• Refine Query
  • Source
  • Publication year
  • to
  • Language
  • 6
  • 3
  • 1
  • Tagged with
  • 11
  • 11
  • 7
  • 7
  • 4
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • 3
  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Propolio etanolinių ekstraktų cheminės sudėties tyrimas ir antioksidacinio aktyvumo vertinimas / Analysis of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of ethanolic extracts of propolis

Banionytė, Inga 09 June 2009 (has links)
Propolis (bičių pikis, bičių klijai) yra sakinga medžiaga, kurią bitės surenka nuo tuopų, beržų, liepų ar kitų augalų (priklausomai nuo tos geografinės zonos augmenijos). Propolio farmakologinis poveikis yra labai įvairus, todėl jis nuo seno populiarus liaudies medicinoje ir traukia mokslininkų dėmesį (ypač nuo XX a. 7 dešimtmečio). Viena iš svarbiausių propolio savybių yra stiprus antioksidacinis aktyvumas. Tyrimo tikslas - nustatyti bei palyginti pagrindinių veikliųjų medžiagų kiekius propolio etanoliniuose ekstraktuose, įvertinti jų antioksidacinį aktyvumą. Pritaikius maceracijos metodą, buvo pagaminti skystieji propolio etanoliniai ekstraktai (etanolis 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% ir 96% koncentracijos). Buvo įvertinta ekstraktų kokybė gravimetriniu, spektrofotometriniu bei efektyviosios skysčių chromatografijos su diodų matricos ir masių spektrometrijos detektoriais (ESCh-DAD-MS) metodais. Pritaikius efektyviosios skysčių chromatografijos ir masių spektrometrijos metodą, nustatyta, kad viena iš dominuojančių fenolinių rūgščių propolio etanoliniuose ekstraktuose yra ferulo rūgštis. Todėl nustatant fenolinių junginių kiekį propolio etanoliniuose ekstraktuose spektrofotometriškai, kaip standartas buvo panaudota ferulo rūgštis. Bendras fenolinių junginių kiekis gautas apie 10 kartų didesnis, nei naudojant pinocembrino ir galangino mišinį (2:1). Daugiausiai fenolinių junginių nustatyta ekstraktuose, gautuose ekstrahuojant 70%, 80% bei 96% etanoliu. Buvo atliktas antioksidacinio... [toliau žr. visą tekstą] / Propolis (bee glue) is a resinous material that honeybees collect from poplar, birch or other plants (the plant source depends on the geographic origin of propolis). Because of its popularity in folk medicine, propolis has become the subject of intense pharmacological and chemical studies for the last 30 years. Numerous studies have proven its versatile pharmacological activities. One of the most important is its antioxidant activity. The objective of this study was to identify and compare the main active substances in the ethanolic extracts of propolis and to evaluate their antioxidant activity. The classical maceration method was used for the production of liquid ethanolic extracts of propolis (the concentration of used ethanol: 50%, 60%, 70%, 80% and 96%). The quality of popolis was evaluated by gravimetric, spectrophotometric and High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode Array and Mass Spectrometric detectors (HPLC-DAD-MS) methods. The results of the HPLC-DAD-MS analysis showed that one of the main phenolic acids in the ethanolic extracts of propolis is ferulic acid. That was the reason for using it as a standard in the spectrometric analysis of total phenolic compounds. Spectrophotometric method showed about 10 times higher results than the analysis with the standard of pinocembrin and galangin mixture (2:1). The highest concentrations of phenolic compounds were found in the extracts made with the ethanol of 70%, 80% and 96% concentrations. The antioxidant... [to full text]
2

Aplicação de extrato de própolis na nutrição e crescimento vegetativo de feijoeiro

Nakagawa, Eduardo Seiki 14 April 2014 (has links)
Submitted by Valquíria Barbieri (kikibarbi@hotmail.com) on 2018-03-19T21:03:57Z No. of bitstreams: 1 DISS_2014_Eduardo Seiki Nakagawa.pdf: 574372 bytes, checksum: 5ff35b75290830e86feaae52cb3e0094 (MD5) / Approved for entry into archive by Jordan (jordanbiblio@gmail.com) on 2018-04-10T18:36:28Z (GMT) No. of bitstreams: 1 DISS_2014_Eduardo Seiki Nakagawa.pdf: 574372 bytes, checksum: 5ff35b75290830e86feaae52cb3e0094 (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-04-10T18:36:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 DISS_2014_Eduardo Seiki Nakagawa.pdf: 574372 bytes, checksum: 5ff35b75290830e86feaae52cb3e0094 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014-04-14 / Existem poucas informações sobre os efeitos da aplicação de extrato etanólico de própolis (EEP) na cultura do feijoeiro comum. O objetivo desse trabalho foi verificar os efeitos da aplicação, via foliar, de extrato etanólico de própolis (EEP) sobre o crescimento vegetativo, perda de água e produtividade do feijoeiro cv. Valente. O experimento foi conduzido na Fazenda Dona Isabina, no período de fevereiro a maio de 2012. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi em blocos casualizados, com cinco repetições, utilizando a cultivar Valente. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de cinco concentrações de EEP (0; 212; 424; 636; 848 g ha-1), sendo o extrato confeccionado com 10% de própolis bruta (própolis originário do litoral paranaense) e 90% de álcool a 96 ºGL. Apenas para as variáveis, teores de clorofila e diâmetro de caule, utilizou-se esquema em parcelas subdivididas no tempo. A aplicação do EEP na concentração de 848g manteve o maior teor de água nas folhas, ficando 16,22% acima da testemunha, que foi de 62,36%, atribuindo-se este efeito ao acúmulo de cera presente na própolis sobre a superfície das folhas. O EEP também aumentou significativamente os teores de Mg e de clorofila nas folhas, e o crescimento vegetativo das plantas, que serviu para aumentar , a produtividade do feijoeiro cv.Valente em 8,08 sacas.ha-1ou 485 kg ha-1. / There is little information about the effects of the ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP) was studied in common bean. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of foliar application of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP) on vegetative growth. The water loss and productivity cv. Valente bean. The experiment was conduct at Dona Isabina, farm, from February to May 2012. The experimental design was used on randomized block, five repetition, using cultivate Valente the treatments were as five concentrations of EEP (0; 212; 424; 636; and 848 g ha-1),and the extract made with 10% crude propolis (propolis originating from the coast of Paraná) and 90% alcohol 96ºGL . only for variables, chlorophyll content and stem diameter we used layout in split plot. The application of EEP at the concentration of 1,2% of EEP maintained higher 16,22% above control which was 62,36%, attributing this effect to the accumulation of was present in propolis on leaf surface. The EEP also increased the levels of Mg and chlorophyll in the leaves, increasing the content of chlorophyll in leaves and vegetative growth, which served the increase as energetic increase, increasing the productivity on the Cv.Valente bean bag at 8,08 sc ha-1or 485 kg ha-1.
3

