Absorbing Taoism into Confucianism：Literati and Taoism in the Tang-Song Intellectual Transition 融道入儒：唐宋思想轉型期間的士人與道家傳統Chang-Yuan Lee, 李長遠 2015 (has links)
博士 國立臺灣大學 歷史學研究所 103 This dissertation attempts to delineate a more dynamic and convoluted history of the relation between Confucian and Taoist traditions in the transitional period from late Tang to early Song Dynasty. Intellectuals of medieval China generally recognized and appreciated the fusion of Confucian and Taoist traditions. In fact, Taoism wielded profound influence on their worldviews, political perspectives, and cultural lives. From mid-Tang Dynasty onwards, however, the relation between these two traditions was ready to shift. With the consciousness of subjectivity developed in the Confucianism Revival Movement, intellectuals such as Pi Rixiu began to advocate a stronger Confucianism oriented position, trying to establish it as the guiding principle of public affairs and delegate Taoism to private life. Nonetheless, his voice was of minority. The intellectual atmosphere in general stayed with a more tolerant one. From Five Dynasties to early Song period, intellectuals continued to accept the fusion of these two traditions. Taoism was prevalent in both public and private domains. Not only political discourses were under its guidance. Intellectuals embraced Taoist practices and ideals in their private lives. For those who are away from politics, the line between Confucianism and Taoism were even more thin and blurred. They didn’t identify themselves with, or confine their cultural upbringing within either side. On the opposite, the intellectual genealogies descending from those paramount figures—such as Chen Tuan, Chong Fang, and Ren Fenggu—in this period, whether they were located in south or north China, have all included Taoism in their pedagogy as a major part. Contrary to the popular impression that the intellectual history of Song Dynasty began with the request to recover the “pure and authentic Confucian spirit” it was in fact breed in the soil fertilized by both Taoist and Confucian traditions. When it came to the Emperor Renzong of Song’s reign, a significant shift took place. With Confucianism Revival Movement reaching its culmination, intellectuals of this period echoed Pi Rixiu’s position, requesting again the establishment of Confucian doctrines as the only proper principles under which the public world should be ordered. Fan Zhongyan was a prominent example. Arguing that Taoism should not be the guidance of social-political order, he demanded a political reformation based on only and solely Confucian ground. However, these endeavors do not mean that Taoism was ever since eradicated from the life of intellectuals. In fact, including Fan himself, many intellectuals continued to perform Taoist practices and aspired for Taoist ideals. Rather, the line between Confucianism and Taoism was drawn along that of “public” and “private.” Unlike their attack on it in political sphere, intellectuals of this period did not distinguish further Taoism from Confucianism on issues related to worldview and human nature. When Wang Anshi came to power in the second half of eleventh century, he did not exclude Taoism from politics. However, Taoist influence on politics eventually faded away. But, again, the triumph of Confucianism in public domain did not prevent intellectuals from drawing Taoist resources to explore other philosophical issues. For example, in Song Dynasty, Wang Anshi was the first person that offered a systematic theory about worldview and human nature, and his vision was still loaded with Taoist elements. Wang’s position later invited intensive and widespread debates on these philosophical issues, in which the relation between Confucianism and Taoism was once again focused. There were three major positions regarding this issue. Su Shi and Su Zhe brothers presented the first one. They held that these two traditions shared the same foundation, and had no intention to emphasize the subjectivity of Confucianism. The second position includes Shao Yong and Zhou Dunyi. Although they also inherited the long developed synthetic understanding of these two traditions, they diverted from Confucianism less than the first position. It is why they were later included in the genealogy of Neo-Confucianism. While Sima Guang, Zhang Zai, Cheng Hao, and Cheng Yi also drew intellectual resources from Taoism, they came to be much more critical towards it and believe that they are recovering the authentic spirit of Confucianism that has long lost. They represent the third position, which was most original and directly fostered the rise of Neo-Confucianism. In short, outlining the dynamic relation between Confucianism and Taoism, this dissertation expects to offer a more complicated picture of the intellectual history during the Tang-Song transitional period. In this regard, this dissertation also expects to make contribution to the current understanding of the prehistory of Neo-Confucianism.
