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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Diagnóstico In Vivo da Sensibilidade de Nematóides a Diferentes Antihelmínticos em Ovinos do Município de Alegre, Espírito Santo

STARLING, R. Z. C. 09 July 2015 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-01T22:56:58Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 tese_9120_Renan Starling.pdf: 1039976 bytes, checksum: 7249e6ef5a22c0abda82a8146900e8b9 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2015-07-09 / Grande variação no grau de resistência de populações de nematódeos é observada em grupos químicos, entre eles os anti-helmínticos, sendo este o principal entrave para obtenção do controle da verminose na ovinocultura. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a sensibilidade de nematoides de ovinos mestiços em criação semi-intensiva em três propriedades a cinco princípios ativos(levamisol, albendazol, ivermectina, monepantel e closantel) utilizados nasvermifugação. Foram analisadas amostras fecais, em três momentos (antes, 7 e 14 dias após o tratamento) utilizando a técnica de Gordon e Withlock (OPG), processadas e calculadas pelas fórmulas Eficácia=(1- [OPGtratado/OPGcontrole])x100 e Redução de OPG = 100 x [OPGt0 OPGtn/OPGt0 ]. Nos momentos sete e quatorze os grupos tratamentos diferiram significativamente (p< 0,05%) do momento zero, porém, os animais tratados com ivermectina no momento quatorze não apresentaram diferença significativa quando comparado ao grupo controle. No exame coproparasitológico os gêneros mais frequentes foram Haemonchus e Trichostrongylus. Na primeira propriedade o monepantel e o albendazol demonstraram os melhores resultados de redução de OPG, na segunda propriedade o levamisol, closantel e monepantel apresentaram resultados expressivos quando comparado aos demais fármacos e na terceira propriedade os fármacos que tiveram melhores resultados de redução de OPG foram levamisol e monepantel. Nas propriedades A, B e C, foram diagnosticadas populações de nematoides resistentes a ivermectina. Nas propriedades B e C, foram diagnosticadas populações de nematoides resistentes a albendazol.
2

The effect of application of the FAMACHA© system on selected production parameters in sheep