Atividade anti-helmíntica do extrato etanólico bruto e frações de Spondias lutea (Anacardiacea) sobre Strongyloides venezuelensis (Nematoda, Rhabditoidea) in vitro / Anthelmintic activity of crude ethanol extract and fractions of Spondias lutea (Anacardiacea) on Strongyloides venezuelensis (Nematoda, Rhabditoidea) in vitro

Medeiros, Paula Berna Silva, 1983- 26 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Silmara Marques Allegretti / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-26T03:25:23Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Medeiros_PaulaBernaSilva_M.pdf: 8441306 bytes, checksum: c8227b5d6161dcf60e495b4bb986d125 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2014 / Resumo: A estrongiloidíase é uma parasitose negligenciada de difícil controle, principalmente pela sua capacidade de autoinfecção, por responder de forma irregular à terapêutica e pelo risco de hiperinfecção. O tratamento envolve fármacos como benzimidazois e ivermectina. Contudo, estes não apresentam uma resposta homogênea no combate à doença. Nesse contexto, surge a necessidade de novas opções para o tratamento desta parasitose, sendo uma alternativa viável o uso de plantas medicinais. A espécie Spondias lutea, árvore frutífera comumente chamada por "cajazeiro", foi avaliada neste estudo a fim de identificar possível propriedade terapêutica no tratamento desta parasitose. Neste estudo foram testados o extrato etanólico e frações de S. lutea in vitro sobre fêmeas parasitas de Strongyloides venezuelensis, nas concentrações de 0,4 mg/mL, 0,2 mg/mL, 0,1 mg/mL e 0,05 mg/ mL. Todas as amostras foram solubilizadas em PBS e em seguida as análises foram repetidas para posterior comparação de resultados com a inclusão de polivinilpirrolidona (PVP) junto às amostras como um agente facilitador da solubilização. As observações foram realizadas em intervalos crescentes entre 2 - 72 horas após incubação em estufa de atmosfera de CO2- 5% a uma temperatura de 37°C, utilizando placas de cultura de 24 poços, em meio RPMI acrescido penicilina (10.000 UI/L) e estreptomicina (0,05 g/L). Foram observados os parâmetros motilidade e mortalidade dos parasitas. O estudo constatou que a fração 4 apresentou o melhor resultado atingindo 67% de mortalidade na maior concentração avaliada após 2 horas de incubação e atingindo 100% após 4 horas de incubação na mesma concentração. Observou-se ainda 100% de mortalidade nas concentrações 0,2 mg/mL e 0,1 mg/mL após 12 horas de incubação e 100% de mortalidade com 24 horas de incubação em todas as concentrações avaliadas. A ivermectina não ocasionou a morte dos vermes em nenhuma das concentrações testadas, observando-se discreta redução de motilidade dentro do período estudado / Abstract: Strongyloidiasis is a neglected parasitosis whose control is very difficult, especially because of its ability to auto-infect, by the irregular response to therapeutic and for the risk of hyperinfection. Treatment involves drugs such as benzimidazoles and ivermectin. However, these drugs do not present a homogeneous response against the disease. In this context it is important to look for new alternatives in the treatment of this disease and one is the use of medicinal plants. Spondias lutea, commonly called as cajazeiro fruit tree species was evaluated in this study in order to identify possible therapeutic properties in the treatment of this disease. In this study, the ethanol extract and fractions of S. lutea were tested in vitro against parasitic females of Strongyloides venezuelensis at concentrations of 0.4 mg/mL, 0.2 mg/mL, 0.1 mg/mL and 0.05 mg/ml. All samples were solubilized in PBS and then analyses were repeated for comparison of results with the inclusion of the samples with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as a solubilization facilitator. The observations were made at increasing time intervals between 2-72 h after incubation in CO2 greenhouse at 5% and 37°C. Motility parameters and mortality of parasites were observed. The study found that the sample F4 showed the best result, reaching 67% mortality at the highest concentration evaluated after 2 hours of incubation, reaching 100% after 4 hours of incubation in the same concentration. There was 100% of mortality at the concentrations 0.2 mg/ml and 0.1 mg/ml after 12 hours incubation and 100% mortality after 24 hours of incubation at all concentrations evaluated. Ivermectin did not cause the death of the worms in any of the tested concentrations. There was only slight decrease of motility within the study period. OBSERVAÇÃOPalavras em itálico: in vitro, Strongyloides venezuelensis e Spondias lutea / Mestrado / Relações Antrópicas, Meio Ambiente e Parasitologia / Mestra em Biologia Animal
4

The impact of storage time and seasonal harvesting on biomarker levels of Lessertia frutescens