Phylogeographic relationships and historical demography of Formosan serow based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences 利用粒線體D-loop序列探討臺灣長鬃山羊親緣地理關係與歷史族群波動Pei-Yu Sun, 孫佩妤 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立臺灣大學 動物科學技術學研究所 103 Phylogeography is the study of the genetic and geographic structure of populations and species. Phylogeographic analysis provides an insight into historical factors, such as climate change, by examining current patterns of genealogy and geographic distribution. Taiwan is a mountainous island, which contains one third area of mountains that are up to 1,000 meters of elevations and has experienced several glacial cycles. Whether the geological history and the past glacial periods affected the alpine large mammals’ genetic population structures and diversities in Taiwan hasn’t been extensively studied. Formosan serow（Capricornis swinhoei）is the only endemic wild bovidae animal that protected by law in Taiwan, and widely distributed in the mountainous regions（400-3,952 m elevation）throughout the island. Due to lacking of phylogeographic studies, the phylogeographic relationships and historical demography of Formosan serow remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mitochondria DNA D-loop regions (1) to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship, (2) to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographic relationships, and (3) to infer the historical evolutionary processes of Formosan serow in Taiwan. In total, 342 samples（feces, blood and tissue）collected from 36 localities throughout Taiwan was examined. We obtained 126 haplotypes from D-loop region（1,122-1,125 bp）. Two major clades with 100% supported bootstrap values were identified in D-loop sequences analysis. Furthermore, the two major clades were defined as Taroko and Sheipa major clade and Taiwan major clade because they were mainly distributed to the Taroko and Sheipa Mountain Area, and the entire mountainous area of Taiwan, respectively. The divergence time between these two phylogroups were examined at approximately 0.125 to 0.134 mya（million years ago）during Riss glaciation（0.2-0.13 mya）. According to AMOVA and mantel test, the Formosan serow population can be divided into three genetic units that existed significant genetic differentiation correlated to geographical distances（ΦCT = 0.26525; P < 0.001）（r = 0.6690; P < 0.001）. Mismatch distribution analysis, Neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the population of Taiwan major clade, with horizons dated to approximately 0.02 mya during the end of Würm glaciation（0.11-0.012 mya）. In conclusion, the geographical distance with restriction of gene flow was one of the factors that shaped current genetic differentiation and variant geographical distribution of haplotypes. In addition, past climate change caused by multiple glacial periods also played an important role in shaping the current phylogeographic structure. This study will provide usefully information for further phylogeographic study of Formosan serow, and other alpine species in Taiwan.
This thesis focuses on the Charles Bridge in Prague, which forms an important part of the changing topography of Prague as the seat of the Holy Roman Emperor. For this reason, the thesis considers first the role that the evolution of Prague's topography had on its early medieval bridges and the role of its first stone bridge in the life and the fabric of the city. The next part of this thesis examines the bridge and its tower in its chronological context – confirming Charles IV as the patron of the bridge, setting the date for the completion of its bridge tower, and supporting the role of Peter Parler in its execution. In this section, I also discuss the architecture of the bridge tower and especially its relationship with the contemporary works on Prague cathedral’s choir. Particular focus will be given to the bridge’s triradial net vault, the first of its kind in Bohemia. Iconographically, this thesis interprets the sculptural programme of the bridge tower in the context of royal and legal rituals of the city. I argue that the sculptural programme emphasizes the envisioned continuity of the Luxembourg dynasty in Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire. This sculpted tableau of royal power acted as a powerful backdrop to royal processions — most notably the pre-coronation procession — as a part of a series of genealogical stations laid out across the city. In the day to day life of Prague, the Charles Bridge is presented as a strategically important place for the execution of law and justice. Lastly, this thesis presents the changing focus of the Bohemian court after the death of Charles IV and how the emblems of Wenceslas IV, which were added to the bridge tower, demonstrate the development of a new chivalric language in the last decades of the fourteenth century.
