The Heart of the Heart Sūtra: A Comparison of Medieval Chinese Interpretations of the Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra 《心經》之心：《般若波羅蜜多心經》在中世紀中國的解釋比較TZU-HSIAO SHIH, 釋自孝 2015 (has links)
碩士 佛光大學 佛教學系 103 This thesis is engaged in a scriptural interpretation contrast upon the Heart Sūtra (The referred title as the Heart Sūtra will be adopted hereafter on many occasions on behalf of its Sanskrit title, the Prajñāpāramitā Hṛdaya Sūtra.) among the commentarial traditions in Medieval China. The commentarial campaign of the Heart Sūtra launched from the 7th century, and the ensuing mission of commentating was still undertaken by a number of commentators amidst the later hundreds of years. Those commentators including Kuījī窺基, Fǎzáng法藏, Dàdiān大顛 and Zhìyuán智圓, who represented their individual monastic genealogies were all formally transmitted the teachings by the patriarchs of religious traditions, Yogācāra, Huáyán, Chán and Tiāntái. The contrast is administered amongst the four traditions corresponding to the specific illustrations towards the implications within the texts of the Heart Sūtra. At first, Huáyán and Tiāntái stand for the two major religious denominations which were noted for their individual teachings in commentating the Buddhist scriptures, which the Fivefold Teachings of Huáyán School went together with the Fourfold Teachings of Tiāntái School in Medieval China. On the other hand, Yogācāra and Chán hold quite divergent perspectives upon the explanations of phenomena. Yogācāra School stresses the existence of dependent origination in all phenomena, whereas Chán School emphasizes the emptiness of all phenomena. In the course of the scriptural interpretation contrast among these four commentarial traditions, we can see that they hold variant opinions on commentating the Heart Sūtra, but they actually did not contradict one another. Sometimes we can find that they mutually take advantage of the tenets of the other religious sects but not just the teaching of themselves in doing their commentaries. Furthermore, the introduction of the historical legends happened upon Xuánzàng and Kūkai as well as the linguistic inspection within the shorter text of the Heart Sūtra helps to acknowledge the origin of it, and which brings about a series of discussions over the main text and the mantra of this sūtra. Next, the quest towards the exegetical recognitions upon the heart of the Heart Sūtra corresponding to the above four Chinese commentarial traditions favors to identify the hermeneutical methodologies of them quite to accord with the individually monastic heredities. It is also noteworthy that in the process of contrasting the specific commentaries, we can find that the above four Chinese commentarial traditions play dramatic roles in offering their idiosyncratically philosophical thoughts, and that also favors us to cognize the respective teachings which convey the monastic experiences and Buddhist academic disciplines that specify the individually religious inheritances, and meanwhile makes us embrace a deeper and broader speculation upon the entailments within the text of the Heart Sūtra illustrated by the four traditions.
Sagan, Hans Nicholas
7 November 2015
Political protest is an increasingly frequent occurrence in urban public space. During times of protest, the use of urban space transforms according to special regulatory circumstances and dictates. The reorganization of economic relationships under neoliberalism carries with it changes in the regulation of urban space. Environmental design is part of the toolkit of protest control.
Existing literature on the interrelation of protest, policing, and urban space can be broken down into four general categories: radical politics, criminological, technocratic, and technicalprofessional. Each of these bodies of literature problematizes core ideas of crowds, space, and protest differently. This leads to entirely different philosophical and methodological approaches to protests from different parties and agencies.
This paper approaches protest, policing, and urban space using a critical-theoretical methodology coupled with person-environment relations methods. This paper examines political protest at American Presidential National Conventions. Using genealogical-historical analysis and discourse analysis, this paper examines two historical protest event-sites to develop baselines for comparison: Chicago 1968 and Dallas 1984. Two contemporary protest event-sites are examined using direct observation and discourse analysis: Denver 2008 and St. Paul 2008.
Results show that modes of protest policing are products of dominant socioeconomic models of society, influenced by local policing culture and historical context. Each of the protest event-sites studied represents a crisis in policing and the beginning of a transformation in modes of protest policing. Central to protest policing is the concept of territorial control; means to achieve this control vary by mode of protest policing, which varies according to dominant socioeconomic model. Protesters used a variety of spatial strategies at varying degrees of organization. Both protesters and police developed innovations in spatial practice in order to make their activities more effective.