Campbell, James January 2012 (has links)
<p>In South Africa, it is estimated that approximately 70% of the population frequently make use of traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. The use of Lessertia frutescens by the&nbsp / various cultural groups in South Africa dates back to the earlier civilizations and continues to be used today to treat a multitude of ailments. To get the best results from a medicinal plant, one&nbsp / &nbsp / would need to ensure that the crude material is of good quality through interventions like being properly grown, well dried and correctly processed. This would add a measure of quality&nbsp / assurance, which will contribute towards the safety and efficacy aspect of herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate what impact a particular season of harvest and the time in&nbsp / storage would have on the flavonoid and triterpenoid marker levels of Lessertia frutescens. To achieve this, the following was investigated: (1) storage variation of Lessertia frutescens leaves&nbsp / by comparing the results obtained from the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (2) seasonal variation of Lessertia frutescens&nbsp / leaves by comparing the results obtained from the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (3) leaf and stem variation of Lessertia frutescens by comparing the results obtained from HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids. The hypotheses were: (1) the stored sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of&nbsp / the freshly prepared sample, (2) the sample that was harvested during the summer season would indicate higher levels of the biomarkers of&nbsp / flavonoids and triterpenoids than the other three&nbsp / seasons, (3) the leaf sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of the stem sample. An Agilent 1200 series HPLC was used for the&nbsp / determination of the flavonoids sutherlandin A and sutherlandin D as well as the triterpenoids sutherlandioside B and sutherlandioside D. Results show that for both sutherlandin A (summer:&nbsp / 3.67 &plusmn / 2.88 mg/ml / storage: 4.07 &plusmn / 2.88 mg/ml) and D (summer: 4.10 &plusmn / 1.06 mg/ml / storage: 4.25 &plusmn / 1.06 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the storage&nbsp / amples. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 &plusmn / 0.39 mg/ml / storage: 2.82 &plusmn / 0.39 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml / storage: 4.66 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / &nbsp / .0001)&nbsp / higher concentrations in the case of the fresh summer samples.For the seasonal comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (summer: 3.67 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml / autumn: 4.75 &plusmn / &nbsp / 12.49 mg/ml / winter: 4.23 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml / spring: 6.56 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the spring sample. For sutherlandin D (summer: 4.10&nbsp / &nbsp / 10.32 mg/ml / autumn: 6.37 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml / winter: 5.25 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml / spring / 6.08 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / autumn: 2.15 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / winter: 2.89 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / spring: 1.47 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / autumn: 3.33 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / winter: 4.23 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / spring: 2.50 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For the summer&nbsp / leaf/stem comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (leaf: 3.67 &plusmn / 8.18 mg/ml / stem: 4.67 &plusmn / 8.18 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the stem&nbsp / sample. For the sutherlandin D (leaf: 4.10 &plusmn / 4.81 mg/ml / stem: 3.31 &plusmn / 4.81 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the summer leaf sample. For both the&nbsp / sutherlandioside B (leaf: 3.01 &plusmn / 4.24 mg/ml / stem: 3.62 &plusmn / 4.24 mg/ml) and D (leaf: 5.82 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml / stem: 5.80 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the&nbsp / case of the stem samples. Results demonstrate that the production of secondary metabolites are influenced by&nbsp / &nbsp / environmental factors like seasonal harvesting, as indicated by the variation in the chemical constituent composition of Lessertia frutescens depending on the season collected in. Moreover, the storage of Lessertia frutescens for a period of one year resulted in an&nbsp / increase of two of the four constituents being monitored. There was slight variations in the chemical constituents, depending on whether the leaf or stem material of Lessertia frutescens was being used. Finally, the type of chemical constituent being monitored was also important in the consideration of this study. Therefore, this study can be seen as a starting point to further&nbsp / &nbsp / investigations of these aspects, which are of clinical, pharmacological and economic</p>
5

The impact of storage time and seasonal harvesting on biomarker levels of Lessertia frutescens

Campbell, James January 2012 (has links)
<p>In South Africa, it is estimated that approximately 70% of the population frequently make use of traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. The use of Lessertia frutescens by the&nbsp / various cultural groups in South Africa dates back to the earlier civilizations and continues to be used today to treat a multitude of ailments. To get the best results from a medicinal plant, one&nbsp / &nbsp / would need to ensure that the crude material is of good quality through interventions like being properly grown, well dried and correctly processed. This would add a measure of quality&nbsp / assurance, which will contribute towards the safety and efficacy aspect of herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate what impact a particular season of harvest and the time in&nbsp / storage would have on the flavonoid and triterpenoid marker levels of Lessertia frutescens. To achieve this, the following was investigated: (1) storage variation of Lessertia frutescens leaves&nbsp / by comparing the results obtained from the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (2) seasonal variation of Lessertia frutescens&nbsp / leaves by comparing the results obtained from the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (3) leaf and stem variation of Lessertia frutescens by comparing the results obtained from HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids. The hypotheses were: (1) the stored sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of&nbsp / the freshly prepared sample, (2) the sample that was harvested during the summer season would indicate higher levels of the biomarkers of&nbsp / flavonoids and triterpenoids than the other three&nbsp / seasons, (3) the leaf sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of the stem sample. An Agilent 1200 series HPLC was used for the&nbsp / determination of the flavonoids sutherlandin A and sutherlandin D as well as the triterpenoids sutherlandioside B and sutherlandioside D. Results show that for both sutherlandin A (summer:&nbsp / 3.67 &plusmn / 2.88 mg/ml / storage: 4.07 &plusmn / 2.88 mg/ml) and D (summer: 4.10 &plusmn / 1.06 mg/ml / storage: 4.25 &plusmn / 1.06 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the storage&nbsp / amples. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 &plusmn / 0.39 mg/ml / storage: 2.82 &plusmn / 0.39 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml / storage: 4.66 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / &nbsp / .0001)&nbsp / higher concentrations in the case of the fresh summer samples.For the seasonal comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (summer: 3.67 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml / autumn: 4.75 &plusmn / &nbsp / 12.49 mg/ml / winter: 4.23 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml / spring: 6.56 &plusmn / 12.49 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the spring sample. For sutherlandin D (summer: 4.10&nbsp / &nbsp / 10.32 mg/ml / autumn: 6.37 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml / winter: 5.25 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml / spring / 6.08 &plusmn / 10.32 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / autumn: 2.15 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / winter: 2.89 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml / spring: 1.47 &plusmn / 7.19 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / autumn: 3.33 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / winter: 4.23 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml / spring: 2.50 &plusmn / 14.48 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For the summer&nbsp / leaf/stem comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (leaf: 3.67 &plusmn / 8.18 mg/ml / stem: 4.67 &plusmn / 8.18 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the stem&nbsp / sample. For the sutherlandin D (leaf: 4.10 &plusmn / 4.81 mg/ml / stem: 3.31 &plusmn / 4.81 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the summer leaf sample. For both the&nbsp / sutherlandioside B (leaf: 3.01 &plusmn / 4.24 mg/ml / stem: 3.62 &plusmn / 4.24 mg/ml) and D (leaf: 5.82 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml / stem: 5.80 &plusmn / 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P &lt / 0.0001) higher concentrations in the&nbsp / case of the stem samples. Results demonstrate that the production of secondary metabolites are influenced by&nbsp / &nbsp / environmental factors like seasonal harvesting, as indicated by the variation in the chemical constituent composition of Lessertia frutescens depending on the season collected in. Moreover, the storage of Lessertia frutescens for a period of one year resulted in an&nbsp / increase of two of the four constituents being monitored. There was slight variations in the chemical constituents, depending on whether the leaf or stem material of Lessertia frutescens was being used. Finally, the type of chemical constituent being monitored was also important in the consideration of this study. Therefore, this study can be seen as a starting point to further&nbsp / &nbsp / investigations of these aspects, which are of clinical, pharmacological and economic</p>
6