Leask, Rhoda 22 December 2010 (has links)
A trial was conducted on a farm comprising a flock of approximately 300 Mutton Merinos on which the FAMACHA© system was in use. Seventy five maiden and multiparous ewes were blocked by class before being ranked by weight and then randomly allocated using block randomization, with due regard to approximately equal apportioning of the two classes of ewes, to the following three trial groups: (i) FAMACHA© (FMCH) group, in which only animals evaluated to be in FAMACHA© categories 4 and 5 (overtly anaemic) were treated with levamisole HCl 2,5% (Nemasol NF, Intervet) (ii) Strategically dosed (STRAT) group, blanket treated every six weeks with levamisole HCl 2,5% (Nemasol NF, Intervet) (iii) Suppressively dosed (SUPPR) group, blanket treated at the same intervals with injectable moxidectin 1% (Cydectin, Bayer AH) The trial was set to take place during the period of high haemonchosis risk (December to April) but data was recorded from November 2006 to July 2007. However, the deworming schedule of the trial only commenced in February 2007, due to Cydectin being out of stock until that time. All the trial animals were evaluated once weekly according to the FAMACHA© system, and Faecal Egg Counts (FECs) were performed on all groups prior to commencement of the trial, as well as during the trial period. Initial analysis of the results of all ewes, regardless of class, appeared to show that the FAMACHA© group gained, on average, 3-4 kg less (P<0.05) than the other two groups. However, these results compared groups which contained both pregnant and nonpregnant ewes. Within each treatment regimen the multiparous ewes, which accounted for most of the pregnancies, were responsible for the largest difference in weight gains. Data from ewes that became pregnant during the trial period was separated from the data of non-pregnant ewes, and analysed because the pregnant ewes did not lamb down in the same week and cannot therefore be used as an accurate comparison as they were in different stages of pregnancy at any given time. The pregnant ewes’ data was then ranked according to weeks before lambing and re-analysed. When the data was analysed separately for ewes that conceived during the trial and ewes that did not conceive, the results showed that there was no significant difference in weight gains amongst the three treatment regimens (Figure 4.2). There were no significant differences in lamb weights (Table 4.3.3) nor average daily gains (ADG), as can be seen from Tables 4.4.1 to 4.4.3. Wool production was not analysed in this trial due to faulty sample collection at shearing, but ideally it should have been included. Economic evaluation of the data initially showed that there appeared to be a benefit to dosing more frequently. During the trial period the total cost of deworming the SUPPR group was R163.51 and the liveweight gain gave an additional income of approximately R2758.00 resulting in a calculated financial gain of R2594.49 for 25 ewes when compared to the FMCH group. The cost of deworming the STRAT group for the trial period was R 104.65 and the liveweight gain gave an additional income of approximately R2261.00 which resulted in a financial gain of R2156.35 in comparison to the FMCH group for 25 ewes. The cost for deworming the FMCH group was R10.96 for the duration of the trial. However, these calculations were based on both pregnant and nonpregnant ewe data combined and therefore do not accurately reflect the cost and return for the farmer of meat had the pregnant ewes data been analysed together with those that did not fall pregnant during the trial. Once the pregnant ewes were separated from the rest, there was no significant difference between the three groups regarding liveweight gain. Therefore there was no financial benefit to the farmer in deworming either suppresively or strategically and in fact resulted in an economic loss due to the cost of anthelmintic when compared to using the FAMACHA© system. A shortage of feed due to unseasonal downpours leading to poor Body Condition Scores (BCS), forced the farmer to supplement the grazing and the FMCH group was able to make use of compensatory growth so that by the end of the trial, the was no significant difference in BCS between the groups. The FAMACHA© system allows for selective targeted use of anthelmintics, and studies to date are contradictory on whether or not production is significantly affected by applying the FAMACHA© system to control H. contortus. However, this trial concluded that there is no significant difference in selected production parameters when using the FAMACHA© system as opposed to other methods of anthelmintic use in a Mutton Merino flock in a semi-intensive farming system. The FAMACHA© system is therefore the preferred method of worm control, where the major parasite problem is Haemonchus contortus, as other methods compared in this trial are not sustainable with regards to the worldwide increase in anthelmintic resistance (AR) and now with the increase in multiple anthelmintic resistance (MAR) on certain farms. It is also evident from this trial that the FAMACHA© system cannot be used in isolation as nutrition also plays a vital role in resistance and resilience of individual animals. Therefore if nutrition and other management practices are poor, the FAMACHA© system cannot be blamed for financial and production losses. / Dissertation (MMedVet)--University of Pretoria, 2010. / Production Animal Studies / unrestricted
