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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Identifiering av mastceller och vasoaktiv intestinal polypeptid och deras association till irritable bowel syndrome

Barkarö, Amanda January 2016 (has links)
IBS (irritable bowel syndrome) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder which is estimated to affect one in ten individuals. It affects bowel function and leads to discomfort and pain for the patient. IBS can be subdivided into three separate groups named after the symptoms they bring: IBS-C (constipation), IBS-D (diarrhea) and IBS-M (mix). Today, there are no diagnostic markers for the disorder. The small and large intestine are regularly exposed to foreign substances and microorganisms; hence they contain a large number of immune cells of all sorts. Mastcells (MC) are pro-inflammatory cells and can be found in vast numbers in the intestine wall. They are thought to play an important role in the development of IBS. Studies has also shown that the neuropeptide vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) alter the function of the intestine and increased amount of VIP have been detected in plasma from IBS-patients. The purpose of this study was to compare the number of MCs and MCs containing VIP in colonic biopsies from: 6 healthy women, 6 women with IBS-D and 6 women with IBS-C. VIP in plasma was also measured in order to compare the amount between healthy and IBS-patients. MCs and VIP containing MCs were quantified using immunohistochemical techniques where the colonic tissue was double stained with antibodies directed towards mast cell tryptase and VIP. Evaluation of the immunostained tissue was performed using fluorescent microscopy. VIP in plasma was analysed using enzyme immunoassay (EIA). No significant difference in the number of MCs nor in MCs containing VIP was detected between the groups. However, significant differences in the amount of VIP in plasma was detected between healthy women and women with IBS-D. More studies are needed to elucidate the role of MC and VIP in the pathogenesis of IBS.
2

[en] SUPPORTING END USER REPORTING OF HCI ISSUES IN OPEN SOURCE SOFTWARE PROJECTS / [pt] APOIANDO O RELATO DE PROBLEMAS DE IHC EM PROJETOS DE SOFTWARE OPEN SOURCE

FABIANA PEDREIRA SIMOES 12 January 2017 (has links)
[pt] Capacitar usuários a contribuir proativamente para projetos de Open Source Software (OSS) através de relatos de problemas de Interação Humano-Computador (IHC) não apenas representa uma alternativa para resolver problemas de IHC em projetos de OSS, mas uma que se enquadra nos valores e ideologia da comunidade OSS. Através de referências às experiências comunicadas através de relatos de problemas de IHC, designers em projetos de OSS podem não apenas fazer suas decisões de design de uma maneira aberta transparente, mas também de uma maneira que os usuários finais possam se relacionar com os valores da comunidade. Esse estudo tem como objetivo explorar (a) como relatos de problemas se encaixam e influenciam as atividades de designers em projetos de OSS, (b) quais são as informações necessárias dos designers em projetos de OSS, e (c) como podemos apoiar os usuários na criação de relatos que estejam alinhados com essas informações. Para endereçar as questões (a) e (b), nós realizamos entrevistas com quatro designers contribuindo para projetos de OSS, e avaliamos qualitativamente um conjunto de 547 bugs reportados com palavras-chave relacionadas à IHC. Com esses dados, nós elaboramos um formulário, com base na Engenharia Semiótica, para usuários relatarem problemas de IHC. Para avaliar quão bem esse formulário comunica as informações que designers em projetos de OSS precisam e, então, endereçar a questão (c), nós conduzimos um estudo onde participantes foram convidados a reportar problemas de IHC através do formulário elaborado. / [en] Empowering end users to proactively contribute to OSS by reporting HCI issues not only represents a potential approach to solving HCI problems in OSS projects, but it also fits the Open Source values and ideology. By referring to the end users personal experiences and feedback reports, designers in OSS communities may build their design rationale not only in an open and transparent manner, but also in such a way that end users relate to the values embedded in the community. This study aims to contribute to the existing literature by exploring (a) how issue reports fit and influence OSS designers activities, (b) what the information needs of designers in OSS projects are, and (c) how to support users on the task of creating HCI issues reports that meet those needs. In order to collect data about questions (a) and (b), we conducted interviews with four designers contributing to OSS projects, and qualitatively evaluated a set of 547 bugs reported under HCI-related keywords. Using this data and based on Semiotic Engineering, we designed a form for users to report HCI issues. To investigate how well this form communicates the information needs of OSS designers and address question (c), we performed a study in which participants were invited to report HCI issues through the designed form.
3

