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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
1

Evolution de la relation hôte/parasite dans le système lacustre nord alpins au Néolithique (3900-2900 BC), et nouvelles données dans la détection des paléoantigènes de Protozoa

Le Bailly, Matthieu Bouchet, Françoise. January 2005 (has links) (PDF)
Reproduction de : Thèse doctorat : Pharmacie. Paléoparasitologie : Université de Reims : 2005. / Bibliogr. p.194-231. Index.
2

Épidémiologie des maladies parasitaires chez les immigrants au Québec

Zewail, Reem January 2014 (has links)
Introduction Le Québec accueille 50 000 immigrants annuellement dont 30 % viennent d’Afrique et 27 % d’Asie. Dans les dix dernières années, 200 à 600 enfants ont été adoptés annuellement, majoritairement de l’Asie. Plusieurs régions d’origine des immigrants sont endémiques pour des parasites. C’est pourquoi l’immigration influence fortement l’épidémiologie de ces maladies. La giardiase, la filariose, la schistosomiase, la strongyloïdose et la malaria sont les plus prévalentes. Il existe peu de données sur les maladies parasitaires chez les immigrants au Québec. Cette étude vise à décrire l’épidémiologie de cette problématique dans la province. Méthode Une étude descriptive transversale a été privilégiée. Les immigrants ayant consulté au centre des maladies tropicales de l’Université McGill et les enfants de la clinique d’adoption de l’hôpital Maisonneuve-Rosemont ont été ciblés. Une grille standardisée a été utilisée pour la collecte des données dans la base de données de GeoSentinel et les dossiers médicaux. Des analyses descriptives et inférentielles fournissent un profil des immigrants atteints et des facteurs associés. Résultats Au moins un parasite se trouve chez 32 % (202/638) des immigrants à l’étude. Les parasitoses les plus prévalentes chez ces cas sont la strongyloïdose (28%), la filariose (21%), la schistosomiase (17%), et la malaria (12%). Le tiers des cas sont des demandeurs d’asile et 43 % (86/202) viennent de l’Afrique subsaharienne. Une proportion élevée d’infection, 50 % (27/56), se trouve chez les Haïtiens. Chez 15 % (73/499) des enfants adoptés, on trouve au moins un parasite; la giardiase et la strongyloïdose sont les plus prévalentes. La majorité (292/499) des enfants à l’étude viennent de la Chine et 69 % (22/32) des enfants Haïtiens sont infectés par des parasites. Discussion et conclusion La littérature appuie nos résultats. La population immigrante est en croissance au Québec ce qui est une des richesses de la province. Par contre, c’est une population qui est vulnérable au niveau de la santé. Environ 1/3 des immigrants et 1/6 des enfants adoptés sont atteints par des parasitoses. Plus de la moitié (57 %) des immigrants atteints sont infectés par des parasites qui ont des conséquences importantes. Des interventions ciblant cette population sont recommandées afin de diminuer ce fardeau.
3

Agents microbiens environnementaux et Maladies allergiques: L’urbanisation et les défis de « Homo asepticus »