3

Estudo da diversidade genética e análise de associações de polimorfismo de nucleotídeo (SNP) com resistência às parasitoses gastrintestinais e prolificidade em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Study of genetic diversity and association analysis of single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) with resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and prolificacy in Santa Ines sheep

Priscila Silva Oliveira 21 February 2014 (has links)
O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a presença de polimorfismos e de possíveis associações com características relacionadas com a resistência às parasitoses gastrintestinais e a prolificidade em ovinos da raça Santa Inês. Para avaliação da resistência às parasitoses gastrintestinais, amostras de fezes e de sangue de aproximadamente 700 animais, infectados naturalmente e oriundos de quatro propriedades diferentes, foram coletadas entre os meses de outubro e novembro de 2011, para avaliação das características condição corporal, grau de anemia avaliado pelo cartão FAMACHA, as características dos pelos dos animais, consistência das fezes, contagem de ovos por grama de fezes, hematócrito, contagem de células brancas, contagem de células vermelhas, hemoglobina e plaquetas. Para a avaliação da prolificidade, 340 ovelhas foram avaliadas quanto ao número total de cordeiros nascidos, divididos pelo número de partos de cada ovelha, assim como a correlação dessa característica com o peso médio ao nascimento de seus cordeiros e a eficiência produtiva da mãe ao parto. Foram selecionados 28 polimorfismos de base única (SNP) para o desenvolvimento deste estudo os quais foram genotipados por meio da plataforma Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX. Foram analisadas as freqüências alélicas e genotípicas, o equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg, os efeitos de substituição alélica, de aditividade e de desvio de dominância. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram variabilidade considerável das características avaliadas na população e da maioria dos polimorfismos estudados. Foi verificado também efeito significativo (p&le;0,05) ou sugestivo (0,05&gt;p&le;0,10) de substituição alélica de pelo menos um SNP para cada uma das características avaliadas, indicando que esses polimorfismos podem auxiliar nos processos de seleção das características relacionadas com a resistência às parasitoses gastrintestinais e com a prolificidade. / The aim of this work was to evaluate the presence of polymorphisms and possible associations with characteristics associated with resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and prolificacy in Santa Ines sheep. To evaluate the resistance to gastrointestinal parasites, feces and blood samples of approximately 700 animals infected naturally and from four different properties, were collected between the months of October and November, 2011 to assess characteristics body condition, degree of anemia measured by FAMACHA card, the characteristics of the hair of sheep, feces consistency, egg counts per gram of feces, hematocrit, white blood cell count, red blood cell count, hemoglobin and platelets count. For the evaluation of prolificacy, 340 sheep were evaluated for the total number of lambs born, divided by the number of births from each dam, as well as the correlation of this feature with the average birth weight of their lambs and productive efficiency of dam. 28 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were selected for the development of this study and were genotyped by Sequenom MassARRAY iPLEX platform. Allele and genotype frequencies, the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, the effects of allelic substitution, additivity and dominance deviation were analyzed. The results showed considerable variability of the characteristics evaluated in the population in study and in most of the polymorphisms. Significant effect was observed (p &le; 0.05) or suggestive (0.05&gt; p &le; 0.10) for allelic substitution of at least one SNP for each of the evaluated traits, indicating that these polymorphisms may help in the selection processes of characteristics related to resistance to gastrointestinal parasites and prolificacy.
4