This has significant consequences for professionalized urban design. Both protester and policing spatial innovation involves the tactical reorganization and occupation of urban space. As urban space plays a constituent role in protest and policing, environmental designers must be aware of the political consequences of their designs.
View of the Sage and the Awareness of the Transmission of Dao in Pre-Qin Confucian Philosophy: A Critical Study of The Analects, The Mencius and The Doctrine of the Mean 論先秦儒家的「聖人觀」及其道統意識—以《論語》、《孟子》、《中庸》為焦點Zhan-jie How, 侯展捷 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立臺灣大學 哲學研究所 103 Adhering strictly to the threefold research methodology of “defining key conceptual terms”, “clarifying the basis of propositions for value judgement” and “reconstructing the philosophical system”, this thesis engages in a comprehensive study of Pre-Qin Confucian texts with the intention of achieving the following objectives: (1) examine and elucidate the rich intellectual content of important concepts such as “sagely” 聖, “the sage” 聖人 and “the Way of the sages” 聖人之道; (2) explicate the appropriate conceptual relationship between “the Way of the Junzi” 君子之道and “the Way of the Sages” in the Confucian context; (3) reevaluate the fundamental Confucian tenets regarding human nature and the “transmission of Dao” based on our understanding of the Confucian “View of the Sage” 聖人觀, culminating in the advancement of a coherent and systematic explanation as to how the Confucian Dao should be properly realized. In order to achieve these objectives, this thesis seeks to answer four main questions. First and foremost, what is actually connoted by seemingly abstract concepts such as “sagely” and “the Sage”? In other words, what are the criteria for one to be recognized as a Sage in the Confucian sense? Secondly, how should we interpret the intricate conceptual relationship between the Junzi and the Sage? Thirdly, is it plausible for us to reflect on the awareness of the transmission of the Dao 道統意識 shared amongst Sages and Junzi (or Sage-disciples) based on our understanding of the Confucian “View of the Sage”? Last but not least, is the Confucian “View of the Sage” consistent with its view of human nature? If so, how do these two propositions cohere with each other? Based on a critical study of the Confucian “View of the Sage” as represented in The Analects of Confucius, The Mencius and The Doctrine of the Mean, followed by a thorough reassessment of the problematic Confucian concept of the “transmission of Dao”, we reached the following three conclusions. First, regarding the proper definition of the term “Sage” in Confucian philosophy, we understand it to be an honorable title conferred by succeeding generations of Junzi upon a Junzi who has passed on. In this sense, such a title is not merely a product of exalting the Junzi’s outstanding character or life’s work. More significantly, it signifies a mutual recognition within the wider Confucian community of this particular Junzi as an exemplar of morality not only worthy of respect and reverence, but also serving as inspiration and mentor to future generations of Junzi or Sage-disciples. Moreover, Junzi (or the Way of the Junzi) and the Sage (or the Way of the Sages) are not two self-sufficient and unrelated concepts within Confucian philosophy. They are in reality a pair of mutually justifying and reciprocally illuminating concepts: on the one hand, the Way of the Junzi posits the Way of the Sages as its ultimate end, on the other, the Way of the Sages fulfils its purpose insofar as the Way of the Junzi is manifested adequately in the world of experience. In more explicit terms, the Way of the Sages actualizes itself in the form of an “intentional field” 意義場域, which unites Confucians from different generations through the medium of Sage Teachings. In this unique “intentional field”, aspiring Junzi or Sage-disciples model their own pursuit of Dao on past Sages by studying their chronicles, achievements and personalities. More importantly, such an “intentional field” is tenable because Pre-Qin Confucians unanimously accept the fundamental notion that “the sagely and the profane share a common mind-heart”. On one end of the spectrum, every individual has the innate capacity to accord himself with the Way of the Sages through steadfastness of will and commitment to practice; on the other end, the Way of the Sages (through the medium of Sage Teachings) has the obligation to illuminate each individual’s path toward sagehood. Therefore, the Way of the Junzi and the Way of the Sages are in truth two closely-related and intertwining aspects of the Confucian Dao: Without postulating the Way of the Sages as the ultimate end to which the Way of the Junzi works tirelessly toward, the former would be reduced to nothing but an otiose concept; similarly, without the Way of the Sages playing an instrumental facilitating role in the manifestation of the Way of the Junzi, that the latter could validate its own realization would be nearly inconceivable. Secondly, building upon findings from preceding sections, we seek to highlight the common themes and ideas expounded in the three main Pre-Qin Confucian texts with regards to the Confucian “View of the Sage” and integrate these scattered and isolated narratives within a systematic theoretical framework, by introducing a novel concept known as “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” 道統意識. Even though the object of awareness is the historically