Doyen, Virginie 30 August 2021 (has links) (PDF)
Les maladies allergiques ont fortement augmenté dans les pays industrialisés depuis les années qui ont suivi la 1ère guerre mondiale. Parmi les hypothèses proposées celle de l’implémentation de l’hygiène dans l’environnement urbain et ses conséquences sur l’exposition aux agents pathogènes a été bien documentée. Comparé à la vie rurale, l’environnement urbain entraine une exposition plus faible aux microbes et à leurs constituants moléculaires tels que les endotoxines et quasi nulle aux parasites intestinaux tels que les helminthes. Au contraire, l’exposition aux allergènes de l’environnement domestique est plus importante.Dans ce travail nous avons investigué certains aspects de la réponse inflammatoire induite par les endotoxines (une molécule pro-inflammatoires des bactéries Gram négatives) et immunitaire associée aux helminthes.1/ L'exposition chronique à l'endotoxine inhalée produit des effets paradoxaux :une protection contre le développement d'allergies IgE-médiées, d'une part, et une réaction inflammatoire des voies aériennes, d'autre part. Comme les régions de la déposition bronchique et alvéolaire pourraient jouer un rôle dans ce processus, nous avons évalué la réponse inflammatoire locale et systémique après exposition à de l'endotoxine par inhalation d'aérosols de particules de dimensions différentes. Les résultats montrent une relation entre la déposition au niveau pulmonaire et l’amplitude de la réponse inflammatoire systémique.2/ Les infections parasitaires ont une relation complexe avec les maladies allergiques. Ces deux pathologies se caractérisent par une réponse immunitaire de type Th2 (impliquant éosinophiles, immunoglobulines E (IgE), interleukine (IL)-4, IL-13,IL-5, …). Cependant, certaines helminthiases protègent des maladies allergiques. Dans cette seconde partie du travail, nous avons étudié la réponse immune induite par une infection chronique par ankylostomes chez l’humain et son évolution après traitement de l’infection. Nous confirmons que la réponse immune au cours de l’infection à ankylostome est caractérisée par une augmentation des cellules T régulatrices (Treg), qui contrôlent l’amplitude de la réponse immune aux helminthes mais montrons pour la première fois que ces Treg ont un phénotype naïf et fortement immuno-suppresseur. Deux semaines après traitement de l’infection on observait également une réponse inflammatoire caractérisée par une majoration de l’IL-6 mais aussi de l’IL-4, cytokine Th2 qui joue un rôle majeur dans la production d’IgE. Ces réponses conjointes (diminution des Treg et réponse inflammatoire de type Th2) pourraient constituer une base physiopathologique pouvant expliquer l’augmentation de la prévalence des sensibilisations allergiques après traitement d’une helminthiase. Nous montrons également que l’infection par helminthes s’accompagne d’une production d’IgE reconnaissant de nombreux allergènes dont les acariens de la poussière de maison, un des allergènes respiratoires les plus fréquents et fortement inducteur d’asthme. Le mécanisme expliquant la production de ces IgE spécifiques des acariens n’est pas connu. Il pourrait s’agir d’une production polyclonale, par présentation facilitée par les IgE ou par réactivité croisée avec des antigènes parasitaires. Ces IgE n’induisaient ni sensibilisation cutanée (tests allergiques cutanés positifs), ni symptomatologie clinique et n’étaient pas capables d’induire de dégranulation des mastocytes in vitro après stimulation allergénique. Par ailleurs, ces IgE spécifiques ne reconnaissaient ni les allergènes majeurs ni des déterminants carbohydrates de type N-glycan.En conclusion, notre travail de thèse met en lumière des mécanismes potentiels par lesquels l’exposition aux agents microbiens environnementaux peut moduler les réponses immunes et protègent potentiellement des maladies allergiques. / Doctorat en Sciences médicales (Médecine) / info:eu-repo/semantics/nonPublished
4

The Prevalence of intestinal parasites eggs and pathogenic Escherichia coli on the hands of school children in the Vhembe District of the Limpopo Province of South Africa

Mathebula, Sammy 21 September 2018 (has links)
MSc (Microbiology) / Department of Microbiology / Introduction: Intestinal infections caused by soil transmitted helminth and diarhoegenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) are a major threat to the health and socio-economic wellbeing of children in developing countries. Soil-transmitted helminthes (STH), Ascaris lumbricoides (A. lumbricoides), Trichuris tricuria (T. trichuris ), Hookworms and diarhogenic E coli are transmitted through the faecal-oral route and enter the body through the ingestion of eggs (STH) or E. coli pathogens following contact with contaminated hands, food, soil or the deliberate act of eating contaminated soil. Aim: This study aim to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection and diarhoegenic E. coli on the hands of school children in the Vhembe district of South Africa. Methods: The study was conducted among school children aged 5 to15 years, attending grades 0(R) to 8 at the primary and secondary school levels in the Vhembe district region of the Limpopo province. A total of 358 hand washing samples was collected from the hands of school children using hand anionic (7X 1% quadrafos, glycol ether and dioctyl sulfoccinate sodium salt) soap solution. The Microscopic McMaster slide technique was used for the identification of intestinal parasitic eggs and the Colilert Quanti-Tray®/2000 technique was used for the enumeration of E. coli. A standardised Multiplex PCR protocol was utilized to characterize the positive pathogenic E. coli strains obtained from the Colilert Quanti-Tray®/2000. A structural questionnaire was used to associate the positive results with selected socio-demographic variables. The raw data was organized and analysed by the use of SPSS version 24 software. Results: A prevalence of 2.6% intestinal parasite was found among the study population with hookworm and Enterobius vermicularis having detection rate of 0.6% and 2.0% respectively. However there were no Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura detected in the study population. A prevalence of 13.4% of the samples was positive for E. coli and 4.7% were identified as pathogenic E. coli strains: Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC), Atypical Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC), Typical Enteropathogenic Escherichia Coli (TPEC) and Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) distributed with prevalence percentage of 2%, 0.3%, 1.1% and 0.3% respectively. The study also revealed a significant association between hand child hygiene with the prevalence of E. coli. Conclusion: Environmental sanitation conditions like type of toilets and lack of safe drinking water is closely associated with the prevalence of E. coli among the school going children. / NRF
5