Frequent Inactivation of LKB1 in Human Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinomas

Cheng, Ai-ling 16 August 2005 (has links)
Lung cancer is the second leading cause of cancer-related death in Taiwan in 2003. However, lung cancer has become the first in 2004. Discovering the new molecular targets may provide new methods for the treatments of this devastating disease. LKB1, a serine/threonine kinase, is a new tumor suppressor gene with spontaneous mutations and/or deletions found in human cancers. Reports have recently demonstrated that LKB1 inactivating mutations in lung adenocarcinomas of sporadic origin, including primary tumors and lung cancer cell lines. In this study, we investigated LKB1 gene inactivation frequencies in 110 Taiwan patients with non-small cell lung carcinomas (NSCLC) and 7 lung cancer cell lines. LKB1 inactivation was screened by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), sequencing, co-amplification and loss of heterozygosity (LOH) analysis. In addition, LKB1 expressions were determined in clinical samples by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and in cell lines by reverse-transcriptase PCR and western blot analysis. The results showed five out of 110 (4.5%) patients with LKB1 gene exon 8 deletions. Two out these 5 patients were also found with exon 7 deletions. An identical mutation at codon 354 (Phe to Leu) were found in 4 out of 65 (6.2%) patients. The nature of this mutation was found to be a new LKB1 polymorphism by single strand conformation polymorphism (SSCP) assay and sequencing analysis after compared to normal controls. Various point mutations were also found in 3 out of 7 cell lines. In addition, 11 out of 81 (13.6%) patients were found with LOH. Finally, reduced expressions of LKB1 were observed in lung cancer clinical samples. These data suggest that LKB1 may be a tumor suppressor gene that involved in the carcinogenesis of NSCLC.
4

Intestinal responses to Clostridium perfringens in broilers

Russell, Katherine Margaret January 2016 (has links)
Clostridium perfringens is the aetiological agent of Necrotic enteritis (NE); a disease that impacts on the health and welfare of broilers. This disease is a large cost to the industry and presents as lesions in the small intestine hindering productivity. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat NE but as pressure increases to limit their use further information about disease onset and broiler responses to the bacteria and it’s virulence factors during infection is required to implement new preventative measures and treatments. NetB is a secreted toxin from C. perfringens which has an important role in NE onset. Using an in situ intestinal loop model we have been able to characterise: I) temporal broiler responses to NetB positive bacterial culture supernatant (Chapter 2), ii) early host responses to different isolates possessing NetB (virulent) or not (avirulent) in the presence or absence of bacterial cells (Chapter 3) and iii) the responses of two commercial broiler breeds (Chapter 4) four hours post exposure. Samples collected from these experiments have been used for histology, mRNA expression and immunohistology. We have shown differences in mRNA expression in the duodenum of broilers after exposure to C. perfringens cells as well as the culture supernatant from the isolates used after four hours. The presence of bacteria cells resulted in up-regulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine, IFN-γ, mRNA, whereas it resulted in down-regulation of B-LA, mRNA a gene involved in presentation of pathogens to immune cells. IL-6 mRNA expression was also reduced in the presence of virulent isolates. This could indicate a possible evasion strategy for C. perfringens in broilers. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that slower growing broilers have increased numbers of immune cells (macrophages and γδ T cells) in their duodenum compared with faster growing broilers, although this did not appear to have an effect on mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, 4h post antigen infusion. Overall we detect greater changes when bacteria are included with culture supernatant and have highlighted possible mechanisms for C. perfringens to avoid the broiler immune system. Induction of NE in the literature requires pre-disposing factors, including co-infection with other intestinal pathogens and dietary manipulation of the host. The final experiment trialled protocols administering a virulent isolate of C. perfringens in-feed and via gavage along with an increased protein source to induce NE (Chapter 5). These models were not considered to be consistent for further investigation of NE in the future.
5