The impact of storage time and seasonal harvesting on biomarker levels of lessertia frutescens

Campbell, James January 2012 (has links)
>Magister Scientiae - MSc / In South Africa, it is estimated that approximately 70% of the population frequently make use of traditional medicinal plants for their health care needs. The use of Lessertia frutescens by the various cultural groups in South Africa dates back to the earlier civilizations and continues to be used today to treat a multitude of ailments. To get the best results from a medicinal plant, one would need to ensure that the crude material is of good quality through interventions like being properly grown, well dried and correctly processed. This would add a measure of quality assurance, which will contribute towards the safety and efficacy aspect of herbal medicine. The aim of this study was to investigate what impact a particular season of harvest and the time in storage would have on the flavonoid and triterpenoid marker levels of Lessertia frutescens. To achieve this, the following was investigated: (1) storage variation of Lessertia frutescens leaves by comparing the results obtained from the High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (2) seasonal variation of Lessertia frutescens leaves by comparing the results obtained from the HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids, (3) leaf and stem variation of Lessertia frutescens by comparing the results obtained from HPLC analysis of the flavonoids and triterpenoids. The hypotheses were: (1) the stored sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of the freshly prepared sample, (2) the sample that was harvested during the summer season would indicate higher levels of the biomarkers of flavonoids and triterpenoids than the other three seasons, (3) the leaf sample would indicate the same level of the biomarkers for the flavonoids and triterpenoids, as that of the stem sample. An Agilent 1200 series HPLC was used for the determination of the flavonoids sutherlandin A and sutherlandin D as well as the triterpenoids sutherlandioside B and sutherlandioside D. Results show that for both sutherlandin A (summer: 3.67 ± 2.88 mg/ml; storage: 4.07 ± 2.88 mg/ml) and D (summer: 4.10 ± 1.06 mg/ml; storage: 4.25 ± 1.06 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the storage samples. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 ± 0.39 mg/ml; storage: 2.82 ± 0.39 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 ± 0.42 mg/ml; storage: 4.66 ± 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the fresh summer samples. For the seasonal comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (summer: 3.67 ± 12.49 mg/ml; autumn: 4.75 ± 12.49 mg/ml; winter: 4.23 ± 12.49 mg/ml; spring: 6.56 ± 12.49 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the spring sample. For sutherlandin D (summer: 4.10 ± 10.32 mg/ml; autumn: 6.37 ± 10.32 mg/ml; winter: 5.25 ± 10.32 mg/ml; spring; 6.08 ± 10.32 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For both sutherlandioside B (summer: 3.01 ± 7.19 mg/ml; autumn: 2.15 ± 7.19 mg/ml; winter: 2.89 ± 7.19 mg/ml; spring: 1.47 ± 7.19 mg/ml) and D (summer: 5.82 ± 14.48 mg/ml; autumn: 3.33 ± 14.48 mg/ml; winter: 4.23 ± 14.48 mg/ml; spring: 2.50 ± 14.48 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the autumn sample. For the summer leaf/stem comparison, results show that for sutherlandin A (leaf: 3.67 ± 8.18 mg/ml; stem: 4.67 ± 8.18 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the stem sample. For the sutherlandin D (leaf: 4.10 ± 4.81 mg/ml; stem: 3.31 ± 4.81 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the summer leaf sample. For both the sutherlandioside B (leaf: 3.01 ± 4.24 mg/ml; stem: 3.62 ± 4.24 mg/ml) and D (leaf: 5.82 ± 0.42 mg/ml; stem: 5.80 ± 0.42 mg/ml) show significantly (P < 0.0001) higher concentrations in the case of the stem samples.Results demonstrate that the production of secondary metabolites are influenced by environmental factors like seasonal harvesting, as indicated by the variation in the chemical constituent composition of Lessertia frutescens depending on the season collected in. Moreover, the storage of Lessertia frutescens for a period of one year resulted in an increase of two of the four constituents being monitored. There was slight variations in the chemical constituents, depending on whether the leaf or stem material of Lessertia frutescens was being used. Finally, the type of chemical constituent being monitored was also important in the consideration of this study. Therefore, this study can be seen as a starting point to further investigations of these aspects, which are of clinical, pharmacological and economic importance.
7

Estudo de atividade de Phyllanthus amarus L. contra o Schistosoma mansoni linhagem BH / Study of Phyllanthus amarus L. activity Schistosoma mansoni strain BH

Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes de, 1979- 12 August 2018 (has links)
Orientador: Silmara Marques Allegretti / Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-12T15:42:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Oliveira_ClaudineideNascimentoFernandesde_M.pdf: 7853084 bytes, checksum: e21dff7dd2d35d9545d8717dc30fdb79 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2008 / Resumo: A esquistossomose mansonica e uma doenca cronica e debilitante. Estima-se que mais de 200 milhoes de pessoas estejam infectadas no mundo pela doenca, e no Brasil estima-se que existe de 8 a 10 milhoes de pessoas infectadas. O tratamento da esquistossomose e baseado na quimioterapia com o praziquantel, principalmente devido a sua atividade contra todas as especies de Schistosoma patogenicas ao homem. Infelizmente, o uso extensivo e inapropriado desse farmaco pelo mundo, culminou com o aparecimento de esquistossomas tolerantes, gerando uma preocupacao sobre a selecao da resistencia a esse medicamento. Entao, para se controlar a esquistossomose, ha necessidade de se desenvolver novas opções de farmacos, como alternativa ao praziquantel. As plantas medicinais vem sendo aplicadas e testadas como novas alternativas medicamentosas para o tratamento de parasitoses. Este estudo teve por objetivo avaliar a atividade esquistossomicida da planta Phyllanthus amarus L. sobre Schsistosoma mansoni, linhagem BH em camundongos Swiss. Foram testados os extratos hexanico e etanolico nas concentracoes 100, 150 e 250mg/Kg, e a fracao de Lignanas 50 e 100mg/Kg, administrados em dose unica por tubagem esofagica. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos de acordo com o periodo de tratamento (30 ou 45 dias apos a infeccao para avaliar a acao dos extratos nos vermes jovens e adultos, respectivamente). Foram analisados os seguintes parametros: quantidade/ porcentagem de vermes adultos nas veias mesentericas, porta e nas visceras; proporcao entre machos e femeas; reducao no numero de vermes; reducao no numero de ovos eliminados para o ambiente externo e retidos no tecido intestinal; alteracao no oograma; aspecto visual dos granulomas nas visceras; alteracao no tamanho dos granulomas encontrados no figado. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, o tratamento feito com o extrato etanolico 250mg/Kg no 30° dia de infeccao, foi o que apresentou maior reducao do numero de vermes (63%), e o grupo tratado com o extrato hexanico 100mg/Kg nesse mesmo periodo foi o que apresentou maior quantidade de vermes nas visceras (n=3,1). Ja os tratamentos feitos com o extrato etanolico 100mg/Kg e a fracao de Lignanas 50mg/Kg apos 30 dias de infeccao, conseguiram cessar a postura de ovos, o que fez com que os orgaos desses grupos fossem pouco lesados. Ocorreu ausencia de granulomas nos figados observados histologicamente para o grupo tratado com o extrato etanolico 100mg/Kg. No 45° dia apos a infeccao o grupo tratado com o extrato hexanico 150mg/Kg foi o que apresentou resultado mais significativo, uma vez que ele conseguiu reduzir o numero de ovos imaturos e aumentar o de ovos maduros, indicando que este tratamento alterou a oviposicao do verme. Os resultados obtidos para os extratos hexanico e etanolico e fracao de Lignanas demonstraram potencial atividade nos diferentes parametros avaliados, evidenciando que a planta P. amarus possui efeito contra o S. mansoni linhagem BH. / Abstract: The schistosomiasis is a chronic and debilitating disease. It is estimated more than 200 million people worldwide are infected by the disease, and in Brazil is estimated 8 to 10 million people infected. The treatment of schistosomiasis is based on praziquantel chemotherapy, mainly due to its activity against all species of pathogenic Schistosoma to humans. The inappropriate and extensive use of this drug in the world culminated in the appearance of tolerant worms, generating a concern about the selection of resistance this drug. So, to control schistosomiasis, there is need to develop new options for drugs, as an alternative to the praziquantel. Medicinal plants have been implemented and tested as a new alternative drug for the treatment of parasitic. The objective of this study was to assess the presence of antichistosomal activity of the plant Phyllanthus amarus L. using Schistosoma mansoni infected mice of BH strain. The hexane and ethanolic extracts with 100, 150 and 250mg/Kg, concentrations and the Lignans fraction 50 and 100mg/kg, were administered with single oral dose by esophageal intubation. The animals were divided into two groups according to the treatment period (30 or 45 days after infection to evaluate the effect of the extracts in young and adult worms respectively). Analyzes performed consists in a set of parameters: quantity / percentage of adult worms in the veins mesenteric, port and the viscera; proportion of male and female worms, worms reduction; eggs reduction eliminated environment and retained in the intestinal tissue; change in oograma; visual aspect of granulomas in the viscera; change in the size of granulomas found in the liver. According to the results, the treatment with ethanolic extract 250mg/Kg in 30th days of infection, presented the greatest reduction in the number of worms (63%), and the group treated with the hexane extract 100mg/kg in same period presented the highest number of worms in the viscera (n=3.1). The treatments made with ethanolic extract 100mg/kg and the Lignans fraction 50mg/kg after 30 days of infection managed to stop the egg laying. So that the organs of these groups were slightly injured. There was absence of granulomas in the liver observed histological for the group treated with ethanolic extract 100mg/kg. In the 45th days after infection the group treated with the hexane extract 150mg/Kg presented the most significant result, as to reduced the number of immature eggs, and increased of mature eggs, indicating that this treatment has changed the worm oviposition. The results for the ethanol, hexane extracts and fraction of Lignans demonstrated potential activity in the various parameters measured, suggesting that the plant P. amarus has effect against S.mansoni strain BH. / Mestrado / Mestre em Parasitologia
8

Atividades antiulcerogênica e antimicrobiana da espécie Spiranthera odoratissima A. ST. HIL. (RUTACEAE)