Critérios de seleção para características de importância econômica em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Selection criteria for economically important traits in Santa Inês sheep

Elisa Junqueira Oliveira 11 April 2016 (has links)
Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estimar parâmetros genéticos para: coloração da conjuntiva ocular (CCO), contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), volume globular (VG), proteína plasmática total (PPT), escore da condição corporal (ECC) e peso corporal (PC) e, ainda, explorar o perfil genético da população, utilizando análises de agrupamento com base nos valores genéticos. E estimar parâmetros genéticos para peso corporal (PC) e características de conformação (perímetro torácico (PT), altura da garupa (AG), altura da cernelha (AC), largura da garupa (LG), comprimento corporal (CC) e escore de condição corporal (ECC)) com intuito de definir critérios de seleção. Foram analisadas um total de 2.525 informações de 771 animais nascidos entre 2002 e 2013, filhos de 68 carneiros e 352 ovelhas, pertencentes a sete rebanhos localizados no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram avaliados mensalmente durante junho de 2013 a outubro de 2014. Os componentes de covariância foram estimados por modelo animal em análises multicaracterísticas, por meio de abordagem Bayesiana. As estimativas de herdabilidade para CCO, PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram 0,21 (0,04); 0,18 (0,05); 0,30 (0,06); 0,17 (0,05); 0,19 (0,03) e 0,31 (0,07), respectivamente, indicando que a seleção pode ser realizada com base no valor genético dos indivíduos para estas características. As correlações genéticas entre a CCO e PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram -0,40 (0,17); -0,63 (0,09); -0,23 (0,15); 0,77 (0,09); -0,59 (0,11), respectivamente, e entre PC e ECC a correlação genética foi de 0,84 (0,15). Assim como as outras medidas de resistência a verminose, a CCO pode ser incluída como critério na seleção; esta apresenta estimativa de herdabilidade mediana correlação genética favorável com as outras medidas de resistência a verminose e com PC e ECC, além de ser de fácil obtenção e baixo custo. Foi possível obter grupos de indivíduos com perfil genético de resistência/resiliência a verminose a partir das análises de agrupamento. As estimativas de herdabilidade para PC, PT, AG, AC, LG e ECC foram: 0,25 (0,08); 0,22 (0,07); 0,24 (0,07); 0,25 (0,07); 0,19 (0,05) e 0,32 (0,07), respectivamente e as correlações genéticas entre o peso e as medidas corporais foram de alta magnitude, variando entre 0,66 (0,11) a 0,98 (0,016), indicando que as medidas corporais, principalmente o perímetro torácico, pode ser incluído como um critério de seleção complementar ao peso corporal. / The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for conjunctival staining score (CSS), fecal eggs count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW), and also explore the genetic profile of the population, using cluster analysis based on genetic values. And to estimate genetic parameters for body weight (BW) and conformation traits (heart girth (HG), hip height (HH), wither height (WH), rump width (RW), body length (BL) and body condition score (BCS)) to define selection criteria. A total of 2,525 records from 771 animals born between 2002 and 2013 to 68 rams and 352 ewes, belonging to five herds located in the São Paulo state were used. The animals were evaluated monthly during June 2013 to October 2014. The covariance components were estimated by animal model multi-trait using Bayesian analysis. The estimates of heritability for CSS, BW, PCV, FEC, BCS and PPT were 0.21 (0.04); 0.18 (0.05); 0.30 (0.06); 0.19 (0.03), 0.31 (0.07) and 0.17 (0.07), respectively, indicating that you can select animals based on the genetic value of individuals. The genetic correlations between CSS and BW, CSS and PCV, CSS and PPT, CCS and FEC, CSS and BCS and between the BW and BCS -0.40 (0.17); -0.63 (0.09); -0.23 (0.15); 0.77 (0.09); 0.84 (0.15), respectively. As other resistance traits the worms, the CCO can be included as a criterion in the selection. For this trait has estimated median heritability (0.21±0.04) and positive genetic correlation with other resistance measures to worms and BW and BCS, as well as being easy to obtain and low cost. It was possible to obtain groups of individuals with genetic profile of resistance / resilience to worms from the cluster analysis. The estimates of heritability for BW, HG, HH, WH, RW, BL and BCS were 0.25 (0.08); 0.22 (0.07); 0.24 (0.07); 0.25 (0.07); 0.19 (0.05) and 0.32 (0.07), respectively and genetic correlations between weight and body measures were highest magnitude, ranging from 0.66 (0.11) to 0.98 (0,016) indicating that body measurements, mainly heart girth, can be included as a criterion in the selection in addition to body weight.
5