Please Follow the Sound of My Footsteps - Sound, Walk and the Mediated Milieu in Janet Cardiff’s Audio Walks 請跟著我的腳步聲走 ─論珍奈‧卡蒂芙行走作品的聲音、行走與風景Li, Yueh-Tuan, 李悅端 2015 (has links)
博士 國立交通大學 應用藝術研究所 103 Canadian artist Janet Cardiff, the prominent artist of “audio walk”, uses pre-recorded audio streams, combining mobile technology with personal headphones, that guide people to walk in a specific area or along a prescribed route. As an increasingly significant mode of artistic and cultural practice over the past two decades, “audio walk” reconfigures contemporary urban spaces in aspects of geographical, affective, and sensory experiences. The artworks of audio walk by Janet Cardiff are fantastic in the sense that they conflated acoustic technologies and narrative strategies to construct a mediated world, and then situated participants in the virtual world that was inextricably intertwined with the physical surroundings. At once as a form of perception and a form of art that emphasized transforming the ambiance of urban spaces rapidly with playful directives and events, her walks can genealogically be traced back to the “urban drifting” of the Situationist International in the 1950s. But this article wants to argue that Cardiff’s walks were built upon what we see and what we hear, namely two different worlds split by earphones listening. The multi-layered sounds in the later were comprised mainly of verbals, soundscape and rhythmic motion reified in Cardiff’s on-site recording and walking. These sound recordings were subsequently relocated and actualized by the participants through listening and walking at the same location. These sounds overlapped the milieu, thereby creating the effects of spatial splices and mis-recognition. This article concludes, by way of examining her major walking artworks, that these sensory gaps and extensions in “audio walk” are worthy of exploration not only because they indicated the possibility for heterogeneous spheres, but also because they served as a reflexive reference that enables the participants to (re)identify the creation of the mediated world as well as their relations to it.
LO, Tsan-Lan, 羅湛然
碩士 國立金門大學 建築學系 103 Traditionalism or Classism is always inseparable from the development of architecture no matter West or East. For instance, the Renaissance and Neo-Classism both were representation of Classism in west. In Asia, The new architecture was concerned with traditional style that has borne hundreds of years ago and brought rather particular cultural phenomenon through Imperialism and colonial influence. First, we would review semi-colonial Xiamen’s architecture and urbanism from the perspective of the third world history vis-à-vis that of the world history, with emphasis on the genealogy of the colonial architecture and urbanism in the late 18th and the 19th centuries. Second, through a comparative study with some recent research on British and French colonies, we would demonstrate the difference between them and research on Chinese modern architecture and urbanism. Following that, a comparative study among different concessions, we would show not only the commonality of semi-colonial architecture and urbanism among them but also the colonial specificity of Imperialism. Finally, we would attempt to survey the architectural discourse concerning the historical consciousness and the attitude of historical interpretation. Further, we would reveal the problematic structuring the liner connection and lineage of symbolic space by querying disseminated architectural value in the conjuncture.
Querying the 'new capitalist' agenda : a critical (re)contextualisation of '360 degree feedback' and the production of the empowered, self-governing, organizational subjectSlater, Rory F. 2015 (has links)
The present thesis comprises a three part qualitative project that queries a specific facet of popular management rhetoric: namely, that the contemporary economic agent operates as an empowered self-governing agent. It critically engages with the much debated demise of ‘old capitalism’ and ‘new capitalism’s’ claims of workplace democratisation. The thesis begins with a critical (re)contextualisation of what had become colloquially know as ‘360 degree feedback’. An in-depth genealogical analysis is presented that traces the genesis of three prominent multi-rater/source feedback mechanisms between 1940 and 2011: the T-Group, the therapeutic community and contemporary 360 degree feedback. It is argued that each of these has emerged out of historical attempts to combine disciplinary technologies/techniques with psychological knowledge(s) and expertise in a bid to empower individuals to modify their own behaviour in line with a moral and ethical code of ‘self’ development and ‘self’ mastery. The thesis then examines ‘how’ the contemporary multi-rater/source feedback mechanism of 360 degree feedback is constructed in and through expert discourse(s), and considers to what extent these constructions might represent it as heterotopic. Twelve key informant interviews are subjected to discourse analysis. It is argued that those human technologies/techniques in which individuals are enfolded, objectified, rationalised and normalised are themselves heterotopic and, as such, constitute alternative spatial locations in which individuals are subjected to the effects of power and knowledge. The final study provides a contextualising step inside 360 feedback practices and processes and considers how individuals inhabit and make sense of the alternative space it provides. A form of discourse analysis that synthesises macro and micro discursive approaches is applied. This particular section explores how discursive agents actively negotiate this enacted space and formulate a sense of self within it. In keeping with the critical nature of the thesis, emergent discourses and interpretative repertoires are discussed in terms of the possible ideological functions they perform. When considered in this way, it is concluded that individuals are not being less controlled due to the enlightened nature of workplace democracy. Rather they are merely being controlled differently insofar as it is they and they alone that take up the goal of self- development and, as such, bring their own goals, their own aspirations and their own behaviour in line with a moral and ethical code of ‘self’ development and ‘self’ mastery.