Estrela, Fernanda Neves 24 June 2016 (has links)
Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior / Spiranthera odoratissima A. ST. HIL. (RUTACEAE), conhecida como manacá, é uma planta medicinal localizada na região do Cerrado Brasileiro. É utilizada na medicina tradicional como anti-inflamatório, ansiolítico e para o tratamento de doenças renais, hepáticas, reumatismo, dores de cabeça e de estômago. A Rutaceae apresenta-se amplamente distribuída pelo mundo, com cerca de 150 gêneros e 1700 espécies, no Brasil há cerca de 30 gêneros nativos e aproximadamente 192 espécies, sendo rica em metabólitos secundários e suas respectivas atividades farmacológicas e biológicas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial gastroprotetor do extrato etanòlico das folhas da S. odoratissima (SOL) através de modelos de úlcera gástrica em ratos bem como sua atividade antimicrobiana e toxicidade aguda. A análise da ressonância magnética nuclear mostrou sinais característicos de hidrogênio para clases de terpenos, limonoides, esteroides, cumarinas, alcaloides. Foram realizados modelos experimentais de úlcera gástrica que, com base em suas respectivas especificações, foram incluídos dois grupos controles, sendo um positivo (Carbenoxolona 100 mg.kg-1 ou Cimetidina 100 mg.kg-1) e um negativo (Veículo – Tween 80® 12%, 10 mL.kg-1). Após cada metodologia, foi realizado a eutanásia por overdose de CO2, os estômagos removidos, abertos na região da maior curvatura e fotografados para quantificação da área de lesão ulcerativa por meio do programa AVSoft®. O SOL, na dose de 100 mg.kg-1 (a menor dose mais efetiva), apresentou atividade antiulcerogênica contra lesões gástricas induzidas por etanol absoluto (93% de inibição; p<0,05) e pelas drogas anti-inflamatórias não esteroidais (DAINEs) (73% de inibição;p<0,05). Não apresentou atividade antimicrobiana nas cepas padrão utilizada neste estudo. Em adição, nenhum sinal de toxicidade foi observado, considerando os parâmetros analisados. / Spiranthera odoratissima A. ST. HIL. (RUTACEAE), knowns as manacá, is a medicinal plant present in Brazilian Cerrado region. It is used in traditional medicine as antiinflammatory, anxiolytic and for the treatment of renal diseases, hepatic diseases, rheumatism, headache and stomachache. The Rutaceae presents widely distributed around the world, with about 150 genera and 1700 species, in Brazil there are about 30 native genera and approximately 192 species, is rich in secondary metabolites with diverse pharmacological and biological activities. The objective of this study was to evaluate the gastroprotective potential of ethanolic extract of the leaves of S. odoratissima(SOL) through gastric ulcer models in rats and its antimicrobial activity and acute toxicity. Analysis of the nuclear magnetic resonance showed characteristic signs of hydrogen to terpenes, limonoids, steroids, coumarins and alkaloids. Foram performed experimental models of gastric ulcer, based on their respective specifications, two control groups were included, one positive (carbenoxolone 100 mg.kg-1 or Cimetidine 100 mg.kg-1) and negative (vehicle - Tween 80® 12%, 10 mL.kg-1). After each methodology was performed euthanasia by CO2 overdose, the stomachs removed, opened in the region of greater curvature and photographed for quantification of ulcerative lesion area through AVSoft® program. SOL at a dose of 100 mg.kg-1 (the lower most effective dose) showed antiulcer activity against gastric lesions induced by absolute ethanol (93% inhibition;p<0,05) and the indomethacin, an anti-inflammatory drug nonsteroidal, (73% inhibition;p<0,05). Howerver, the treatment with SOL does not showed antimicrobial activity in the bacterial strains tested. Additionally, no signs of toxicity were observed, considering the parameters analyzed. / Dissertação (Mestrado)
9

Avaliação in vitro e in vivo da atividade de frações e compostos isolados de Phyllanthus amarus contra o Schistosoma mansoni linhagem BH / In vitro and in vivo evaluation of the activity of fractions and coumpounds isolated from the ethanolic extract of Phyllanthus amarus against Schistosoma mansoni BH strain