Critérios de seleção para características de importância econômica em ovinos da raça Santa Inês / Selection criteria for economically important traits in Santa Inês sheep

Oliveira, Elisa Junqueira 11 April 2016 (has links)
Os objetivos deste estudo foram: estimar parâmetros genéticos para: coloração da conjuntiva ocular (CCO), contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), volume globular (VG), proteína plasmática total (PPT), escore da condição corporal (ECC) e peso corporal (PC) e, ainda, explorar o perfil genético da população, utilizando análises de agrupamento com base nos valores genéticos. E estimar parâmetros genéticos para peso corporal (PC) e características de conformação (perímetro torácico (PT), altura da garupa (AG), altura da cernelha (AC), largura da garupa (LG), comprimento corporal (CC) e escore de condição corporal (ECC)) com intuito de definir critérios de seleção. Foram analisadas um total de 2.525 informações de 771 animais nascidos entre 2002 e 2013, filhos de 68 carneiros e 352 ovelhas, pertencentes a sete rebanhos localizados no estado de São Paulo. Os animais foram avaliados mensalmente durante junho de 2013 a outubro de 2014. Os componentes de covariância foram estimados por modelo animal em análises multicaracterísticas, por meio de abordagem Bayesiana. As estimativas de herdabilidade para CCO, PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram 0,21 (0,04); 0,18 (0,05); 0,30 (0,06); 0,17 (0,05); 0,19 (0,03) e 0,31 (0,07), respectivamente, indicando que a seleção pode ser realizada com base no valor genético dos indivíduos para estas características. As correlações genéticas entre a CCO e PC, VG, PPT, OPG e ECC foram -0,40 (0,17); -0,63 (0,09); -0,23 (0,15); 0,77 (0,09); -0,59 (0,11), respectivamente, e entre PC e ECC a correlação genética foi de 0,84 (0,15). Assim como as outras medidas de resistência a verminose, a CCO pode ser incluída como critério na seleção; esta apresenta estimativa de herdabilidade mediana correlação genética favorável com as outras medidas de resistência a verminose e com PC e ECC, além de ser de fácil obtenção e baixo custo. Foi possível obter grupos de indivíduos com perfil genético de resistência/resiliência a verminose a partir das análises de agrupamento. As estimativas de herdabilidade para PC, PT, AG, AC, LG e ECC foram: 0,25 (0,08); 0,22 (0,07); 0,24 (0,07); 0,25 (0,07); 0,19 (0,05) e 0,32 (0,07), respectivamente e as correlações genéticas entre o peso e as medidas corporais foram de alta magnitude, variando entre 0,66 (0,11) a 0,98 (0,016), indicando que as medidas corporais, principalmente o perímetro torácico, pode ser incluído como um critério de seleção complementar ao peso corporal. / The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for conjunctival staining score (CSS), fecal eggs count (FEC), packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein (TPP), body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW), and also explore the genetic profile of the population, using cluster analysis based on genetic values. And to estimate genetic parameters for body weight (BW) and conformation traits (heart girth (HG), hip height (HH), wither height (WH), rump width (RW), body length (BL) and body condition score (BCS)) to define selection criteria. A total of 2,525 records from 771 animals born between 2002 and 2013 to 68 rams and 352 ewes, belonging to five herds located in the São Paulo state were used. The animals were evaluated monthly during June 2013 to October 2014. The covariance components were estimated by animal model multi-trait using Bayesian analysis. The estimates of heritability for CSS, BW, PCV, FEC, BCS and PPT were 0.21 (0.04); 0.18 (0.05); 0.30 (0.06); 0.19 (0.03), 0.31 (0.07) and 0.17 (0.07), respectively, indicating that you can select animals based on the genetic value of individuals. The genetic correlations between CSS and BW, CSS and PCV, CSS and PPT, CCS and FEC, CSS and BCS and between the BW and BCS -0.40 (0.17); -0.63 (0.09); -0.23 (0.15); 0.77 (0.09); 0.84 (0.15), respectively. As other resistance traits the worms, the CCO can be included as a criterion in the selection. For this trait has estimated median heritability (0.21±0.04) and positive genetic correlation with other resistance measures to worms and BW and BCS, as well as being easy to obtain and low cost. It was possible to obtain groups of individuals with genetic profile of resistance / resilience to worms from the cluster analysis. The estimates of heritability for BW, HG, HH, WH, RW, BL and BCS were 0.25 (0.08); 0.22 (0.07); 0.24 (0.07); 0.25 (0.07); 0.19 (0.05) and 0.32 (0.07), respectively and genetic correlations between weight and body measures were highest magnitude, ranging from 0.66 (0.11) to 0.98 (0,016) indicating that body measurements, mainly heart girth, can be included as a criterion in the selection in addition to body weight.
6