Avaliação da atividade de Aretmisia annua L., Melia azedarach L. e Trichilia claussenii C. sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos

Cala, Aida Cristina [UNESP] 25 March 2010 (has links) (PDF)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-06-11T19:27:57Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 0 Previous issue date: 2010-03-25Bitstream added on 2014-06-13T20:17:35Z : No. of bitstreams: 1 cala_ac_me_jabo.pdf: 748222 bytes, checksum: cf47c5334ff6a1f2e9b54a930c87bc27 (MD5) / Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq) / Em virtude da importância que os pequenos ruminantes desempenham no setor agropecuário e da necessidade de se encontrar alternativas de baixo custo para o controle das helmintoses, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos de Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach e Trichilia claussenii. Os extratos, aquoso, bicarbonato de sódio, diclorometano, etanólico de A. annua, hexânico de M. azedarach e o metanólico de T. claussenii, foram avaliados em testes in vitro de eclodibilidade larvar (TEL) e de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL) sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua e artemisinina (bioativo purificado) foram avaliados in vivo em ovinos Santa Inês infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais com base na avaliação do hematócrito, na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e coprocultura. Os princípios ativos dos extratos foram quantificados com base na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - índice de refração (CLAE-IR), ultravioleta (CLAE- UV) e líquido-líquido (CLAE- LL). A capacidade antioxidante do extrato de bicarbonato de sódio foi determinada pelo método ORAC (capacidade de absorção do radical oxigênio) e a artemisinina eliminada foi quantificada pela CLAE-UV. Analisados pelos testes probit e de Tukey. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua foi o mais eficiente in vitro com CL50(concentração letal) de 0, 0677 μg/mL e CL99 de 1,27 μg/mL no TEL e no TDL a CL50 foi de 1,67 μg/mL e a CL99 de 23,8 μg/mL. No teste in vivo, a redução máxima do OPG foi de 31,97% no 14º dia nos animais tratados com o extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua (2 g/kg pv) e de 41,37% no 15º nos animais que receberam artemisinina (100 mg/kg pv). Na coprocultura obteve-se 91,2% de H. contortus, 8,4% de Tricostrongylus sp. e 0,3% de Oesophagostomum sp. Os... / Given the importance that small ruminant plays in the livestock and the need to find alternatives of low-costs for the control of helminthes, the objectives of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activities of extracts from Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach and Trichilia claussenii. The extracts, aqueous, sodium bicarbonate, dichloromethane, ethanol of A. annua, hexane of M. azedarach and methanol of T. claussenii, were evaluated in vitro tests of larval hatchability (TEL) and larval development (TDL) on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua and artemisinin (bioactive purified) were evaluated in vivo in Santa Ines sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes based on the assessment of hematocrit, egg count per gram of feces (OPG) and stool culture. The active ingredients of the extracts were quantified based on liquid chromatography with high efficiency - an index of refraction (HPLC-IR), ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and liquid-liquid (HPLC-LL). The antioxidant activity of sodium bicarbonate extract was determined by ORAC method (absorption capacity of the radical oxygen) and artemisinin in the feces was quantified by HPLC-UV. The results were analyzed by SAS probit and Tukey test. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua, in vitro, was the most effective with LC50 of 0,0677 μg/mL and 1,27 μg/mL of CL99 in TEL, and in the TDL LC50 was 1,67μg/mL and CL99 of 23,8μg/mL. In vivo test, the maximum reduction in EPG was 31,97% on day 14 in animals treated with the extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua (2g/ kg body weight) and 41.37% on day 15 in animals received artemisinin (100 mg/kg bw). In stool culture was obtained 91, 2% of H. contortus, 8, 4% Tricostrongylus sp. and 0, 3% of Oesophagostomum sp. The results show the need for more studies with higher doses of extracts, other alternatives of... (Complete abstract click electronic access below)
6

Ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais em Canis familiaris e Felis catus domesticus, da cidade de Lages, SC, Brasil / Ectoparasites and intestinal helminthes in canis familiaris and Felis catus domesticus from Lages, SC, Brazil

