Smith, Janine Lynette
Magister Scientiae (Physiotherapy) - MSc(Physio) / Ischaemic heart disease and stroke were the leading causes of death and disability globally, accounting for a combined 15 million deaths. Disability following a stroke is complex and multidimensional. Disability and functioning post stroke can be conceptualized within the framework of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The involvement of the individual in their rehabilitation and recovery is essential. Therefore, it is a necessity for individuals, particularly in a low resource setting to engage in selfmanagement activities. Bandura’s social cognitive theory based on self-efficacy, forms the basis of self-management programmes. Self-management relates to one’s ability to manage one’s consequences post stroke, and self-efficacy has been proven to be pivotal in the management and improvement of long-term conditions. The aim of the study was to explore the self-management strategies employed by stroke survivors in the Western Cape, South Africa through an exploratory, qualitative design. Prior to the commencement of the data collection phase, ethical clearance was sought from the University of the Western Cape Research Ethics Committee. Participants were recruited from an urban and rural area in the Western Cape. An interview guide was developed based on previous literature. Interview questions were related to 1) what self-management strategies were adopted to address activity limitations and participation restrictions and 2) strategies used to address environmental challenges.
The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Promoting Sustainable Development and Addressing Environmental ChallengesChaudry, Komal January 2023 (has links)
This research focuses on how social entrepreneurs may help solve environmental problems and further sustainable development. It uses a quantitative method of analysis through a survey given to business majors in higher education. This study delves into the connection between social entrepreneurship and sustainable development by examining descriptive statistics like mean and standard deviation and using a t-test to determine statistical significance. Climate change, environmental deterioration, and resource depletion are just a few worldwide problems recognized as critical in this study. The concept of "social entrepreneurship," which merges business practices with an emphasis on doing good for society and the environment, has received much attention as a possible solution to these problems. Learning how social entrepreneurship may help with environmental issues and further sustainable development is important. This survey aims to learn how college business majors feel about the importance of social entrepreneurship to environmental protection and sustainability. Descriptive statistics will be used to analyze the survey results and learn about the median and range of replies. In addition, a t-test will be run to determine whether or not there are statistically significant differences between the groups of participants, expanding our knowledge of the elements that contribute to the success of socially entrepreneurial initiatives in resolving environmental issues.
Solomon, Ramzi, Pillay, P., Sebitosi, A.B.
Thesis (MScEng (Department of Electrical Engineering))--University of Cape Town, 2008. / Energy drives technological societies. Developing countries such as South Africa are caught between the desperate need for economic growth and the emerging obligations to the environment. Efficient technologies can be used to mitigate the impact of these seemingly conflicting requirements in urban and rural environments. In this thesis the commercially available white light-emitting diode (LED) with its inherent efficiency, longevity and mechanical strength, is used to show, that success in energy efficiency can be obtained. Two cases are used to illustrate the need for efficient demand-side technology: the electricity shortages of the Western Cape Province in South Africa and a white LED pilot project in Namulonge, Uganda. The Namulonge Solar-Home System (SHS) is analyzed with the intention of creating a more acceptable general lighting solution. The concept of appropriateness through self-determination is discussed within the context of location-specific information integrated into a design procedure. The major thrust and contribution of this thesis, however, is the design of an interior luminaire for Golden Arrow Bus Services (GABS). This is in part based on the hypothesis that application-specific information will lead to implementation and human-needs success, and is researched, designed, fabricated and then laboratory tested. The biggest challenge to be overcome was the spatial light distribution of the LED array. Thus non-imaging optical lens design became the main focus of this project as it held the key to utilizing available light while conserving the light-systems energy. Circular Fresnel and Linear Fresnel (an adaptation of the concentric