Parasitismo gastrintestinal em diferentes intensidades de pastejo no capim Tânzania, em caprinos

Silva, Helenara Machado da [UNESP] 22 April 2008 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:30:16Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2008-04-22Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:40:06Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 silva_hm_me_jabo.pdf: 429822 bytes, checksum: 9a01550afb4e4e1ba15e6325062ee454 (MD5) / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) / Os objetivos gerais deste estudo visaram verificar o parasitismo gastrintestinal em diferentes intensidades de pastejo no capim Tanzânia (Panicum maximum (Jacq.) cv. Tanzânia-1), em caprinos e avaliar o método Famacha em cabras ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen e Saanen, criadas em sistema de pastejo, sob condições subtropicais. Foram utilizadas 65 cabras, sendo 21 cabras da raça Saanen e 44 cabras de composição genética ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen, pesando entre 35 a 40 kg. No tratamento de baixa intensidade de pastejo (massa residual 3000 kg MS/ ha) foram, inicialmente, utilizados, 23 animais, sendo 11 Saanen e 12 ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen. No tratamento de alta intensidade de pastejo (massa residual 1500 kg MS/ ha) foram, inicialmente, utilizados, 42 animais, sendo 10 Saanen e 32 ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen. Não houve diferença (P > 0,05) no parasitismo animal entre as intensidades de pastejo. Os resultados obtidos para a sensibilidade e especificidade do Famacha para as cabras ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen foi de 51,6% e 48,3%, respectivamente (P < 0,01). Para as cabras Saanen a sensibilidade e especificidade do Famacha foram de 16,7% e 82,6%, respectivamente (P < 0,01). No exame de coprocultura foi verificado predominância de mais de 60% de Haemonchus sp., seguido de mais de 30% de Trichostrongylus sp. Nas condições deste estudo a intensidade de pastejo não afetou o parasitismo gastrintestinal em caprinos e o método Famacha mostrou-se eficaz para as cabras ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen e não eficaz para as cabras Saanen. / The general objectives of this study had aimed at to verify the gastrointestinal parasitism in different intensities of grazing in Tanzânia grass (Panicum maximum (Jacq.) cv. Tanzânia-1), in goats and evaluating the Famacha method in goats ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen and Saanen, created in system of grazing, under subtropical conditions. Sixty five goats (21 Saanen and 44 ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen) were used in a randomized block design and divided into two different intensities of grazing (treatments). In the treatment of low intensities of grazing had been used 3000 kg matter dry/ ha, they were, initially, used, 23 animals, being 11 Saanen and 12 ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen. In the high intensities of capacity had been used 1500 kg matter dry/ ha, they were, initially, used, 42 animals, being 10 Saanen and 32 ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen. It did not have difference (P> 0,05) in the animal parasitism enters the intensities of grazing. The results gotten for sensitivity and specificity of the Famacha for the goats ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen was of 51,6% and 48,3%, respectively and low sensibility (16,7%) and strong specificity (82,6%) for Saanen goats. Identification of the larvae by coproculture indicated that Haemonchus sp. predominate in the animals from both in different intensities of pastejo followed by Trichostrongylus sp. In the conditions of this study the grazing intensity didn't affect the gastrointestinal parasitism in goats and the method Famacha was shown effective for the goats ¾ Boer ¼ Saanen and not effective for the goats Saanen.
7