Oliveira, Claudineide Nascimento Fernandes de, 1979- 10 September 2012 (has links)
Orientadores: Silmara Marques Allegretti, Vera Lúcia Garcia Rehder / Tese (doutorado) - Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Instituto de Biologia / Made available in DSpace on 2018-08-23T02:12:21Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Oliveira_ClaudineideNascimentoFernandesde_D.pdf: 6645819 bytes, checksum: c09a778f460110b77585bd22b8da5344 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012 / Resumo: A propagação da esquistossomose e a ameaça de tolerância e resistência ao fármaco de escolha, o praziquantel, têm intensificado as pesquisas utilizando plantas medicinais com o intuito de promover o desenvolvimento de novos fármacos esquistossomicidas. A planta Phyllanthus amarus (quebra-pedra) possui atividades antiinflamatória e hepatoprotetora já comprovadas cientificamente, o que fez com que a mesma fosse selecionada para este estudo, uma vez que a principal patologia da esquistossomose é a formação de granulomas (processo inflamatório) no fígado. Esse trabalho teve como objetivo fazer um fracionamento biomonitorado do extrato etanólico de P. amarus por meio de ensaios in vitro e in vivo com o intuito de verificar a ação esquistossomicida dessa planta contra o S. mansoni linhagem BH. Para a realização dos testes in vitro, os vermes adultos coletados foram incubados em placas contendo meio de cultura RPMI 1640, um casal de verme e amostras de extrato etanólico bruto, frações de diferentes polaridades ou lignanas isoladas nas concentrações 200, 100, 50 e 25 ?g/mL. Os vermes foram observados por um período de 72 horas, sendo avaliados a taxa de mortalidade, a oviposição, o acasalamento e as alterações tegumentares. A melhor atividade in vitro foi observada com a fração 2 butanólica, pois foi letal para 100% dos vermes em 48 h de observação, sendo assim selecionada para os testes in vivo. A fração 2 butanólica é composta majoritariamente por lignanas, por isso algumas delas (nirantina, filantina + nirantina e filantina + filtetralina + nirtetralina), mesmo não sendo efetivas nos testes in vitro, foram selecionadas para avaliação in vivo. Nos testes in vivo camundongos Balb/c foram tratados oralmente, 45 ou 60 dias após a infecção. No 45° dia de infecção os animais foram tratados com 100 e 200 mg/kg da fração 2 butanólica, 100 mg/kg das lignanas nirantina, filantina + nirantina e filantina + filtetralina + nirtetralina em dose única e 100 mg/kg da fração 2 butanólica distribuídos em 3 dias consecutivos. Já no 60° dia de infecção o tratamento foi feito em dose única com a fração 2 butanólica, nirantina, filantina + nirantina e filantina + filtetralina + nirtetralina (100mg/kg). A atividade in vivo foi avaliada com base nos seguintes parâmetros: ação sobre os vermes adultos, ovos eliminados nas fezes, oograma, formação das reações granulomatosas, e ação sobre o tegumento (feita por microscopia eletrônica de varredura - MEV). Os tratamentos mais efetivos no 45° dia de infecção foram apresentados pelos grupos tratados com filantina + nirantina e nirantina (100mg/kg). A lignana nirantina apresentou taxa de redução do número de ovos de 90,3% e a associação da filantina + nirantina, 63,8%. Os resultados referentes aos demais parâmetros (redução do total de vermes, de vermes fêmeas e do número de granulomas) foram semelhantes, apresentando taxas de redução em torno de 58%. Além dessas alterações, as imagens obtidas por MEV mostraram extensas lesões no tegumento dos vermes machos. No 60° dia de infecção, a associação de lignanas filantina + nirantina e a fração 2 butanólica (100mg/kg) apresentaram as taxas de redução mais significativas: 50,8% e 46,7% para o número total de vermes, 47,2% e 42,7% para o número de vermes fêmeas, 87,5% e 98,3% para o número de ovos e 44% e 18% para o número de granulomas, respectivamente. Assim sendo, de acordo com os parâmetros biológicos avaliados neste trabalho, a associação das lignanas filantina: nirantina na concentração de 100 mg/kg revelou um efeito esquistossomicida promissor, uma vez que foi efetiva nos dois períodos estudados / Abstract: The dissemination of schistosomiasis and the threat of its causing agents becoming resistant to the drug of choice, i.e., praziquantel, have intensified the research with medicinal plants to promote the development of new schistosomicidal drugs. Phyllanthus amarus (stone-breaker) is a plant whose anti-inflammatory and hepatoprotective activities have already been attested, which is the reason why it was chosen for this study, as the main pathology of schistosomiasis is the formation of granulomas (inflammatory process) in the liver. The aim of this work was to carry out a bioguided fractionation of the ethanol extract of P. amarus by means of in vitro and in vivo assays in order to verify the schistosomicidal potential of that plant against S. mansoni, BH strain. To carry out the in vitro assays, the collected adult worms were incubated in plates containing RPMI 1640 medium, a pair of mating worms, and samples of crude ethanol extract, fractions of different polarities or isolated lignans at the concentrations of 200, 100, 50 and 25 ?g/mL. The worms were observed over a period of 72 hours, in which mortality rate, egg laying, mating, and tegumentary changes were evaluated. The best in vitro activity was provided by butanol fraction 2, as it proved lethal for 100% of the worms over 48 hours of observation, and so it was used in the in vivo assays. Butanol fraction 2 is mainly composed of lignans, and some of them (nirantin, filantin: nirantin, and filantin + filtetralin + nirtetralin), albeit not effective in the in vitro assays, were selected for in vivo evaluation. In the in vivo assays, Balb/c mice were treated orally 45 or 60 days following infection. On the 45th day following infection, the animals were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of butanol fraction 2, 100 mg/kg of filantina:nirantin and filantin + filtetralin + nirtetralin in a single dose, and 100 mg/kg of butanol fraction 2 distributed over 3 consecutive days. On the 60th day following infection, the treatment was carried out in a single dose with 100 mg/kg of butanol fraction 2, nirantin, filantina:nirantin, and filantin + filtetralin + nirtetralin. The in vivo activity was evaluated based on the following parameters: action on adult worms, eggs eliminated in the stool, egg counting, granulomatous reactions, and action on the tegument of the worms (using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The most effective treatments on the 45th day were those carried out with 100 mg/kg of filantina:nirantin, and nirantin. The association of filantina:nirantin provided a reduction of 63.8% in the number of eggs, whereas nirantin achieved a reduction rate of 90.3%. The results for the other parameters (reduction in the total number of worms, number of females, and number of granulomas) were similar with reduction rates around 58%. In addition to such changes, images obtained by SEM showed extensive lesions on the tegument of male worms. On the 60th day following infection, the filantin + nirantin association and butanol fraction 2 at 100 mg/kg achieved the most significant xxiii reduction rates: 50.8% and 46.7% in the total number of worms, respectively; 47.2% and 42.7% in the number of females, respectively; 87.5% and 98.3% in the number of eggs, respectively; and 44% and 18% in the number of granulomas, respectively. Therefore, according to the biological parameters evaluated in this work, the association of the lignans filantina:nirantin at 100 mg/kg has a promising schistosomicidal activity, as it was effective over two periods of treatment / Doutorado / Parasitologia / Doutora em Parasitologia
10

Extrato etanólico e óleo essencial de Cymbopogan nardus (L.) Rendle: avaliação, in vitro, do potencial antifúngico.