Validation of NG2-creER transgenic mice in demyelination models in studying multiple sclerosis

Tang, Yinian 18 June 2020 (has links)
MS is an autoimmune neurodegenerative disease that attacks myelin, a protective sheath that covers neurons within our bodies, which may lead to numbness, tremors, issues with vision, dizziness and more. When researching the efficacy of a therapeutic in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis, it is crucial that the in-vivo model selected for testing allows complete and accurate data collection. Several models attempt to replicate conditions of disease, in which myelin levels have been deliberately reduced in order to study its regrowth. These models (Cuprizone and LPC injection) can be further optimized by validating a new strain of mouse, NG2-creER / Rosa-Optopatch, which will essentially express GFP+ myelin. To validate this mouse line, the following goals were pursued: Confirm NG2+ pre-OLs express GFP in the spinal cord tissue and corpus callosum in our NG2-creER mouse, confirm that myelin formed from NG2+ pre-OLs that have matured into OLs also express GFP and characterize the GFP staining pattern along with other known myelin stains (MBP, Fluoromyelin Red), and in the long run, use the NG2-creER model in MS-related targets for drug candidates as a more efficient option than traditional methods such as electron microscopy (EM). Results show that the NG2-creER mouse was successful (in both CPZ and LPC models) in showing NG2+/GFP+ cells and that these GFP+ pre-OLs matured to form GFP+ myelin, as well as showing the capability of staining myelin at a younger age than other myelin stains. / 2022-06-17T00:00:00Z
6

COMUNICAÇÃO E USABILIDADE: ESTUDOS SOBRE AS INTERFACES COMPUTACIONAIS

Palamedi, Fabio Romancini 26 March 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-03T12:29:29Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Fabio palamedi_.pdf: 2647963 bytes, checksum: 83f6e6a8144e5caca8ad469ac97f6b4f (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-03-26 / La investigación busca identificar las cuestiones relacionadas con los estudios de comunicación en el uso de las interfaces. El estudio se desarrolla con una revisión de la literatura de la Interacción Persona-Computador y Usabilidad. La revisión de la interacción humano-computadora se da teniendo en cuenta tres grandes áreas: Ingeniería de Software, Ingeniería de Factores Humanos y Diseño Gráfico. En este sentido, se trata de un corte en la importancia de la investigación y la comunicación de las propiedades que surgen en las relaciones de apoyo de los sistemas de interfaz y las cualidades y características que determinan el uso de las interfaces. Se observa que, a pesar de las características y propiedades son intrínsecas de comunicación las tecnologías digitales de información, la participación en estos procesos de investigación de la comunicación y la construcción de las tecnologías interactivas son superficiales y ofrecer una cierta distancia de los aspectos tecnológicos. Ha habido, por tanto, que las contribuciones en los aspectos de la interacción entre las interfaces de comunicación del hombre y la máquina con el apoyo de las técnicas y son estrictamente de otros campos del conocimiento, a pesar de la existencia de la teoría matemática de la comunicación y su origen como un medio de comunicación el telégrafo. Por tanto, es la posibilidad de una mayor participación de la comunicación no sólo en las investigaciones relacionadas con la usabilidad de los sistemas interactivos, así como la contribución de sus procesos de desarrollo de sistemas basados en el diálogo. / A pesquisa busca identificar as questões relacionadas aos estudos de Comunicação na Usabilidade de interfaces. O estudo é desenvolvido com revisão bibliográfica da Interação Humano-Computador e da Usabilidade. As revisões da interação humano-computador se dá considerando três principais eixos: Engenharia de software, Engenharia de Fatores Humanos e Design gráfico. Neste sentido, faz-se um recorte na importância das investigações e das propriedades comunicacionais que viriam a surgir nas relações suportadas pela interface de sistemas e das qualidades e características que determinam a usabilidade de interfaces. Observa-se que, apesar das características e propriedades comunicacionais serem intrínsecas as tecnologias digitais da informação, o envolvimento da Comunicação nestes processos de investigação ou construção de tecnologias interativas são superficiais e oferecem certo distanciamento dos aspectos tecnológicos. Denota-se, portanto, que as contribuições sobre aspectos da interação entre homem e máquina suportadas por interfaces comunicacionais são estritamente técnicas e oriundas de outros campos do conhecimento, apesar da existência da Teoria Mátemática da Comunicação e da sua origem em meios técnicos de comunicação como o telégráfo. Verifica-se assim a possibilidade de um maior envolvimento da Comunicação não apenas nas investigações relacionadas à usabilidade de sistemas interativos, como também na contribuição dos seus processos de desenvolvimento de sistemas baseados em diálogos.
7