Marcadores fenot?picos para caracteriza??o de caprinos com diferentes n?veis de resist?ncia ?s endoparasitoses gastrintestinais / Phenotypic markers to characterizeE goats with different levels of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes

Coutinho, Renata Maria Alves 28 February 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-12-17T15:34:44Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 RenataMAC_DISSERT.pdf: 1125273 bytes, checksum: 6bd33833f33ca21674933995a1ccf14a (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-02-28 / Coordena??o de Aperfei?oamento de Pessoal de N?vel Superior / The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize phenotypically goats with different levels of resistance to gastrointestinal nematodes. For a period of 93 days, 60 F2 goats originated from ? Saanen and ? Anglo- nubian animals were kept in the same area of pasture. Every seven days, feces and blood were collected for eggs per gram counts of feces (EPG) and cultures of feces and to determinate the number of eosinophils, packed cell volume and total plasma protein, respectively. On the same day, the animals were weighed and submitted to body score condition and FAMACHA method to worm control. Based on the average of EPG, the twelve animals with the highest average (susceptible group) and the twelve animals with the lowest average of EPG (resistant group) were selected, slaughtered and necropsied to recovery, counting andparasites identification. The resistant animals present lower EPG mean (P <0.0001) and 4.7 folder less parasites than susceptible animals. The resistant group presented higher mean packed cell volume (26.48%) and total plasma protein (6.24 g / dl) than susceptible one (24,04% e 5,82g/dl, respectively). The average number of eosinophils was similar in both groups The Haemonchus sp. was the most prevalent in the culture of feces, followed by Trischostrongylus sp. and Oesophagostomum sp.. The counting of nematodes in the abomasum of susceptible group was higher than in resistant one. The species identified were H. contortus in abomasums and T. colubriformis in small intestine. It can be concluded that EPG, packed cell volume and total plasma protein were useful phenotypic markers to identify animals as resistant and susceptible to gastrointestinal nematodes infections / O presente trabalho teve como objetivo de avaliar e caracterizar fenotipicamente caprinos com diferentes n?veis de resist?ncia a nematoides gastrintestinais. Em um per?odo de 93 dias, 60 caprinos F2 oriundos do cruzamento de animais ? Saanen e ? Anglo-nubiano foram mantidos em uma mesma ?rea de pastagem cultivada irrigada de capim Tanz?nia (Panicum maximum Jacq. Cv Tanz?nia). A cada sete dias, fezes e sangue foram coletados para contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), coproculturas, contagem de eosin?filos, determina??o de volume globular e prote?na plasm?tica total, respectivamente. No mesmo dia das coletas, os animais foram pesados e avaliados quanto ao escore da condi??o corporal e grau de anemia com aux?lio no cart?o FAMACHA. Com base na m?dia de OPG, os doze animais com as maiores m?dias de OPG (grupo suscept?vel) e os doze animais com as menores m?dias de OPG (grupo resistente) foram identificados e selecionados para serem abatidos e necropsiados para a recupera??o, contagem e identifica??o dos parasitos presentes. Os animais pertencentes ao grupo resistente apresentaram menor m?dia de OPG (P<0,0001) e 4,7 vezes menos parasitos adultos do que os animais do grupo suscept?vel. O grupo resistente obteve maior m?dia de volume globular (26,48%) e prote?na plasm?tica total (6,24 g/dl) do que os animais suscept?veis (24,04% e 5,82g/dl, respectivamente). A m?dia de eosin?filos foi semelhante nos dois grupos .O g?nero Haemonchus foi o mais prevalente a nas coproculturas, seguido por Trischostrongylus e Oesophagostomum. A contagem de nematoides foi maior no abomaso do grupo suscept?vel do que no grupo resistente. As esp?cies identificadas foram H. contortus no abomaso e T. colubriformis no intestino delgado. Conclui-se que OPG, volume globular e prote?na plasm?tica total foram marcadores fenot?picos eficientes para identificar animais resistentes e suscept?veis ?s infec??es causadas por nematoides gastrintestinais
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Avaliação das metodologias de controle estratégico das nematodioses gastrintestinais em ovinos (Ovis aries) / Evaluation of methodologies for strategic control of gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep (Ovis aries)