Toledo, Luciani Gaspar de 24 June 2016 (has links)
Submitted by Carvalho Dias João Paulo (joao.dias@famerp.br) on 2018-04-04T13:34:51Z No. of bitstreams: 1 lucianigaspardetoledo_dissert.pdf: 1518015 bytes, checksum: e7bd4f850932330d46b398509046745b (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-04-04T13:34:51Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 lucianigaspardetoledo_dissert.pdf: 1518015 bytes, checksum: e7bd4f850932330d46b398509046745b (MD5) Previous issue date: 2016-06-24 / Introduction: Candida spp are opportunistic pathogens isolated from human biota in the gastrointestinal tract, oral and vaginal mucosa, which can lead to the development of superficial lesions to disseminated infections, especially in immunosuppression. The high toxicity, the high cost of treatment and the emergence of resistant strains justify the search for new therapeutic agents. The plant biodiversity is rich in active ingredients that have contributed to the development of new and effective drugs, less expensive treatments and population access. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle is a plant popularly known as citronella and cultivated in subtropical and tropical areas of Asia, Africa and America, including Brazil. Essential oils present in the Cymbopogon genus plants have been widely studied, but there are few studies involving chemical analysis and microbiological ethanol extract of C. nardus. Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the antifungal potential, in vitro, of ethanol extract (EE) and essential oil (EO) from the leaves of Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (citronella) clinical isolates against of Candida spp. Material and Methods: In this study the species Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto and C. orthopsilosis were selected. EE was obtained by extraction ultrasonic bath and analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The EO was extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometer (GC-MS). The antifungal activity of EE and EO was performed by determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), time-kill assay inhibition of hyphal growth of C. albicans and inhibit mature biofilm. Additionally, the cytotoxic evaluation (determination of IC50) was assessed in HepG-2 cell lines (hepatic) and MRC-5 (fibroblast). Results: The results of the chemical analysis of EE showed presence of glycosylated flavones and glycosylated phenylpropanoids. According to the EO chemical analysis, the main compounds observed were monoterpenes containing-oxygen: citronellal, geranial, geraniol, citronellol and neral. Biological assays showed effective antifungal activity of EE (MIC 1000 to 125 μg / ml) and of EO (MIC 1000 the 250 μg/ml). In the time-kill assay was observed inhibition of growth of the species tested for EE and EO. The hyphal growth of C. albicans was inhibited by EE (1000 to 31 μg/ml) and the EO (1000 to 15.8 μg/ml) for 12 and 24 hours. The EE and EO inhibit mature biofilm species C. albicans, C. krusei, and C. parapsilosis at concentrations of 50xCIM and 10xCIM, respectively. EE exhibited the lower IC50 values for HepG-2 (322 μg/ml) and MRC-5 (181.1 μg/ml) than essential oil that showed IC50 values for HepG-2 (96.6 μg/ml) and MRC-5 (33.1 μg/ml). Conclusions: The EE and EO from C. nardus present as a promising source of new molecules with antifungal activity especially to the inhibition of the main virulence factors such as formation of hyphae and biofilm. / Introdução: Leveduras do gênero Candida são patógenos oportunistas isolados da biota humana no trato gastrointestinal, mucosa oral e vaginal, que podem levar ao desenvolvimento de lesões superficiais até infecções disseminadas, especialmente em situações de imunossupressão. O alto custo para tratamento de infecções, a elevada toxicidade, e o surgimento de cepas resistentes justificam a busca de novos agentes terapêuticos. A biodiversidade vegetal é rica em princípios ativos que têm contribuído com o desenvolvimento de novos e efetivos medicamentos, mais econômicos e de fácil acesso populacional. Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, é uma planta popularmente conhecida como citronela e cultivada em áreas subtropicais e tropicais da Ásia, África e América, incluindo o Brasil. Os óleos essenciais presentes em plantas do gênero Cymbopogon têm sido amplamente estudados, porém, a analise química e microbiológica do extrato etanólico de C. Nardus,é pouco explorada Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o potencial antifúngico, in vitro, do extrato etanólico (EE) e do óleo essencial (OE) das folhas de Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle (citronela) frente isolados clínicos de Candida spp. Material e Métodos: Foram consideradas as espécies: Candida albicans, Candida krusei, Candida glabrata, Candida tropicalis, Candida parapsilosis sensu stricto e C. orthopsilosis. O EE foi obtido por extração em banho ultrassônico e analisado por cromatografia liquida de ultra performance (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). O OE foi extraído por hidrodestilação e analisado por cromatografia gasosa acoplada a espectrômetro de massa (CG-EM). A atividade antifúngica do EE e do OE foi realizada através da determinação da concentração inibitória mínima (CIM), ensaio time-kill, inibição do crescimento hifal de C. albicans e inibição de biofilme maduro. Adicionalmente, a avaliação citotóxica (determinação de IC50) foi estabelecida em linhagens celulares HepG-2 (hepática) e MRC-5 (fibroblasto). Resultados: Os resultados da análise química do EE evidenciaram presença de flavonas e fenilpropanoides glicosilados. De acordo com a análise química do OE, os principais compostos observados foram monoterpenos contendo oxigênio: citronelal, geranial, geraniol, citronelol e neral. Os ensaios biológicos mostraram importante atividade antifúngica para o EE (CIM de 1000 a 125 μg/mL) e, para o OE (CIM de 1000 a 250 μg/mL). A inibição do crescimento ocorreu para todas as espécies avaliadas frente aos produtos, EE e OE. O EE (1000 até 31 μg/mL) e OE (1000 até 15,8 μg/mL) inibiram o desenvolvimento da hifa de C. albicans, durante 12 e 24 horas, além de inibir o biofilme maduro das espécies de C. albicans, C. krusei e C. parapsilosis, nas concentrações de 50xCIM e 10xCIM, respectivamente. O EE apresentou os menores valores de IC50 para HepG-2 (322 μg/mL) e MRC-5 (181,1 μg/mL) em comparação com o óleo essencial - IC50 para HepG-2 (96,6 μg/mL) e MRC-5 (33,1 μg/mL). Conclusões: O EE e OE de C. nardus apresentam-se como uma fonte promissora de novas moléculas com atividade antifúngica com destaque à inibição dos principais fatores de virulência: formação de hifa e biofilme.

Page generated in 0.1023 seconds