Stalliviere, Fernanda Magalhães 21 August 2007 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2016-12-08T16:24:03Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 PGCV07MA045.pdf: 357601 bytes, checksum: e59b5b46ae948411aedd0dc3bf63de06 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2007-08-21 / The purpose of this research was to determinate and compare the prevalence of ectoparasites and intestinal helminthes in domiciliated dogs and cats, from central and peripheral region, of Lages, city, state of Santa Catarina. To correlate families pets owner s social-economical and cultural aspects with the prevalence of ectoparasites and intestinal helminthes. To verify the proportion between human and dog s population and human and cat s population. From December 2005 to December 2006 period, 600 questionnaires were submitted to people from five central and peripheral districts in the Lages, SC city. Ectoparasites were collected from 143 dogs and 28 cats, and faeces samples were collected from 523 dogs and 111 cats. The ectoparasites samples were kept in 70°GL and the faeces were properly packed and sent to Parasitology and Parasitary Diseases Laboratory of the Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias CAV, from the Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina UDESC. The ectoparasites were identified according to dichotomic keys. Techniques which has for principles the flotation and sedimentation were used to analyze the faeces samples. The social-economical and cultural aspects were evaluated by using data obtained from the income and schooling parameters. Data from all dogs and cats found in the homes were used to evaluate the human s, canine s and feline s populations. The prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs was 22.9% and for intestinal helminthes was 38.2% and in cats was 13.8% and 37.8%, respectively. The prevalence for ectoparasites and intestinal helminthes in domiciliated dogs and cats from the peripheral region were bigger than the central region. The ectoparasites observed in dogs were Ctenocephalides felis felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides hybrid (C. felis felis x C. canis), Pulex irritans, Trichodectes canis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Otodectes cynotis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis and Demodex canis. The intestinal helminths observed in dogs were, Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Dipylidium sp., Oncicola sp. and Taeniidae family. In cats the ectoparasites observed were C. felis felis, C. canis and Ctenocephalides hybrid (C. felis felis x C. canis). The intestinal helminthes observed in cats were, Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Oncicola sp., and Taeniidae family. The average of the eggs per gram (EPG) of faeces of Ancylostoma spp. Was 220,46 in dogs and 311.71 of Toxocara sp. in cats. The cultural level had not been significant for the prevalence of ectoparasites in dogs, and the social-economical and cultural levels had not been significant to the prevalence of intestinal helminthes in dogs. The average of people perhouse was 3.6, 1.04 for dogs and 0.34 for cats. The proportion man/dog was 3.5:1 and man/cat was 10.7:1. The canine population estimated for the city was 43.880 and the feline population estimated was 14.353. / Com os objetivos de determinar e comparar a prevalência de ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais em cães e gatos domiciliados, das regiões central e periférica, da cidade de Lages, SC; de correlacionar aspectos sócio-econômicos e culturais das famílias proprietárias dos animais com a prevalência de ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais; e de verificar a proporção entre a população humana com a canina e com a felina; no período de dezembro de 2005 a dezembro de 2006, foram aplicados 600 questionários a pessoas residentes em cinco bairros centrais e cinco periféricos da cidade de Lages, SC. Foram coletados ectoparasitos de 143 cães e 28 gatos e amostras de fezes de 523 cães e 111 gatos. As amostras de ectoparasitos foram conservadas em álcool 70°GL e as de fezes devidamente acondicionadas e enviadas ao laboratório de Parasitologia e Doenças Parasitárias do Centro de Ciências Agroveterinárias- CAV, da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina- UDESC. Os ectoparasitos foram identificados por meio de chaves dicotômicas e para as amostras de fezes, foram realizadas técnicas que têm por princípio a flutuação e a sedimentação. Para avaliação dos aspectos sócio-econômicos e culturais utilizaram-se dados de faixa salarial e escolaridade, respectivamente. Para avaliação das populações humana, canina e felina foram computados os dados de todos os cães e gatos existentes nos domicílios. Dentre os cães a prevalência para ectoparasitos foi de 22,9% e para helmintos intestinais de 38,2% e em gatos, 13,8% e 37,8%, respectivamente. As prevalências para ectoparasitos e helmintos intestinais em cães e em gatos domiciliados na região periférica foram maiores que na central. Os ectoparasitos observados nos cães foram Ctenocephalides felis felis, Ctenocephalides canis, Ctenocephalides híbrido (C. felis felis x C. canis), Pulex irritans, Trichodectes canis, Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Otodectes cynotis, Sarcoptes scabiei var. canis e Demodex canis. Entre os helmintos intestinais, os gêneros observados foram Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Dipylidium sp., Oncicola sp. e família Taeniidae. Nos gatos, os ectoparasitos observados foram C. felis felis, C. canis e Ctenocephalides híbrido (C. felis felis x C. canis). Os helmintos intestinais foram Ancylostoma spp., Toxocara sp., Trichuris sp., Oncicola sp. e família Taeniidae. A média do número de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) foi de 220,46 para Ancylostoma spp. em cães; e 311,71 para Toxocara sp. em gatos. O nível cultural não atuou de modo significativo para a prevalência de ectoparasitos em cães e os níveis sócio-econômico e cultural não foram significantes para a prevalência de helmintos intestinais em cães. A média do número de pessoas por domicílio foi de 3,6, de cães 1,04 e de gatos 0,34. À proporção homem/cão foi de 3,5:1 e homem/gato de 10,7:1. A população canina estimada para a cidade de Lages é de 43.880 e a população felina é de 14.353.
7