Pathologies of recognition : the communicative turn and the renewed possibility of a critical theory of societyHazeldine, Gary 2015 (has links)
This thesis explores the communicative turn in critical theory, beginning with Jürgen Habermas’s and Axel Honneth’s criticisms of the work of the early Frankfurt school; it then analyses Habermas’s ideas on language and discourse ethics alongside Axel Honneth’s development of a ‘recognitive-theoretical’ model of Critical Theory. Following Honneth’s lead, I then bring the work of Michel Foucault into dialogue with the communicative turn and explore the merits of both approaches. Habermas’s and Honneth’s accounts of non-coercive dialogical exchange are found wanting, and I argue that they idealise the public sphere, communication and recognition, and also reproduce procedural conceptions of freedom that abstract from difference and particularity. Foucault compensates for this, but his genealogical work displays an excessive and indiscriminate view of power, alongside an inadequate conception of subjectivity, whilst his later work on ethics/aesthetics idealises the self as a work of art and lacks a substantive account of culture, democracy, and responsibility. I argue that Theodor Adorno’s account of non-reified culture and ethics – as a response to the suffering produced by commodification, identity thinking and technological rationality – overcomes the shortcomings of the work of Habermas, Honneth and Foucault, whilst providing us with a more complete account of recognition and solidarity.
Keet, Emma Alice
Thesis (MA)--Stellenbosch University, 2015. ENGLISH ABSTRACT: This thesis traverses the complexities and entanglement of theoretical and practical processes in a Post-structural age. Through the deconstruction of stable systems of knowledge and thought, this age has become synonymous with uncertainty. In an attempt to navigate a time of continual change, Foucault proposes a toolkit. Foucault advocates deconstruction, critical engagement and reflection. In addition to these tools, this thesis moves through genealogical, mapping, archaeological and glass (blowing) methodologies. My practice cannot be separated from theory, it is excavated concurrently. Foucault, Derrida, Nietzsche, Deleuze and Guattari open up knowledge systems in an effort to uncover alternative thought trajectories and create a space in which complexity can exist. Knowledge circulating in this space is not fixed, it manifests in moments. My practical project, Fleeting Certainty, also aims to create an open space. It does not culminate in one, autonomous work, but is rather an archive of moments. Viewers will also be equipped with a toolkit of light and lenses with which to create moments of their own. Therefore moments will generate continuously. These theoretical and practical processes do not culminate in a coherent conclusion. There is a pause, a comma, but there are many more trajectories or lines to follow. AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: Hierdie tesis deurkruis die ingewikkeldhede en verstrengeling van teoretiese en praktiese prosesse binne ’n Post-strukturele tydperk. Hierdie tydperk het, deur die dekonstruksie van stabiele stelsels van kennis en denke, gelykstaande aan onsekerheid geword. In a poging om ’n tydperk van voortdurende verandering te verken, stel Foucault sekere hulpmiddels voor. Foucault bepleit, dekonstruksie, kritiese betrokkenheid en besinning. Benewens hierdie hulpmiddels, maak hierdie tesis gebruik van genealogiese, karterings-, argeologiese en glas (blaas) metodologieë. Die praktiese komponent van my werk hou ten nouste verband met die teoretiese en kan nie van mekaar geskei word nie. Foucault, Derrida, Nietzsche, Deleuze and Guattari stel kennisstelsels oop in ’n poging om alternatiewe gedagtegange te ontbloot en skep ’n ruimte waarin kompleksiteit kan bestaan. Kennis wat in hierdie ruimte bestaan, is nie vas of bepaald nie, maar kom in oomblikke voor. My praktiese projek, Fleeting Certainty, poog ook om ’n ‘oop’ ruimte te skep. Die projek loop nie uit op een selfstandige werk nie, maar dien as ’n versameling of argief van oomblikke. Kykers sal ook toegerus word met hulpmiddels in die vorm van lig en lense waarmee hulle oomblikke van hul eie kan skep. Oomblikke sal dus voortdurent geskep word. Hierdie teoretiese en praktiese prosesse loop ook nie op ’n samehangende gevolgtrekking uit nie. Daar is ’n pouse, ’n komma, maar daar is baie meer bane of lyne om te volg.