Análise de pictogramas (ícones) em aplicativos de smartphones: o caso do APP Meu Ônibus MOB - São Luís

Soares, Alexsandro Pereira 03 June 2016 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-08-18T12:52:14Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Dissertacao-AlexsandroPereiraSoares.pdf: 6214533 bytes, checksum: 67be047b34ef06495cf6dcd1251e9f47 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-06-03 / This work has as study object the pictograms used in the application "My Bus - MOB". Does the analysis of the recognition of these pictograms by the user, trying to understand how he navigates the graphic interface and how is the process of recognition of graphics. In this study we investigated the pictograms and how they fit into the communication interface issues within the Graphic Design and Human-Computer Interface. As it is graphic interface evaluations were performed through ergonomic usability recommendations for icons, and also two tests involving the user which sought to understand the mental maps that is made from the icons of the labels produced by the application "My Bus - MOB" Production using the method presented by Krampen and ISO comprehension test 9186: 2001. So with the research done by the research can demonstrate the need for icons projetacão with user input in the design process in order to design icons with simple features, with a small number of elements in its visual construction to minimize noise in communication. / A presente dissertação tem como objeto de estudo os pictogramas utilizados no aplicativo Meu Ônibus MOB . Faz a análise do reconhecimento destes pictogramas pelo usuário, tentando compreender como ele navega pela interface gráfica e como se dá o processo de reconhecimento desses elementos gráficos. Nesse estudo foram investigados os pictogramas e como eles se inserem na comunicação, questões da interface no âmbito do Design Gráfico e a Interface Humano-Computador. Como se trata de interfaces gráficas foram realizadas avaliações através de recomendações ergonômicas de usabilidade para ícones, e também, dois testes envolvendo o usuário onde buscou compreender os mapas mentais que é feito a partir dos rótulos do ícones apresentados pelo aplicativo Meu Ônibus MOB utilizando o Método de Produção apresentado por Krampen e do Teste de compreensão da ISO 9186:2001. Assim, com os levantamentos feitos pela pesquisa, pode-se demonstrar a necessidade de projetacão de ícones com a inserção do usuário no processo de design a fim de conceber ícones com características simples, com um número reduzido de elementos em sua construção visual para minimizar os ruídos na comunicação.
8

Um ambiente para análise de resultados de avaliações de acessibilidade e usabilidade na Web / An environment for analyzing results of assessments of accessibility and usability on the web