design) lenses were designed. Electrical, mechanical and thermal aspects of design are also detailed. Far-field, horizontal plane detection over the specified area is used to best gain the uniformity of distribution. The four criteria namely luminance, illuminance, intensity and étendue (collection efficiency), against which each design and focal length iv configuration is compared to, are extensively explored and eventually lead to a final design. In the first designs, the area of the spatial distribution between 50% and 80% of its relative intensity is collimated. The Hybrid Circular Fresnel and Hybrid Linear Fresnel lenses now redirects the relative intensity in two areas, from 50% to 70% (creating parallel rays) and then from 70% to 100% (away from the central axis), renders a distinct difference is spatial uniformity and a reduction in the peak and offaxis located intensity. All four criteria are met, with a minor adjustment of configuration within the bus internal luminaire spacing, with the hybrid designs. It is proposed that GABS employ polished designs of the Hybrid Circular Fresnel, in any of the configurations, which have collection efficiencies ranging between 64.8% and 78.3%. / Sponsored by the Centre for Renewable and Sustainable Energy Studies, Stellenbosch University
Produced water presents economical and environmental challenges to oil producers. Downhole separation technology is able to separate oil or gas from produced fluid in downhole environment and injects waste water into deeper formations, thus saving energy and reducing waste emission. More than 120 downhole separation systems have been installed worldwide, but only about 60% of the installations achieved success. Most of the failures were due to the injectivity decline under the invasion of impurities in the injected water, such as suspended particles and oil droplets. A reliable model is needed to predict the reaction of reservoir permeability under the invasion of such impurities and serves as a tool to screen appropriate formations for downhole separator installations. / Previous experimental studies on particle-induced permeability damage reveal that high particle concentration, low fluid velocity, large particle size lead to more severe damage. The damage mechanisms are attributed to surface interception, bridging and size exclusion of particles in porous media. While for droplets, the resultant permeability decline is mostly due to surface interception. Empirical correlations with key parameters determined by core flooding data are widely applied to the simulation of permeability decline under invasion of particles and droplets. These correlations are developed based on characteristics of certain rocks and fluids, thus their applications are very restricted. / A more scientific method is to model the flow and capture of particulates at pore level. Reservoir rocks are porous media composed of pores of various sizes. Pore network models employ certain assumptions to imitate real porous media, and have been proved realistic in simulating fluid flow in porous media. In this study, a 2-dimensional square network model is used to simulate capture of particles and droplets in porous media. Pore bodies are represented by globes and pore throats are imitated with capillary tubes. The flow rates in the network are obtained by simultaneously solving mass balance equations at each pore body. The network model is tuned to match the porosity and permeability of a certain rock and serves as the infrastructure where the capture process takes place. / Particles are categorized as Brownian and non-Brownian particles according to size. For Brownian particles, diffusion is dominant and Fick’s law is applied to each pore inside the network to obtain deposition rate. For non-Brownian particles, their trajectories are mainly governed by gravity and drag force acting on them. Besides, the size of each particle is compared with the size of the pore where it is captured to determine the damage mechanism. For particles much smaller than the pore size, surface deposition is dominant and the permeability decline is gradual. For particles with sizes comparable to pore size, bridging and clogging are dominant and the permeability decline is much more severe. / Unlike particles, droplets can not be captured on top of each other. Accordingly, a captureequilibrium theory is proposed. Once the pore surface is covered by droplets, equilibrium is reached and droplets flow freely through porous media without being captured. The simulation on capture of oil droplets reveals that the surface wettability has significant influence on the resultant permeability damage. Most natural reservoirs are neutrally or oil wet. It is thus recommended to apply these surface conditions to future simulations. / The proposed model is validated with test data and reasonably good agreements are obtained. This new mechanistic model provides more insights into the capture process and greatly reduces the dependence on core flooding data.