Avaliação da atividade de Aretmisia annua L., Melia azedarach L. e Trichilia claussenii C. sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos /

Cala, Aida Cristina. January 2010 (has links)
Resumo: Em virtude da importância que os pequenos ruminantes desempenham no setor agropecuário e da necessidade de se encontrar alternativas de baixo custo para o controle das helmintoses, este trabalho objetivou avaliar a atividade anti-helmíntica dos extratos de Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach e Trichilia claussenii. Os extratos, aquoso, bicarbonato de sódio, diclorometano, etanólico de A. annua, hexânico de M. azedarach e o metanólico de T. claussenii, foram avaliados em testes in vitro de eclodibilidade larvar (TEL) e de desenvolvimento larvar (TDL) sobre nematódeos gastrintestinais de ovinos. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua e artemisinina (bioativo purificado) foram avaliados in vivo em ovinos Santa Inês infectados por nematódeos gastrintestinais com base na avaliação do hematócrito, na contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG) e coprocultura. Os princípios ativos dos extratos foram quantificados com base na cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência - índice de refração (CLAE-IR), ultravioleta (CLAE- UV) e líquido-líquido (CLAE- LL). A capacidade antioxidante do extrato de bicarbonato de sódio foi determinada pelo método ORAC (capacidade de absorção do radical oxigênio) e a artemisinina eliminada foi quantificada pela CLAE-UV. Analisados pelos testes probit e de Tukey. O extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua foi o mais eficiente in vitro com CL50(concentração letal) de 0, 0677 μg/mL e CL99 de 1,27 μg/mL no TEL e no TDL a CL50 foi de 1,67 μg/mL e a CL99 de 23,8 μg/mL. No teste in vivo, a redução máxima do OPG foi de 31,97% no 14º dia nos animais tratados com o extrato de bicarbonato de sódio de A. annua (2 g/kg pv) e de 41,37% no 15º nos animais que receberam artemisinina (100 mg/kg pv). Na coprocultura obteve-se 91,2% de H. contortus, 8,4% de Tricostrongylus sp. e 0,3% de Oesophagostomum sp. Os... (Resumo completo, clicar acesso eletrônico abaixo) / Abstract: Given the importance that small ruminant plays in the livestock and the need to find alternatives of low-costs for the control of helminthes, the objectives of this study was to evaluate the anthelmintic activities of extracts from Artemisia annua, Melia azedarach and Trichilia claussenii. The extracts, aqueous, sodium bicarbonate, dichloromethane, ethanol of A. annua, hexane of M. azedarach and methanol of T. claussenii, were evaluated in vitro tests of larval hatchability (TEL) and larval development (TDL) on gastrointestinal nematodes in sheep. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua and artemisinin (bioactive purified) were evaluated in vivo in Santa Ines sheep naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes based on the assessment of hematocrit, egg count per gram of feces (OPG) and stool culture. The active ingredients of the extracts were quantified based on liquid chromatography with high efficiency - an index of refraction (HPLC-IR), ultraviolet (HPLC-UV) and liquid-liquid (HPLC-LL). The antioxidant activity of sodium bicarbonate extract was determined by ORAC method (absorption capacity of the radical oxygen) and artemisinin in the feces was quantified by HPLC-UV. The results were analyzed by SAS probit and Tukey test. The extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua, in vitro, was the most effective with LC50 of 0,0677 μg/mL and 1,27 μg/mL of CL99 in TEL, and in the TDL LC50 was 1,67μg/mL and CL99 of 23,8μg/mL. In vivo test, the maximum reduction in EPG was 31,97% on day 14 in animals treated with the extract of sodium bicarbonate A. annua (2g/ kg body weight) and 41.37% on day 15 in animals received artemisinin (100 mg/kg bw). In stool culture was obtained 91, 2% of H. contortus, 8, 4% Tricostrongylus sp. and 0, 3% of Oesophagostomum sp. The results show the need for more studies with higher doses of extracts, other alternatives of... (Complete abstract click electronic access below) / Orientador: Gilson Pereira de Oliveira / Coorientadora: Ana Carolina de Souza Chagas / Banca: Alvimar José da Costa / Banca: Mario Roberto Hatayde / Banca: Carlos Noriyuki Kaneto / Mestre
8