problematic concept of Dao-tong 道統, our understanding of this concept departs from the traditional emphasis on the canonization and sanctification of certain unique individuals under a fixed genealogy (this is also the reason why we elect to translate 道統意識 as “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” and not “awareness of the genealogy of the Dao”). Instead, two things are most imperative to such a form of awareness: (1) the inborn potential and latent desire to attain sagehood which resides within every individual’s mind-heart; (2) the active facilitating role played by past sages in guiding Junzi or Sage-disciples of the present toward the ultimate goal of sagehood, through the mediating forms of outstanding moral accomplishments and exemplary personality models. In a nutshell, the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” is most concerned with the inner spiritual dimension of Confucian tradition. Furthermore, even though such a form of awareness is essentially grounded on the moral agent’s independent pursuit of a moral life, it is also able to transcend the relatively limited “intentional field” of each individual moral agent, and move freely within the shared “intentional field” jointly created and preserved by successive generations of Sages and Sage-disciples. Hence, our notion of the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” comprises of both synchronic and diachronic dimensions. In other words, it is not only interested in how moral agents interact with one another in their present form of existence (synchronic dimension), but also the proper way in which Sages and Sage-disciples across different timeframes accord and relate with one another, as exemplified by a strong sense of communion and shared identity (diachronic dimension). In the final part of the thesis, we turn our attention from the founding of a new theory to its justification within the entire Confucian theoretical framework. We compare the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” proposition (which epitomizes the Confucian Dao) with the Confucian view of human nature, and examine whether both propositions are logically consistent. Our conclusion is that Pre-Qin Confucians hold the basic view that “human nature is inclined toward goodness” 人性向善, and that this view of human nature shares a direct correspondence with the “awareness of the transmission of the Dao” proposition: Once an individual holds firm to the belief that “human nature is inclined toward goodness”, and consequently dedicates himself or herself to the realization of specific acts of goodness, he has in fact satisfied the conditions of Junzi or Sage-disciple. As a Junzi or Sage-disciple, he or she then consciously partakes in the continual manifestation and transmission of the Way of the Sages, in which case he or she is obligated to maintain an emotional and intellectual attachment to the Sages of the past.
Absorbing Taoism into Confucianism：Literati and Taoism in the Tang-Song Intellectual Transition 融道入儒：唐宋思想轉型期間的士人與道家傳統Chang-Yuan Lee, 李長遠 2015 (has links)
博士 國立臺灣大學 歷史學研究所 103 This dissertation attempts to delineate a more dynamic and convoluted history of the relation between Confucian and Taoist traditions in the transitional period from late Tang to early Song Dynasty. Intellectuals of medieval China generally recognized and appreciated the fusion of Confucian and Taoist traditions. In fact, Taoism wielded profound influence on their worldviews, political perspectives, and cultural lives. From mid-Tang Dynasty onwards, however, the relation between these two traditions was ready to shift. With the consciousness of subjectivity developed in the Confucianism Revival Movement, intellectuals such as Pi Rixiu began to advocate a stronger Confucianism oriented position, trying to establish it as the guiding principle of public affairs and delegate Taoism to private life. Nonetheless, his voice was of minority. The intellectual atmosphere in general stayed with a more tolerant one. From Five Dynasties to early Song period, intellectuals continued to accept the fusion of these two traditions. Taoism was prevalent in both public and private domains. Not only political discourses were under its guidance. Intellectuals embraced Taoist practices and ideals in their private lives. For those who are away from politics, the line between Confucianism and Taoism were even more thin and blurred. They didn’t identify themselves with, or confine their cultural upbringing within either side. On the opposite, the intellectual genealogies descending from those paramount figures—such as Chen Tuan, Chong Fang, and Ren Fenggu—in this period, whether they were located in south or north China, have all included Taoism in their pedagogy as a major part. Contrary to the popular impression that the intellectual history of Song Dynasty began with the request to recover the “pure and authentic Confucian spirit” it was in fact breed in the soil fertilized by both Taoist and Confucian traditions. When it came to the Emperor Renzong of Song’s reign, a significant shift took place. With Confucianism Revival Movement reaching its culmination, intellectuals of this period echoed Pi Rixiu’s position, requesting again the establishment of Confucian doctrines as the only proper principles under which the public world should be ordered. Fan Zhongyan was a prominent example. Arguing that Taoism should not be the guidance of social-political order, he demanded a political reformation based on