Amaral, Leandro Agostini do 06 May 2014 (has links)
A Web apresenta um conteúdo extenso de informações disponibilizado a uma população diversificada de pessoas, as quais podem apresentar as mais diferentes habilidades e exigências. Dessa maneira, garantir a acessibilidade a todo usuário é uma tarefa difícil, mesmo existindo um conjunto extenso de recomendações disponibilizadas pelo World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Assim, são propostas diferentes ferramentas para avaliação de acessibilidade, que contrapõem os artefatos às diretrizes com a finalidade de obter resultados automatizados, produzindo testes e gerando vários dados, como a localização do problema no código e as falhas especificadas. Para facilitar o processamento desses dados, mediante a disponibilização de uma linguagem comum, o W3C desenvolveu a Evaluation and Report Language (EARL). Dados os problemas acerca das dificuldades em se garantir a acessibilidade para os diferentes perfis de usuários e a necessidade da interpretação dos relatórios em EARL, como colaboração para a avaliação manual, indispensável no contexto de testes de acessibilidade, neste trabalho é proposto um apoio por meio de um Ambiente para Análise de Avaliações de Acessibilidade e Usabilidade na Web (A4U). A partir do estudo de caso realizado, pôde-se validar o ambiente A4U desenvolvido, o qual inclui relatórios de avaliações semiautomáticas, para que o desenvolvedor possa interpretá-los e prosseguir com a avaliação manual de acessibilidade e usabilidade. No âmbito do apoio desenvolvido, foram considerados os avanços em acessibilidade, usabilidade, a correlação entre os dois conceitos e a colaboração no desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta denominada AccessibilityUtil1, a qual se destina ser uma fonte de práticas de acessibilidade advindas de experiências de desenvolvedores, mediante colaboração em um ambiente Web, relacionando-as com as diretrizes de acessibilidade do W3C. A presente pesquisa contribuiu para a consolidação das questões de acessibilidade e usabilidade, a partir do desenvolvimento do A4U, que viabiliza a avaliação humana de acessibilidade e usabilidade, e a inserção de resultados de avaliações gerados por ferramentas semiautomáticas, conduzindo o avaliador a produzir melhorias em ambas as frentes / The Web has a large content of information available to a diverse population of people which may have the more different abilities and requirements. Thus, ensure accessibility to all users is a difficult task, even having an extensive set of recommendations provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). So, are proposed different tools for accessibility assessment that contrast the artifacts with guidelines in order to obtain automated results, producing tests and generating various data, such as the location of the problem in the code and the specified faults. To facilitate the processing of such data by providing a common language, the W3C developed the Evaluation and Report Language (EARL). Given the issues about the difficulties of ensuring accessibility to the different profiles of users and the necessity of interpreting the EARL reports, as collaboration for indispensable human review in the context of accessibility testing, this paper proposes a support through an Environment for Analyzing results of Assessments of Accessibility and Usability on the Web (A4U). From the case study conducted, it was possible to validate the A4U environment developed, which includes semiautomatic evaluating results, so that the developer can interpret them and proceed with the manual evaluation of accessibility and usability. Developed in support were considered advancements in accessibility, usability, the correlation between the two concepts and collaboration in the development of a tool called AccessibilityUtil, which is intended to be a source of accessibility practices arising from experiences of developers through collaboration a Web environment relating them to the W3C accessibility guidelines. This research contributed to the consolidation of the issues of accessibility and usability, from the development of A4U, which enables the human evaluation of accessibility and usability, and integration of evaluation results generated by semi-automatic tools, leading the reviewer to produce improvements in both fronts
9

Um ambiente para análise de resultados de avaliações de acessibilidade e usabilidade na Web / An environment for analyzing results of assessments of accessibility and usability on the web