The effects of anemia during pregnancy and its risk factors on the cognitive development of one-year-old children in Benin / Effets de l'anémie maternelle et ses causes sur le développement cognitif des enfants agés de 1 an au Bénin

Mireku, Michael Osei 07 July 2016 (has links)
L'objectif était d'évaluer l'effet de l'anémie pendant la grossesse et ses facteurs de risque sur le développement cognitif d'enfants à un an.Notre cohorte a inclus 636 couples de mères et d'enfants singletons nés de femmes enceintes incluses dans un essai clinique antipaludiques au Bénin. Les prélèvements sanguins ont été réalisés lors des 1er et 2nd visites prénatales (VP) et à l'accouchement (AC) afin d'évaluer la concentration en hémoglobine (Hb) et la ferritine sérique. Les selles ont été testé la présence d'oeufs d'helminthes par la technique de Kato-Katz. Toutes les femmes ont reçu 600mg de mébendazole lors de la 1er VP. À l'âge d'un an, le développement psycho-moteur des enfants a été évalué par le Mullen Scales of Early Learning.La prévalence de la carence en fer (CF) chez les femmes 1er et 2nd VP et à l'AC était de 30,5%, 34,0% et 28,4%, respectivement. La prévalence des infections helminthiques était de 11,5%, 7,5% et 3,0 % à la 1er, la 2nd VP et à l'AC, respectivement. La prévalence de l'anémie a diminué de 67,1% à la 1er VP à 40,1% à l'AC. L'infection par ankylostomes à la 1er VP était associée avec un score de motricité globale (MG) inférieure -4,9 (IC 95%:-8,6;-1,3). Nous avons observé une relation quadratique négative significative entre la MG de l'enfant et la concentration d'Hb à la première et la 2nd VP.Dans ce contexte de supplémentation en fer des femmes enceintes, la CF maternelle n'était pas associée au développement neurocognitif de l'enfant. De plus, il semble que des concentrations en Hb légèrement en-dessous de la normale (comprises entre 90 et 110 g/L) soient optimales pour la motricité des enfants à un an. / The aim was to investigate the impact of anemia during pregnancy and its risk factors on the cognitive development children.Our cohort included 636 mother-singleton child pairs from 828 eligible pregnant women who were enrolled during their first antenatal care (ANC) visit in Allada, Benin, into a clinical trial comparing two malarial drugs. Ferritin and hemoglobin (Hb) level were assessed at the first and second ANC visit of at least one-month interval and at delivery. Stool samples of pregnant women were tested for helminths using the Kato-Katz method. All women were given 600 mg of mebendazole to be taken after the first ANC visit. Cognitive and motor functions of one-year-old children were assessed using Mullen Scales of Early Learning.The prevalence of iron deficiency (ID) at first and second ANC visits, and at delivery was 30.5%, 34.0% and 28.4%, respectively. Prevalence of helminth infection was 11.5%, 7.5% and 3.0% at first, second ANC visits and at delivery, respectively. Prevalence of anemia decreased from 67.1% at first ANC visit to 40.1% at delivery. Hookworm infection at first ANC was associated with lower mean gross motor (GM) scores -4.9 (95% CI:-8.6;-1.3) in the adjusted model. We observed a significant negative quadratic relationship between infant GM function and Hb concentration at first and second ANC visits.Prenatal helminth infection is associated with poor with infant cognitive and motor development. However, in the presence of iron supplementation, ID is not associated with infant neurocognitive development. Further, there appears to be an Hb concentration range (90-110 g/L) that may be optimal for better GM function of one-year-old children.
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Identificação da comunidade componente de helmintos, gastrointestinais hepáticos, pulmonares, cardíacos e renais de Otaria flavescens (Leão-marinho-do-sul), no litoral sul do Brasil / Identification of component community of helminths in gastrointerstinal tract, liver, lungs, heart and kidneys of Otaria flavescens (Shaw, 1800) southern sea lion, in southern coast of Brazil