only and solely Confucian ground. However, these endeavors do not mean that Taoism was ever since eradicated from the life of intellectuals. In fact, including Fan himself, many intellectuals continued to perform Taoist practices and aspired for Taoist ideals. Rather, the line between Confucianism and Taoism was drawn along that of “public” and “private.” Unlike their attack on it in political sphere, intellectuals of this period did not distinguish further Taoism from Confucianism on issues related to worldview and human nature. When Wang Anshi came to power in the second half of eleventh century, he did not exclude Taoism from politics. However, Taoist influence on politics eventually faded away. But, again, the triumph of Confucianism in public domain did not prevent intellectuals from drawing Taoist resources to explore other philosophical issues. For example, in Song Dynasty, Wang Anshi was the first person that offered a systematic theory about worldview and human nature, and his vision was still loaded with Taoist elements. Wang’s position later invited intensive and widespread debates on these philosophical issues, in which the relation between Confucianism and Taoism was once again focused. There were three major positions regarding this issue. Su Shi and Su Zhe brothers presented the first one. They held that these two traditions shared the same foundation, and had no intention to emphasize the subjectivity of Confucianism. The second position includes Shao Yong and Zhou Dunyi. Although they also inherited the long developed synthetic understanding of these two traditions, they diverted from Confucianism less than the first position. It is why they were later included in the genealogy of Neo-Confucianism. While Sima Guang, Zhang Zai, Cheng Hao, and Cheng Yi also drew intellectual resources from Taoism, they came to be much more critical towards it and believe that they are recovering the authentic spirit of Confucianism that has long lost. They represent the third position, which was most original and directly fostered the rise of Neo-Confucianism. In short, outlining the dynamic relation between Confucianism and Taoism, this dissertation expects to offer a more complicated picture of the intellectual history during the Tang-Song transitional period. In this regard, this dissertation also expects to make contribution to the current understanding of the prehistory of Neo-Confucianism.
Phylogeographic relationships and historical demography of Formosan serow based on mitochondrial D-loop sequences 利用粒線體D-loop序列探討臺灣長鬃山羊親緣地理關係與歷史族群波動Pei-Yu Sun, 孫佩妤 2015 (has links)
碩士 國立臺灣大學 動物科學技術學研究所 103 Phylogeography is the study of the genetic and geographic structure of populations and species. Phylogeographic analysis provides an insight into historical factors, such as climate change, by examining current patterns of genealogy and geographic distribution. Taiwan is a mountainous island, which contains one third area of mountains that are up to 1,000 meters of elevations and has experienced several glacial cycles. Whether the geological history and the past glacial periods affected the alpine large mammals’ genetic population structures and diversities in Taiwan hasn’t been extensively studied. Formosan serow（Capricornis swinhoei）is the only endemic wild bovidae animal that protected by law in Taiwan, and widely distributed in the mountainous regions（400-3,952 m elevation）throughout the island. Due to lacking of phylogeographic studies, the phylogeographic relationships and historical demography of Formosan serow remains unclear. In this study, we examined the mitochondria DNA D-loop regions (1) to assess the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationship, (2) to investigate the differentiation and phylogeographic relationships, and (3) to infer the historical evolutionary processes of Formosan serow in Taiwan. In total, 342 samples（feces, blood and tissue）collected from 36 localities throughout Taiwan was examined. We obtained 126 haplotypes from D-loop region（1,122-1,125 bp）. Two major clades with 100% supported bootstrap values were identified in D-loop sequences analysis. Furthermore, the two major clades were defined as Taroko and Sheipa major clade and Taiwan major clade because they were mainly distributed to the Taroko and Sheipa Mountain Area, and the entire mountainous area of Taiwan, respectively. The divergence time between these two phylogroups were examined at approximately 0.125 to 0.134 mya（million years ago）during Riss glaciation（0.2-0.13 mya）. According to AMOVA and mantel test, the Formosan serow population can be divided into three genetic units that existed significant genetic differentiation correlated to geographical distances（ΦCT = 0.26525; P < 0.001）（r = 0.6690; P < 0.001）. Mismatch distribution analysis, Neutrality tests and Bayesian skyline plots revealed that a significant population expansion occurred for the population of Taiwan major clade, with horizons dated to approximately 0.02 mya during the end of Würm glaciation（0.11-0.012 mya）. In conclusion, the geographical distance with restriction of gene flow was one of the factors that shaped current genetic differentiation and variant geographical distribution of haplotypes. In addition, past climate change caused by multiple glacial periods also played an important role in shaping the current phylogeographic structure. This study will provide usefully information for further phylogeographic study of Formosan serow, and other alpine species in Taiwan.