Nero primus persecutor christianorum et praecursor antichristi : una revisión crítica de las fuentes literariasCuesta Fernández, Jorge 21 December 2015 (has links)
“Nero primus persecutor christianorum et praecursor Antichristi. Una revisión crítica de las fuentes literarias” se define como una labor investigadora realizada con el propósito no solo de abordar críticamente la documentación escrita mediante la cual se ha retratado a Nerón no solo como el primer perseguidor del cristianismo sino también aquella que recogió una reputación póstuma sin precedentes, pudiéndose verificar en las fuentes como se acabó vinculando un retorno futuro protagonizado por el emperador junto con el Anticristo de las formas más diversas (e incluso problemáticas) a lo largo de casi cinco siglos. De este modo, ha sido posible llevar a cabo la materialización de un proyecto de tesis doctoral a través del cual fuese posible proporcionar una novedosa y diferente perspectiva a la cuestión del perfil apocalíptico asignado de Nerón siglos después de haber fallecido y que ha sido catalogada por historiadores y especialistas a lo largo del siglo XX como Nero redivivus, dos palabras latinas que traduciéndose al castellano vendrían a significar “Nerón revivido”. Como consecuencia del diverso contenido de las fuentes así como los respectivos contextos históricos a los que pertenecieron dichos textos (especialmente aquellos sobre el vínculo entre Nerón y el Anticristo), se estableció como primordial meta determinar cuál sería el origen de tales creencias apocalípticas, el punto de partida para poder explicar cómo fue posible que casi trescientos años después de la muerte del emperador pudiera constituir en símbolo del fin de los tiempos, descartando la postura historiográfica vigente de que estos textos (junto con otros en los que no hubiese asociación alguna con el Anticristo) habían sido reunidos y catalogados bajo la misma terminología. Los objetivos establecidos para la realización de la investigación doctoral han sido los siguientes: En primer lugar, demostrar que aquellos textos en los que se informa sobre la creencia en Nerón como precursor del Anticristo (Lactancio y Sulpicio Severo) no guardaría relación alguna con el Nero redivivus; en segundo lugar, plantear el uso de terminologías latinas con las que poder catalogar correctamente todos los textos que forman parte de la cuestión clásica del Nero redivivus, incluso en aquellos en los que el nombre del emperador estaría explícito y vinculado al Anticristo y de forma diferente a la información transmitida por los autores patrísticos aludidos en el primer objetivo. En tercer lugar, señalar en qué textos sería correcta la utilización de los términos Nero redivivus y Nero rediturus, siendo ésta última expresión recientemente acuñada por historiadores como Klauck, Van Kooten o Malik. En cuarto lugar, comprobar en qué medida fueron decisivos los textos procedentes del Antiguo y del Nuevo Testamento canónico (además de otros procedentes del ámbito apócrifo) para que no solo se pudiera llegar a creerse en una asociación entre Nerón y el Anticristo, sino que ésta se prolongase desde mediados del siglo III (Comodiano) hasta la segunda mitad del V (Agustín de Hipona, Quodvultdeus, Liber genealogus). Los dos últimos objetivos estarían estrechamente relacionados con otra parte importante en la investigación, aquella centrada en el análisis del recuerdo histórico de la represión neroniana contra los cristianos y el martirio atribuido por las fuentes literarias cristianas de los apóstoles Pedro y Pablo, contemplándose de qué fuentes escritas cristianas arrancaría la consideración de Nerón como primer perseguidor y emprendiendo la revisión crítica de aquellos textos que para historiadores e investigadores en las últimas décadas contendrían referencias ocultas o implícitas tanto de la persecución anticristiana de la represión neroniana contra los cristianos como de los episodios martiriales protagonizados por Pedro y Pablo y destacadamente por el primero en algunos exponentes de la literatura apócrifa apocalíptica (Martirio y Ascensión de Isaías, Apocalipsis de Pedro). En cuanto a la metodología, en primer lugar se llevó a cabo una lectura parcial de las fuentes primarias sin prestar atención inmediata a los estudios realizados sobre estos y otros semejantes, realizándose el mismo procedimiento para la documentación necesaria y fundamental para el estudio de la primera persecución y el martirio de Pedro y Pablo. En el transcurso del curso 2012-2013 se procedió a la búsqueda de la pertinente bibliografía, gracias al acceso a bases electrónicas como JSTOR, Perseé, Dialnet y la Biblioteca Virtual Miguel de Cervantes. También se ha acudido a las bibliotecas universitarias más cercanas, como la de la Universidad de Alicante así como recurrido al servicio de préstamo interbibliotecario tanto de esta universidad como la de Murcia. Las nuevas tecnologías (entre ellas, la red social conocida como Academia.edu) han facilitado el contacto con varios de los autores cuyos trabajos han sido utilizados como en el caso de George Van Kooten, Jos