constructed from arbitrary classical codes. Thirdly, it seeks to exploit the knowledge of noise to design efficient quantum codes and considers more realistic channels than the commonly studied depolarizing channel. It gives systematic constructions of asymmetric quantum stabilizer codes that exploit the asymmetry of errors in certain quantum channels. This approach is based on a Calderbank- Shor-Steane construction that combines BCH and finite geometry LDPC codes.
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