The Importance of Environmental Sustainability in the Decision to Participate in the Sharing EconomyRoszak, Julie, Marechal, Florine January 2017 (has links)
Global warming, increasing greenhouse gases emissions, global pollution, exhaustion of natural resources... Those are all consequences of human activities on the environment. Today's world is facing major environmental challenges and sustainability has become a burning topic during the last decades. In our consumption-focused society, the concept of the sharing economy has emerged as an alternative to existing consumption patterns. Advocating the "use rather than own" principle, this concept has a true potential in terms of changing the way we consume and produce to lead to more sustainable behaviors. Current literature has investigated the motivations influencing the decision to participate in the sharing economy. Three main motivations have been highlighted: economic, social and environmental. Indeed, the sharing economy offers the possibility to save or make money, strengthen social ties and reduce one's ecological impact. Even though the environmental aspect plays a part in the decision-making process, it is unclear whether it is a determining factor or only a secondary concern. Thus, our study aims at developing an in-depth understanding of the motivations that drive people's participation in the sharing economy and the role of environmental sustainability. To fulfill that purpose, we have formulated the following research question: How important is environmental sustainability among the motivations to participate in the peer-to-peer sharing economy? To answer our research question, we conducted a qualitative study. We interviewed six French users of the collaborative carpooling platform Blablacar. Questions about the sharing economy in general and use of this specific platform were asked. These interviews allowed us to understand users' perceptions and attitudes towards the sharing economy and to make the connection with the environmental motivation. Our findings reveal that the environmental motivation exists and is part of the decision- making process. We could note a behavior change as the willingness to use collaborative platforms in the future is increasing. At the same time, a growing environmental consciousness has been expressed. However, the economic motivation still strongly prevails over the environmental and social motivations to engage in sharing activities. This observation leads us to conclude about the uncertain future of the sharing economy as a more sustainable consumption pattern.
Elfving, Maria, Ristimäki, Sanna
This masters’ thesis is a result of research conducted during three weeks in Mecubúri District, located in northern Mozambique. The study aims to explore environmental challenges and the environmental education in Mecubúri area. It strives to understand how rural farmers are able to use environmental education as a measure to act upon the environmental challenges in the area as well as to strengthen their livelihood assets. The target group of the study is the people living in Mecubúri.A basic understanding of environmental education and the socio-economic situation in Mecubúri was achieved by a systematic collection of empirical data through the use of a methodological approach called Participatory Rural Appraisal. Ethnographic methods such as participatory observation and semi-structured interviews built the base for the qualitative primary data collection and the secondary data was collected through literature reviews. The holistic and human centred theoretical framework Sustainable Livelihood Approach (SLA) laid the analytical base of the study.The most prominent environmental concerns identified by the inhabitants were agricultural issues, uncontrolled bushfires, changes in rainfall and the increased prevalence of strong winds and cyclones as well as sanitation and hygiene. Education was transmitted through both formal and informal communication channels, whereby conservation farming, education related to sanitation and hygiene as well as various educational channels were identified as the most important factors for the rural people in Mecubúri.As a concluding remark, it is argued that the society has a strong social capital which is effectively being used in environmental education. In contrast, an increased effort from the governmental level is advocated whereby a focus on conservation farming is recommended.
What is the future? It is not in our hands : Women's realities of living in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh in the context of environmental challenges / Vad är framtiden? Den är inte i våra händerKemi, Moa, Svensk, Isabell January 2022 (has links)
Bangladesh is known as one of the most climate-vulnerable countries in the world, especially the southwest coastal region. This area frequently experiences extreme weather such as cyclones, storms, waterlogging, droughts, and high levels of salinity. These events are projected to intensify further with climate change. Moreover, scholars have emphasized that women in Bangladesh bear the heaviest burden from environmental challenges in terms of vulnerability, exposure, and adaptation. This study aims to illustrate the reality and everyday life of emotions and thoughts of women living under these kinds of circumstances. To do so, 10 semi-structured interviews were conducted with women living in three different villages in the southwest coastal region of Bangladesh. The purpose investigates how environmental challenges affect women living in this region in terms of health, mobility, livelihood, and social- and economic security. In addition, this study explores how these women look at the future as well as how they live their everyday life in an area affected by environmental challenges. The ambition was not to find comparable answers, rather to illustrate a variety of women’s realities and challenges. The gathered material was analyzed through previous research and the theoretical frameworks of IPCC’s Conception of Risk and Feminist Political Ecology (FPE). The results show that women are affected in several ways by environmental challenges because of socially constructed gender roles that are governed by patriarchal principles in the society of Bangladesh. These principles further state the positioning of women and that they hold reproductive-, domestic-, and productive roles that further enhance their vulnerability, exposure, as well as ability to cope and adapt to environmental challenges. Moreover, geographical location and poverty are also two key factors that play a crucial part in how women experience environmental challenges and ability to cope and adapt to these.