Vaesen y Shushma Malik, entre otros. En el transcurso de los cursos académicos 2013-2014 y 2014-2015 se escribió el estado de la cuestión y la totalidad de los contenidos de la presente investigación. En lo referente a las conclusiones, como consecuencia de haber consultado el contenido de cada uno de los textos consultados para la consecución de dicha investigación, la expresión Nero praecursor Antichristi sería la apropiada para definir y calificar ideológicamente el retorno de Nerón tal y como lo transmitieron Lactancio y Sulpicio Severo, con independencia de que lo secundasen o no. Por el contrario, no sería muy acertado catalogar la creencia apocalíptica en la aparición conjunta de Nerón y el Anticristo atribuida a Martín de Tours a modo Nero redivivus ni mucho menos como Nero praecursor Antichristi, ya que del texto podría deducirse que ambos aparecerían al mismo tiempo y actuarían en ámbitos geográficos distintos. Por lo tanto, y en el caso del texto sobre la exposición de la visión del fin del mundo del mentor de Sulpicio Severo, la reaparición de Nerón varios siglos después de su fallecimiento no se produciría previamente a la del Anticristo a lo que debe añadirse que Martín no precisa que tal regreso necesitara de una resurrección previa, pudiéndose catalogar como Nero et Antichristus. Con respecto a Agustín de Hipona y más concretamente a la primera de las dos creencias surgidas de la interpretación del concepto paulino del misterio de iniquidad, no sería desacertado calificarla de Nero redivivus puesto que consistiría en la resurrección de Nerón, aunque tampoco sería descabellado definirla con muchísima más precisión como Nero redivivus quod Antichristus incarnatus, mientras que para el segundo tipo de creencia, al incluir como detalle el que Nerón no hubiese muerto, encajaría mejor con la expresión de Nero rediturus (Nerón regresa sin haber muerto). Se ha determinado también como conclusión que algunas secciones o ideas procedentes de libros de la literatura neotestamentaria y la veterotestamentaria así como algunos aspectos del pensamiento teológico desarrollado por algunos autores patrísticos sobre el Anticristo (como la reconstrucción del Templo o la aparición de dos figuras “anticristológicas”) habrían servido de fundamentos ideológicos para dar forma al pensamiento apocalíptico basado en presentar a Nerón como individuo escatológico ligado al Anticristo, previo o coetáneo a éste último. Comodiano y Victorino de Petovio (inspirados en el capítulo undécimo del Apocalipsis de Juan) recurrieron a los dos testigos y a la Bestia “que asciende del abismo” para dar forma a sus respectivas visiones apocalípticas en las que Nerón como Anticristo o el Anticristo como Nerón (Nero quod Antichristus; Antichristus quod Nero) acabaría con la vida de los dos testigos, siendo ambos identificados con Elías y Henoc, convirtiéndose en los nuevos Pedro y Pablo pero sobre todo en los apóstoles de los tiempos escatológicos. Los textos de ambos autores cristianos bien podrían catalogarse con las siguientes terminologías: Para Comodiano serían válidas tanto la de Nero quod Antichristus como la de Antchristus quod Nero (dependiendo la obra consultada) mientras que para Victorino tan solo sería válida la segunda. La reputación histórica de Nerón como primer perseguidor en la literatura cristiana inaugurada por Tertuliano y mantenida unánimemente por los autores patrísticos venideros no habría sido lo suficientemente contundente para que a Nerón se le tuviese como un recuerdo del pasado, porque trescientos años tras su muerte (de formas muy diversas) el nombre del emperador estaría asociado al del Anticristo, constatándose la existencia de diferentes creencias de índole apocalíptica y en esencia con contenidos muy similares entre sí, procediendo bien de autores individuales o probablemente de minúsculos grupos cristianos de mentalidad milenarista contrarios a la teología escatológica oficial, erigiéndose en motivo de imparable terror o miedo por la sola idea de que aquel que emprendiese la primera persecución y martirizase a Pedro y Pablo fuese capaz de regresar en el futuro previamente al Anticristo, encarnándose en él o adoptando éste último la apariencia del emperador para desencadenar una persecución mucho más violenta, convirtiéndose el nombre Nerón en señal inequívoca de que el fin de los tiempos de que estaba próximo. "Nero primus persecutor christianorum et praecursor Antichristi. A critical review of literary sources” may be defined as a research work whose purpose is to critically address the written documentation through which Nero has been portrayed as the first persecutor of Christianity. However, it can also be defined as the one that recopilated a posthumous reputation without precedents. This can be proved in the sources as linking a future return ended starring the emperor along with the Antichrist of the most diverse forms (and even problematic) over almost five centuries. Thus, it has been possible to carry out the realization of a doctoral thesis project through which we can provide a new and different perspective to the