Leandro Agostini do Amaral 06 May 2014 (has links)
A Web apresenta um conteúdo extenso de informações disponibilizado a uma população diversificada de pessoas, as quais podem apresentar as mais diferentes habilidades e exigências. Dessa maneira, garantir a acessibilidade a todo usuário é uma tarefa difícil, mesmo existindo um conjunto extenso de recomendações disponibilizadas pelo World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). Assim, são propostas diferentes ferramentas para avaliação de acessibilidade, que contrapõem os artefatos às diretrizes com a finalidade de obter resultados automatizados, produzindo testes e gerando vários dados, como a localização do problema no código e as falhas especificadas. Para facilitar o processamento desses dados, mediante a disponibilização de uma linguagem comum, o W3C desenvolveu a Evaluation and Report Language (EARL). Dados os problemas acerca das dificuldades em se garantir a acessibilidade para os diferentes perfis de usuários e a necessidade da interpretação dos relatórios em EARL, como colaboração para a avaliação manual, indispensável no contexto de testes de acessibilidade, neste trabalho é proposto um apoio por meio de um Ambiente para Análise de Avaliações de Acessibilidade e Usabilidade na Web (A4U). A partir do estudo de caso realizado, pôde-se validar o ambiente A4U desenvolvido, o qual inclui relatórios de avaliações semiautomáticas, para que o desenvolvedor possa interpretá-los e prosseguir com a avaliação manual de acessibilidade e usabilidade. No âmbito do apoio desenvolvido, foram considerados os avanços em acessibilidade, usabilidade, a correlação entre os dois conceitos e a colaboração no desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta denominada AccessibilityUtil1, a qual se destina ser uma fonte de práticas de acessibilidade advindas de experiências de desenvolvedores, mediante colaboração em um ambiente Web, relacionando-as com as diretrizes de acessibilidade do W3C. A presente pesquisa contribuiu para a consolidação das questões de acessibilidade e usabilidade, a partir do desenvolvimento do A4U, que viabiliza a avaliação humana de acessibilidade e usabilidade, e a inserção de resultados de avaliações gerados por ferramentas semiautomáticas, conduzindo o avaliador a produzir melhorias em ambas as frentes / The Web has a large content of information available to a diverse population of people which may have the more different abilities and requirements. Thus, ensure accessibility to all users is a difficult task, even having an extensive set of recommendations provided by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C). So, are proposed different tools for accessibility assessment that contrast the artifacts with guidelines in order to obtain automated results, producing tests and generating various data, such as the location of the problem in the code and the specified faults. To facilitate the processing of such data by providing a common language, the W3C developed the Evaluation and Report Language (EARL). Given the issues about the difficulties of ensuring accessibility to the different profiles of users and the necessity of interpreting the EARL reports, as collaboration for indispensable human review in the context of accessibility testing, this paper proposes a support through an Environment for Analyzing results of Assessments of Accessibility and Usability on the Web (A4U). From the case study conducted, it was possible to validate the A4U environment developed, which includes semiautomatic evaluating results, so that the developer can interpret them and proceed with the manual evaluation of accessibility and usability. Developed in support were considered advancements in accessibility, usability, the correlation between the two concepts and collaboration in the development of a tool called AccessibilityUtil, which is intended to be a source of accessibility practices arising from experiences of developers through collaboration a Web environment relating them to the W3C accessibility guidelines. This research contributed to the consolidation of the issues of accessibility and usability, from the development of A4U, which enables the human evaluation of accessibility and usability, and integration of evaluation results generated by semi-automatic tools, leading the reviewer to produce improvements in both fronts
10

An evaluation of how the new Headquarter Company tax provisions in South Africa should be amended to result in a direct benefit to the fiscus

Bennett, Rene 18 July 2013 (has links)
During the past few years, South Africa established a competitive headquarter tax regime, which was implemented with the primary goal of encouraging foreign direct investment in South Africa. An important secondary goal was for South Africa to be used as a Holding Company location through which multinational entities can invest into sub-Saharan Africa. Although the Headquarter Company regime was developed to prevent any direct losses to the fiscus, it did not create any direct benefits or advantages. Internationally, substance requirements have a two-fold purpose: to encourage resident tax entities to engage in active economic activities, and to prohibit income losses due to tax avoidance or evasion. Some of the most important substance requirements are set out in a country’s policies on permanent establishment, beneficial ownership and transfer pricing. Another effective manner to encourage economic activity is to offer tax incentives to activities usually associated with Headquarter Companies. These activities include, but are not limited to active management, granting loans, leasing, and the provision of intellectual property. This research concludes that the inclusion of substance requirements in headquarter tax legislation will not only directly benefit the fiscus, but it will indirectly benefit the economy as a whole. / Dissertation (MCom)--University of Pretoria, 2012. / Taxation / unrestricted

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