Alinhamento das estratégias de sustentabilidade do setor elétrico com os principais desafios ambientais da atualidadeSchuchmann, Carla 04 July 2018 (has links)
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No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertação-Carla-Schuchmann 20180604.pdf: 2181890 bytes, checksum: f3dde4e5e6e77e830fb82af06a0755da (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-07-04 / Se, por um lado, o meio ambiente é fundamental para o crescimento econômico no modelo capitalista, as crises ambientais, devido ao não respeito dos limites planetários, representam uma ameaça para humanidade. As empresas são cobradas para contribuir com a solução desse problema, por historicamente terem contribuído para essa situação. Por outro lado, ainda existem poucos estudos que tratam a sustentabilidade empresarial e seus impactos para melhorar a qualidade do meio ambiente (WHITEMAN, WALKER E PEREGO, 2013). Este estudo buscou avaliar se as estratégias de sustentabilidade do setor elétrico estão alinhadas aos principais desafios ambientais da atualidade. Para definir esses desafios, o estudo se baseou, principalmente, na teoria dos limites planetários de Steffen et al. (2015). Além de revisões bibliográficas, também foi realizada uma análise Multi Estudos de Casos, que contou com análises documentais (websites e relatórios de sustentabilidade) e entrevistas com três líderes da estratégia de sustentabilidade de empresas do setor elétrico, que são referências no tema (estão na carteira do ISE). Como resultado desse estudo, observou-se que, dos nove limites planetários (mudança do clima, integridade da biosfera, redução da camada de ozônio, acidificação dos oceanos, uso de água doce, fluxo bioquímico (nitrogênio e fósforo), alteração no território , carga de aerossol atmosférico e novos contaminantes), seis deles (mudança do clima, integridade da biosfera, alteração no território, uso de água doce, carga de aerossol atmosférico e novos contaminantes) tiveram historicamente o setor elétrico como uma de suas principais ameaças. Dois desses temas (mudança do clima e novos contaminantes) são considerados prioritários por todas as empresas estudadas. No entanto, quando se analisa o alinhamento das empresas para enfrentar os principais impactos causados pelo setor nos limítes planetários, observa-se que: I) todos os impactos relacionados ao tema ‘alteração no território’ são geridos por, ao menos, uma estratégia de cada empresa estudada; II) todos os impactos relacionados a uso de água doces e carga de aerossóis atmosféricos são gerenciados por uma ou duas das empresas estudadas; III) um ou mais impactos relacionados aos temas ‘mudança do clima’, ‘integridade da biosfera’ e ‘novos contaminantes’ não são gerenciados pela estratégia de sustentabilidade de nenhuma empresa estudada. Ao final, são sugeridos alguns estudos futuros relacionados aos temas estudados. / The environment is essential for economic growth in capitalism. In contrast, environmental crisis, due to not respecting planetary boundaries, represent a threat to humanity. Corporations are charged to help solving this problem, since historically they were the contributors of this issue. Nonetheless, there still are few studies that deal with corporate sustainability and its impacts to improve environment quality (Whiteman, Walker and Perego, 2013). This paper tried to evaluate if the sustainable strategies within the Brazilian electric Power companies are aligned with the main environmental challenges of current times. To describe these challenges, this research was mainly based on the planetary boundaries theory , done by Steffen et al. (2015). Among several bibliographic reviews, it was done a an Multiple Case Study analysis, that took into account documental reviews (websites and sustainability reports), interviews with three sustainable strategy leaders from benchmark companies of the Brazilian electric power sector (present at ISE portfolio).As a result of this research, it was realized that out of the nine planetary boundaries described (climate change, biosphere integrity, stratospheric ozone depletion, ocean acidification, freshwater use, biochemical flows (nitrogen and phosphorus), land-system change, atmospheric aerossol loading, novel entities) , the electric power sector represents a historically threat over six of them (climate change, biosphere integrity, land-system change, freshwater use, atmospheric aerossol and novel entities). The companies studied consider as a priority two of these boundaries (climate change and novel entities). Notwithstanding that, observing these companies alignment to deal with these main impacts caused by the electric sector Power on the boundaries, we can point that: I) all companies have their own strategies to manage all impacts on land-system change ; II) at least one company manages each freshwater use or atmospheric aerossol loading impacts; III) one or more impacts caused by climate change, biospheric integrity or novel entities are not dealt with any of these companies. It is possible to conclude that sustainable strategies among the Brazilian eletric power sector companies are partially aligned with the main environmental challenges of current times. Lastly, futures studies related to these cases are suggested.