issue of the apocalyptic profile assigned to Nero centuries after his death. This has been listed by historians and specialists during the twentieth century as Nero redivivus. These two Latin words would be translated like "Nero revived". As a result of different content sources as well as the respective historical contexts these texts belong to (especially those dealing with the link between Nero and Antichrist), it was established as a primary goal to determine what could be the origin of such apocalyptic beliefs. This would be the premise to explain, for almost three hundred years after the death of the emperor, how it was possible that this could be a symbol of the end of times, discarding the force of these texts (along with others that had no association with the historiographical stance Antichrist) which were collected and cataloged under the same terminology. The main objectives of this doctoral thesis are the following: Firstly, we would like to show that those texts dealing with the belief of Nero as the forerunner of the Antichrist (Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus) would not have any relationship with the so called Nero redivivus; secondly, to reconsider the use of the Latin terminology which has been used to catalog all the texts forming part of the classic question of Nero redivivus, including even those in which the name of the emperor would be explicit and linked to the Antichrist and in a different way to the information transmitted by the aforementioned patristic writers in the first goal. Thirdly, we would like to underline which could be the texts in which the terms Nero redivivus and Nero rediturus would be correctly used. This last term has been traditionally coined by historians such as Klauck, Van Kooten or Malik. Fourthly, we would like to check the extent to which texts from the Old and New Testament canon are instrumental (along with others from the apocryphal field) not only to believe in a partnership between Nero and Antichrist, but this is prolonged since the mid-third century (Commodian) until the second half of V (Augustine of Hippo, Quodvultdeus, Liber genealogus). The last two goals would be closely related to another important part in this research: the analysis of the historical memory of Nero's repression against Christians as well as the martyrdom attributed by the Apostles Peter's and Paul's Christian literary sources. In this way, it would be contemplated from which Christian written sources would stem the consideration of Nero as the first persecutor and undertaking a critical review of those texts that for historians and researchers in recent decades would contain hidden or implied references as regards both the anti-Christian repression Nero's persecution against Christians and the martyrdom episodes made by Peter and Paul and prominently by the former in some exponents of the apocalyptic apocryphal literature (Martyrdom and Ascension of Isaiah, Apocalypse of Peter). As far as the methodology of the research is concerned, first we carried out a partial reading of the primary sources without paying immediate attention to the studies based on them and similar ones. The same procedure was followed in relation to the necessary and essential documentation for the study of the first persecution and martyrdom of Peter and Paul. During the year 2012-2013, we proceeded to search the relevant literature by accessing to different electronic databases such as JSTOR, Perseus, Dialnet and the Spanish Virtual Library called Miguel de Cervantes. We also used bibliographical references from the nearest university libraries, including the University of Alicante and resorted to interlibrary loan service from this university as well as the one from Murcia. New technologies (including social network known as Academia.edu) have facilitated contact with several authors whose works have been used. This is the case of George Van Kooten, Jos Vaesen and Shushma Malik, to name a few. During the academic years 2013-2014 and 2014-2015, the state of art and the entire contents of this study were written. As for the conclusions, having consulted the content of each of the texts for the achievement of that investigation, Nero praecursor Antichristi expression would be the appropriate to define and ideologically qualify the return of Nero as it was transmitted by Lactantius and Sulpicius Severus, regardless of whether it was seconded or not. On the contrary, it would not be very successful to catalog the apocalyptic belief in the joint appearance of Nero and Antichrist attributed to Martin of Tours as Nero redivivus and by no means as Nero praecursor Antichristi as we can deduce from the text that both appear at the same time and they act in different geographical areas. Therefore, and in the case of the text on the vision about the end’s days from Sulpicius Severus’s teacher, the reappearance of Nero centuries after his death would not be produced previously as that of the Antichrist. In this line, it must be added that Martin does not require that such return needed a prior resurrection, which can