Maciel, Willian Giquelin [UNESP] 20 April 2018 (has links)
Submitted by Willian Giquelin Maciel (willian.vet@hotmail.com) on 2018-06-04T05:19:36Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Tese - Final - Willian Maciel.pdf: 1712645 bytes, checksum: c5c7ccb7914b386caf2cce8d3e8e9c10 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Alexandra Maria Donadon Lusser Segali null (alexmar@fcav.unesp.br) on 2018-06-05T18:38:17Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 Tese - Final - Willian Maciel.pdf: 1712645 bytes, checksum: c5c7ccb7914b386caf2cce8d3e8e9c10 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-06-05T18:38:17Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Tese - Final - Willian Maciel.pdf: 1712645 bytes, checksum: c5c7ccb7914b386caf2cce8d3e8e9c10 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-04-20 / Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior (CAPES) / As helmintoses, aliadas ao problema de resistência aos quimioterápicos, tornam-se o grande entrave na ovinocultura mundial, sendo ampliado pela escassez de informações sobre o custo-benefício de metodologias de diagnóstico. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar e comparar a eficiência de três técnicas de diagnóstico e o custo-benefício de quatro medidas estratégicas de controle de helmintos de ovinos naturalmente parasitados em uma de baixa tecnificação. Foram selecionadas 48 matrizes em idade reprodutiva, predominando mestiços de raça Santa Inês X Dorper, com médias de contagem de ovos por grama (OPG) superiores a 400, pelo método McMaster. Assim, foram realizadas coletas de amostras de fezes e avaliações da conjuntiva ocular a cada 14 dias, para realização das técnicas Mini-FLOTAC, McMaster e FAMACHA© durante um ano. As ovelhas foram divididas em quatro grupos experimentais e tratadas, estrategicamente. No GI, realizou-se tratamento dos animais que apresentassem contagens de OPG igual ou superior a 1000 no Mini-FLOTAC; GII, realizado com proposições semelhante ao GI, mas de acordo com McMaster; GIII tratado todos os ovinos a cada 56 dias; GIV - desverminados apenas os animais que apresentassem grau FAMACHA© 3, 4 ou 5, em duas avaliações (dias diferentes). Para comparação, as três técnicas de diagnóstico foram, repetidamente, efetuadas em todos os grupos. Ao iniciar o estudo, foi realizada coprocultura das fezes para identificação genérica dos nematódeos, e, posteriormente, necropsia parasitológica nos ovinos que vieram a óbito com colheita para reconhecimento de espécies. Para o cálculo dos custos, foram contabilizados aquisição de produtos, os gastos com os tratamentos, o dispêndio com exames laboratoriais, entre outros. As técnicas foram comparadas pelos resultados, e após dicotomizados os dados, em Tratados (avaliações com FAMACHA© 3, 4 e 5, e, contagens de OPG superiores a 1000, para McMaster e Mini-FLOTAC) e Não Tratados. Os resultados necroparasitológicos evidenciaram 10 espécies de helmintos, com prevalência de Trichostrongylus colubriformis e Haemonchus contortus, representando 94,49% da carga parasitária total recuperadas nas necropsias. Nas coproculturas, Haemonchus (67%) e Trichostrongylus (19%) também apresentaram maiores percentuais. As três técnicas de diagnóstico obtiveram boa correlação entre si, com moderada diferença. Entretanto, quando transformados em tratados e não tratados, o FAMACHA© apresentou uma redução de 50% (P≤0,05) na frequência de tratamento. Quanto às estratégias, razoável diferença nas contagens de OPG observada no decorrer do estudo. Mesmo assim, o GIV apresentou menor frequência de desverminação (53), não diferindo (P≥0,05) apenas do GIII. Com base no peso médio e na quantidade de tratamentos, o GIV apresentou menor custo ao final do estudo, R$10,36 e, em segundo, o GIII, com um gasto de R$13,49, enquanto os GI e GII despuseram de R$17,60 e R$14,47, respectivamente. Além dos gastos com os tratamentos, GI, GII e GIV, totalizaram ao término do estudo R$5532,55, R$5266,13 e R$45,00 de importâncias extras. Assim, conclui-se que, a aplicação do método FAMACHA© reduz a frequência de tratamento em relação as demais estratégias empregadas, podendo ser indicada como melhor relação custo-benefício. / Helminthic infections, allied to the problem of resistance against chemotherapeutics, become the major worldwide hindrance in sheep industry, which is magnified by lack of information regarding cost benefits of diagnosis methodologies. The objective of this study was to evaluate and compare efficiency of three diagnosis techniques and cost benefits of four strategic control measures against helminths of naturally parasitized sheep on a farm with modest technology. 48 ewes were selected, predominantly crosses of Santa Inês and Dorper breeds, at reproductive age, with average counts of eggs per gram of feces (EPG) superior to 400 detected by the McMaster method. Therefore, collection of fecal samples and evaluation of ocular conjunctiva were conducted every 14 days for performing the Mini-FLOTAC, McMaster and FAMACHA© techniques. Animals were divided in four experimental groups and treated strategically. In GI, treatment was performed on animals which obtained EPG counts superior to 1000 on the Mini-FLOTAC test. Treatment at GII followed similar propositions to GI, but was based on the McMaster test. GIII consisted of treating all sheep at 56-day intervals. Animals at GIV were dewormed only when presenting FAMACHA© degrees 3, 4 or 5, in two evaluations. For comparison, all three diagnosis techniques were repeatedly conducted in all groups. In order to calculate costs, expenses with product acquisition and treatments, as well as expenditure with laboratorial exams and other factors were added. Techniques were compared by results, and data was divided in two groups: Treated (evaluations with FAMACHA© degree 3, 4 and 5; and EPG counts superior to 1000 for McMaster and Mini-FLOTAC methods) and Untreated. Results evidenced ten helminths species, with prevalence of Trichostrongylus colubriformis and Haemonchus contortus representing 94.49% of total parasitic burdens recovered on necropsies of animals that came to death. In coprocultures analyzes, Haemonchus (67%) and Trichostrongylus (19%) also presented the higher percentages. All three diagnosis techniques obtained good correlations with each other, with moderate differences. However, when data was transformed in Treated and Untreated, the FAMACHA© method presented a 50% reduction (P≤0.05) in treatment frequency. Regarding strategies, reasonable differences in EPG counts were observed throughout the study. Nonetheless, GIV presented inferior deworming frequency (53), with no differences (P≥0.05) only to GIII. Based on average weights and amount of treatments, GIV presented inferior costs by the end of the study, R$ 10.36, followed by GIII, with a cost of R$ 13.49, while GI and GII surmounted costs of R$ 17.60 and R$ 14.47, respectively. Besides the expenses with treatments, GI, GII and GIV totaled, at the end of the study, R$ 5,532.55, R$ 5,266.13 and R$ 45.00 of additional importance. Therefore, it is possible to conclude that application of the FAMACHA© method reduces frequency of treatments when compared to other employed strategies, being able to be recommended as the one with superior cost benefit.
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Incidence, clinical appraisal and treatment of haemonchosis in small ruminants of resource-poor areas in South Africa

Vatta, Adriano Francis 23 February 2003 (has links)
A novel clinical assay for the assessment and subsequent treatment of Haemonchus infection in sheep to slow down the development of anthelmintic resistance – the FAMACHA / Dissertation (MSc)--University of Pretoria, 2001. / Veterinary Tropical Diseases / unrestricted

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