Integrating gender and environmental issues : A case study on gender mainstreaming within the organisation of WIEGO and their waste management projects in Brazil / Integrering av genus och miljöproblem : En fallstudie om gender mainstreaming inom organisationen WIEGO och deras avfallshanter- ingsprojekt i Brasilien.Nordell, Victoria, Niklasson, Elin January 2021 (has links)
The world is facing a global waste crisis due to half of the waste produced not being collected, treated or safely disposed of. Waste not managed in a proper way causes air and water pollution and has negative health and social impacts on people living or working close to the waste. Alt- hough evidence shows that implementing gender approaches improves environmental issues, and the majority of waste pickers are women, few organisations focused on waste management are implementing gender mainstreaming into their work. This case study examines gender main- streaming within the organisation Women in Informal Employment: Globalising and Organising (WIEGO) in relation to environmental issues. WIEGO is an international organisation working to increase the voice, visibility and validity of the working poor, with a special emphasis on women, with a core project that supports cooperative waste picker women in Brazil. The study was conducted through two interviews on local and international level and the analysis of 20 documents describing WIEGO and its work. The theories and concepts of gender mainstreaming, intersectionality, Feminist Political Ecology and Environmental Justice were used to analyse the results. The study showed that WIEGO was implementing gender mainstreaming in their opera- tive work, in the policy framework and in the waste picker projects in Brazil which has resulted in physical and emotional improvements for WIEGO employees internationally and waste pick- ers in Brazil. <<< / Världen står inför en global avfallshanteringskris där hälften av allt avfall som produceras inte insamlas, hanteras eller kasseras på ett säkert sätt. Avfall som inte hanteras säkert skapar luft- och vattenföroreningar och har negativa hälsosamma och sociala effekter för människor som lever eller arbetar nära avfallet. Trots att forskning visar att genusperspektiv förbättrar miljö- problem, och att majoriteten av avfallshanterare är kvinnor, fokuserar få organisationer som hanterar avfall på ”gender mainstreaming” i sitt arbete. Denna fallstudie undersöker ”gender mainstreaming” i organisationen Women in Informal Employment: Globalising and Organising (WIEGO) i relation till miljöproblem. WIEGO är en internationell organisation som arbetar med att öka inflytandet, synligheten och validiteten hos fattiga arbetande, med ett särskilt fokus på kvinnor, med ett kärnprogram som stöttar kooperativ av avfallshanterande kvinnor i Brasi- lien. Studien genomfördes med två intervjuer på lokal och internationell nivå och analys av 20 dokument som beskriver WIEGO och dess arbete. Teorierna och koncepten ”gender mainstrea- ming”, intersektionalitet, Feministisk Politisk Ekologi och miljörättvisa användes för att analy- sera resultaten. Studien visar att WIEGO använder sig av ”gender mainstreaming” i sitt opera- tiva arbete, i sitt policyramverk och i avfallshanteringsprojekten i Brasilien, vilket resulterat it fysiska och emotionella förbättringar för WIEGOs internationellt anställda och för de avfalls- hanterande kvinnorna i Brasilien.
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