be categorized as Nero et Antichristus. Regarding Augustine and more specifically to the first of two beliefs arising from the interpretation of the Pauline concept of the mystery of iniquity, it would be unwise to qualify Nero redivivus as it would be the resurrection of Nero. Nevertheless, it would not be unreasonable to define it with much more precision as Nero quod Antichristus incarnatus, while for the second type of belief, to include as a detail that Nero had not died, would fit better with the expression of Nero rediturus (Nero returns without dying). In the conclusion, it has also been determined that some sections or ideas from books of the New Testament literature and Old Testament as well as some aspects of theological thought developed by some patristic writers on the Antichrist (as the rebuilding of the Temple or the appearance of two “antichristological” figures) would have provided the ideological foundations to shape the apocalyptic thinking based on featuring Nero as a eschatological individual linked to the Antichrist prior to or contemporaneous with the latter. Commodian and Victorinus of Pettau (inspired by the eleventh chapter of the Book of Revelation) resort to the two witnesses and the Beast "rising from the abyss" to shape their apocalyptic visions of Nero as the Antichrist or the Antichrist as Nero (Nero quod Antichristus; Antichristus quod Nero) would end the life of the two witnesses, both been identified as Elijah and Enoch, becoming the new Peter and Paul but especially the apostles of the eschatological times. The texts of both Christian authors could well be cataloged with the following terminology: for Commodian, both Nero quod Antichristus and Antchristus quod Nero could be valid (depending on the consulted work) while for Victorinus of Pettau, the second one would be acceptable. The historical reputation of Nero as the first persecutor in Christian literature inaugurated by Tertullian and maintained unanimously by the future patristic writers would not have been strong enough to think of Nero as a memory of the past. This could be due to the fact that, three hundred years after his death, (of very different) ways the emperor's name would be associated with the Antichrist, confirming the existence of different beliefs of apocalyptic nature and with very similar contents. These would come either from individual authors or probably from tiny Christian groups of millenarian mentality contrary to the official eschatological theology, establishing itself a source of dread or fear unstoppable by the very idea that anyone who undertakes the first persecution and martyrizes Peter and Paul was able to return in the future prior to the Antichrist, incarnated in him or the latter adopting the appearance of the Emperor to trigger a much more violent persecution, becoming the name Nero a clear signal that the end of times was near.
Jiang Zhongying Lineage of Longyan, Fujian: A Case Study of the Reconstruction Of Patriarchal Lineage in Post-socialist China 後社會主義中國宗族的重建--以福建龍巖蔣鍾英宗族為例Zeng Ye Meng Tian, 曾葉萌恬 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立金門大學 閩南文化研究所 103 By anthropologic definition, lineages are unilineal descent groups organized on the basis of common descent from a known ancestor. Relationship between members is defined by genealogy and they share specific right and duty. In the Hans’ lineage system, the descent is traced in the male line, which is called “patrilineage”. This kind of community relationship form has been lasting thousands of years in China. Although its place in society had been going up and down according particular social environment and history influence, the lineage had never suffered a threat of breaking up until the new China was founded. Following the founding of new China, a serious of socialist campaigns had almost destroying ancestral worship in mainland China. However, since 1978, the reform and openness policy has changed everything from economic system to political and culture. Hence, lineage culture lasts and finally received a brighter future in modern post-socialist society. Zhongying Jiang lineage, has lived in Fujian over 600 years since their forefathers migrated to the Xinluo district in Longyan, Fujian in the Ming dynasty. They thrived in Ming and Qing dynasties when authorities encouraged civilians to worship ancestors and to compile genealogy. The 1911 Revolution and following the establishment of the Republican government had great impact on the Jiang lineage. They also struggled to survive in the wake of Socialism Revolution. But since 2000, the Jiang lineage has been entering a new phase. Different from traditional lineage, the Jiang lineage is doing every effort to develop new directions of lineage’s social function. The research shows a variety of social factors have influenced the Jiang lineage in Longyan, Fujian since China was into post-socialism in 1978. The Jiang lineage’s revival sheds light on the meaning of lineage revival and development for modern Chinese lineages in the urban areas.
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