This thesis focuses on the Charles Bridge in Prague, which forms an important part of the changing topography of Prague as the seat of the Holy Roman Emperor. For this reason, the thesis considers first the role that the evolution of Prague's topography had on its early medieval bridges and the role of its first stone bridge in the life and the fabric of the city. The next part of this thesis examines the bridge and its tower in its chronological context – confirming Charles IV as the patron of the bridge, setting the date for the completion of its bridge tower, and supporting the role of Peter Parler in its execution. In this section, I also discuss the architecture of the bridge tower and especially its relationship with the contemporary works on Prague cathedral’s choir. Particular focus will be given to the bridge’s triradial net vault, the first of its kind in Bohemia. Iconographically, this thesis interprets the sculptural programme of the bridge tower in the context of royal and legal rituals of the city. I argue that the sculptural programme emphasizes the envisioned continuity of the Luxembourg dynasty in Bohemia and the Holy Roman Empire. This sculpted tableau of royal power acted as a powerful backdrop to royal processions — most notably the pre-coronation procession — as a part of a series of genealogical stations laid out across the city. In the day to day life of Prague, the Charles Bridge is presented as a strategically important place for the execution of law and justice. Lastly, this thesis presents the changing focus of the Bohemian court after the death of Charles IV and how the emblems of Wenceslas IV, which were added to the bridge tower, demonstrate the development of a new chivalric language in the last decades of the fourteenth century.
Please Follow the Sound of My Footsteps - Sound, Walk and the Mediated Milieu in Janet Cardiff’s Audio Walks 請跟著我的腳步聲走 ─論珍奈‧卡蒂芙行走作品的聲音、行走與風景Li, Yueh-Tuan, 李悅端 2015 (has links)
博士 國立交通大學 應用藝術研究所 103 Canadian artist Janet Cardiff, the prominent artist of “audio walk”, uses pre-recorded audio streams, combining mobile technology with personal headphones, that guide people to walk in a specific area or along a prescribed route. As an increasingly significant mode of artistic and cultural practice over the past two decades, “audio walk” reconfigures contemporary urban spaces in aspects of geographical, affective, and sensory experiences. The artworks of audio walk by Janet Cardiff are fantastic in the sense that they conflated acoustic technologies and narrative strategies to construct a mediated world, and then situated participants in the virtual world that was inextricably intertwined with the physical surroundings. At once as a form of perception and a form of art that emphasized transforming the ambiance of urban spaces rapidly with playful directives and events, her walks can genealogically be traced back to the “urban drifting” of the Situationist International in the 1950s. But this article wants to argue that Cardiff’s walks were built upon what we see and what we hear, namely two different worlds split by earphones listening. The multi-layered sounds in the later were comprised mainly of verbals, soundscape and rhythmic motion reified in Cardiff’s on-site recording and walking. These sound recordings were subsequently relocated and actualized by the participants through listening and walking at the same location. These sounds overlapped the milieu, thereby creating the effects of spatial splices and mis-recognition. This article concludes, by way of examining her major walking artworks, that these sensory gaps and extensions in “audio walk” are worthy of exploration not only because they indicated the possibility for heterogeneous spheres, but also because they served as a reflexive reference that enables the participants to (re)identify the creation of the mediated world as well as their relations to it.