PEREIRA, Eliane Machado 15 March 2012 (has links)
Made available in DSpace on 2014-08-20T14:31:28Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 dissertacao_eliane_machado_pereira.pdf: 4235511 bytes, checksum: 28dcd80ec8888a8603565a7809054107 (MD5) Previous issue date: 2012-03-15 / This study verified helminth parasites infection in gastrointestinal tract, lungs, heart, and kidneys of southern sea lions, Otaria flavescens, from south coast of Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. Twenty-nine sea-lions were found dead on the beaches, whose carcasses had mild state of decomposition, were necropsied. The organs were collected during field necropsies for laboratory analyses were 24 small and large intestines, 24 livers including parenchyma and gall bladder, 29 stomachs, 24 hearts, and 24 pairs of kidneys. The organs were maintained frozen at -20°C until their processing. A sieve with 150µm mesh was used for screening the parasites. All content retained was analyzed under stereomicroscope. The helminthes were collected, counted, fixed in AFA, stained with carmine, and clarified in beechwood creosote. The small intestines were divided into three segments that were separately analyzed to record the distribution of helminthes by preference sites. Kolmorogov-Smirnov test was used to verify the type of data distribution. Comparison of mean abundance of infection between age classes was performed through Wilcoxon test at significant level of 0.05. Correlations between infection intensity, sex, total length of the individual, and length of small and large intestines were determined using Pearson s Correlation. Action® software version 1.1 was applied for statistical analyses. Among 29 specimens of O. flavescens 23 were males, three females, and three individuals whose sex could not be determined. The average length of the animals was 2.14±0.31m (1.58 to 2.64m) including 13 sub-adults and 16 adults. A total of 996 specimens of Contracaecum ogmorhini were recorded, especially in the stomach (10.34% of prevalence), 42,145 specimens of Corynosoma australe (100% of prevalence) and 512 of Bolbosoma turbinella (50% of prevalence) were found. Two species of trematodes were found: Stephanophrora uruguayense (Prev. 4.17%) and Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Prev. 33.33% ), a estimated total of 1,988.202 specimens. Cestodes were found in only one of the hosts (4.16% of prevalence) which presented four scoleces. Macroscopically, liver, gall bladder, heart, lungs, and kidneys did not contain parasites. No significant correlation was observed between infection intensity, mean abundance, sex, total length of the host, or length of intestines. Infections levels were similar between sub-adults and adults sea lions. This is the first record of Diphyllobothrium sp., Bolbosoma turbinella, Contracaecum ogmorhini, Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa, and Stephanoprora uruguayense in O. flavescens in Brazilian waters. As regards parasite fauna of O. flavescens, our data are different from those previously reported for specimens from Pacific coast of South America. / Este estudo analisou os helmintos parasitos gastrointestinais, pulmonares, cardíacos e renais do O. flavescens no litoral sul do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil. Foram necropsiados 29 leões-marinhos, cujas carcaças apresentavam baixo estado de decomposição. Os órgãos coletados mediante necropsia a campo para análise em laboratório foram 24 intestinos delgado e grosso, 24 fígados incluindo parênquima e vesícula biliar e 29 estômagos, 24 corações e 24 pares de rins. Os órgãos foram congelados a 20oC até o seu processamento. Para a triagem dos parasitos foi usada peneira com malha de 150 µm e todo o conteúdo retido foi analisado sob microscópio estereoscópico. Os helmintos foram fixados em AFA, corados com Carmin e clarificados com creosoto de Faia. Os intestinos delgados foram divididos em três segmentos que foram analisados separadamente para registrar a distribuição dos helmintos por sítios de preferência. Teste de Kolmorogov-Smirnov foi utilizado para verificar tipo de distribuição dos dados. A comparação da abundância média de infecção entre classes etárias foi realizada através do teste de Teste de Wilcoxon usando nível de significância de 0.05. As correlações entre intensidade de infecção, sexo, comprimento total do individuo e comprimento dos intestinos delgado e grosso foram verificadas usando a Correlação de Pearson. Para as análises estatísticas usou-se o software Action® versão 1.1. De 29 espécimes de O. flavescens 23 eram machos, três fêmeas e em três indivíduos o sexo não pode ser determinado. A média do comprimento total dos animais foi 2,14±0,31m (1,58 - 2,64m), sendo 13 subadultos e 16 adultos. Foram registrados 996 espécimes de Contracaecum ogmorhini presentes principalmente no estômago, (prevalência 10%). Registrou-se 42.145 espécimes de Corynosoma australe (Prev. 100%) e 512 de Bolbosoma turbinella (Prev. 50%). Duas espécies de trematódeos foram coletados: Stephanophrora uruguayense (Prev. 4.17% ) e Ascocotyle (Phagicola) longa (Prev. 33.33% ) totalizando 1.988.202 espécimes. Cestódeos foram encontrados em apenas um hospedeiro (Prev. 4,16%) que apresentou 4 escóleces. Macroscopicamente, fígado, vesícula biliar, coração, pulmões e rins examinados não estavam parasitados. Nenhuma correlação significativa foi observada entre a intensidade de infecção, sexo, comprimento total ou comprimento dos intestinos. Este é primeiro registro de Diphyllobothrium sp., Bolbosoma turbinella e Contracaecum ogmorhini em O. flavescens em águas brasileiras. No que se diz respeito à fauna parasitária de O. flavescens, as espécies encontradas no presente estudo não são as mesmas previamente citadas para leãomarinho-do-sul da costa pacífica da América do Sul.
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Apports de la paléogénétique à l'étude des helminthes gastro-intestinaux anciens / Paleogenetics to study ancient gastrointestinal helminths

Côté, Nathalie 16 December 2015 (has links)
La paléoparasitologie est l’étude des restes de parasites préservés dans des échantillons archéologiques et permet de mieux comprendre l’état de santé des populations anciennes et d’obtenir des informations d’ordre anthropologique ou ethnologique, sur les régimes alimentaires ou les conditions d’hygiène au quotidien. Les restes de parasites peuvent être retrouvés sous forme de macro-restes (vers ou larves), d’antigènes, d’ADN ou d’œufs. Cesderniers peuvent être particulièrement bien préservés au cours du temps car ils sont composés en partie de chitine, les rendant résistants aux processus de dégradation. L’observation microscopique de leurs caractéristiques morphologiques et micrométriques permet d’identifier les taxons au niveau du genre ou de la famille. Dans le cadre de cette thèse, plusieurs helminthes gastro-intestinaux, dont les œufs sont fréquemment retrouvés dans des échantillons archéologiques, ont été ciblés par une approche génétique. Il s’agit des vers plats Tæniasaginata, T. solium, T. asiatica, Echinococcus granulosus, E. multilocularis, Diphyllobothriumlatum, D. dendriticum et D. nihonkaiense, des nématodes Trichuris trichiura, Enterobiusvermicularis et Ascaris sp. et des douves Fasciola hepatica, F. gigantica, Dicrocoeliumdendriticum et D. chinensis.La méthode « aMPlex Torrent » permet de détecter, dans un grand nombre d’échantillons archéologiques, une faible quantité d’ADN de parasites. Cette approche combine la spécificité et la sensibilité de la PCR au haut-débit du séquençage de nouvelle génération. Plusieurs vestiges, provenant de périodes et de régions géographiques diverses, ont été analysés. Des résultats génétiques ont été obtenus pour des échantillons aussi anciens que 7200 BP. Nous avons par ailleurs obtenus les premières séquences anciennes de Taenia sp., Diphyllobothriumsp., Echinococcus sp., et les premières séquences européennes d’Enterobius vermicularis. Auvu de ces résultats, notre approche apparait comme étant complémentaire à la microscopie. / Palaeoparasitogy, the study of parasite remains from archaeological samples, is adiscipline that can highlight questions about the health status of the ancient populations. It can give important anthropological or ethnological information such as the diet and the hygiene conditions of past societies. The remains can be preserved as macroremains (worms or larvae),antigens, DNA or eggs. Because they are partially made of chitin, eggs of gastrointestinalhelminths resist well over time to the taphonomic degradation process. It is possible to distinguish between different families or genera of parasites by looking at the morphological features of eggs. However, since several taxa share common features, the determination is rarelypossible at the species level. For this thesis, several parasite species for which eggs arecommonly observed in archeological samples have been studied by a genetic approach. Westudied the tapeworms Tænia saginata, T. solium, T. asiatica, Echinococcus granulosus, E.multilocularis, Diphyllobothrium latum, D. dendriticum, and D. nihonkaiense; the nematodesTrichuris trichiura, Enterobius vermicularis, and Ascaris sp.; and the flukes Fasciola hepatica,F. gigantica, Dicrocoelium dendriticum, and D. chinensis.The “aMPlex Torrent” approach has been set up to detect minute amounts of DNA from parasites in multiple archaeological samples. This approach combines the specificity andsensitivity of PCR to the throughput of Next-Generation sequencing. Several samples have been analyzed by this approach. We obtained genetic results for samples as old as 7200 BP and from various geographical and archeological contexts. We obtained the first ancient DNA sequences for Taenia sp., Diphyllobothrium sp., Echinococcus sp. and the first European sequences forEnterobius vermicularis. Genetic analyses and microscopic observations appear to be complementary. Indeed, at least one taxon per sample was detected by one of the two approaches.

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