LO, Tsan-Lan, 羅湛然
碩士 國立金門大學 建築學系 103 Traditionalism or Classism is always inseparable from the development of architecture no matter West or East. For instance, the Renaissance and Neo-Classism both were representation of Classism in west. In Asia, The new architecture was concerned with traditional style that has borne hundreds of years ago and brought rather particular cultural phenomenon through Imperialism and colonial influence. First, we would review semi-colonial Xiamen’s architecture and urbanism from the perspective of the third world history vis-à-vis that of the world history, with emphasis on the genealogy of the colonial architecture and urbanism in the late 18th and the 19th centuries. Second, through a comparative study with some recent research on British and French colonies, we would demonstrate the difference between them and research on Chinese modern architecture and urbanism. Following that, a comparative study among different concessions, we would show not only the commonality of semi-colonial architecture and urbanism among them but also the colonial specificity of Imperialism. Finally, we would attempt to survey the architectural discourse concerning the historical consciousness and the attitude of historical interpretation. Further, we would reveal the problematic structuring the liner connection and lineage of symbolic space by querying disseminated architectural value in the conjuncture.
Querying the 'new capitalist' agenda : a critical (re)contextualisation of '360 degree feedback' and the production of the empowered, self-governing, organizational subjectSlater, Rory F. 2015 (has links)
The present thesis comprises a three part qualitative project that queries a specific facet of popular management rhetoric: namely, that the contemporary economic agent operates as an empowered self-governing agent. It critically engages with the much debated demise of ‘old capitalism’ and ‘new capitalism’s’ claims of workplace democratisation. The thesis begins with a critical (re)contextualisation of what had become colloquially know as ‘360 degree feedback’. An in-depth genealogical analysis is presented that traces the genesis of three prominent multi-rater/source feedback mechanisms between 1940 and 2011: the T-Group, the therapeutic community and contemporary 360 degree feedback. It is argued that each of these has emerged out of historical attempts to combine disciplinary technologies/techniques with psychological knowledge(s) and expertise in a bid to empower individuals to modify their own behaviour in line with a moral and ethical code of ‘self’ development and ‘self’ mastery. The thesis then examines ‘how’ the contemporary multi-rater/source feedback mechanism of 360 degree feedback is constructed in and through expert discourse(s), and considers to what extent these constructions might represent it as heterotopic. Twelve key informant interviews are subjected to discourse analysis. It is argued that those human technologies/techniques in which individuals are enfolded, objectified, rationalised and normalised are themselves heterotopic and, as such, constitute alternative spatial locations in which individuals are subjected to the effects of power and knowledge. The final study provides a contextualising step inside 360 feedback practices and processes and considers how individuals inhabit and make sense of the alternative space it provides. A form of discourse analysis that synthesises macro and micro discursive approaches is applied. This particular section explores how discursive agents actively negotiate this enacted space and formulate a sense of self within it. In keeping with the critical nature of the thesis, emergent discourses and interpretative repertoires are discussed in terms of the possible ideological functions they perform. When considered in this way, it is concluded that individuals are not being less controlled due to the enlightened nature of workplace democracy. Rather they are merely being controlled differently insofar as it is they and they alone that take up the goal of self- development and, as such, bring their own goals, their own aspirations and their own behaviour in line with a moral and ethical code of ‘self’ development and ‘self’ mastery.
Pathologies of recognition : the communicative turn and the renewed possibility of a critical theory of societyHazeldine, Gary 2015 (has links)
This thesis explores the communicative turn in critical theory, beginning with Jürgen Habermas’s and Axel Honneth’s criticisms of the work of the early Frankfurt school; it then analyses Habermas’s ideas on language and discourse ethics alongside Axel Honneth’s development of a ‘recognitive-theoretical’ model of Critical Theory. Following Honneth’s lead, I then bring the work of Michel Foucault into dialogue with the communicative turn and explore the merits of both approaches. Habermas’s and Honneth’s accounts of non-coercive dialogical exchange are found wanting, and I argue that they idealise the public sphere, communication and recognition, and also reproduce procedural conceptions of freedom that abstract from difference and particularity. Foucault compensates for this, but his genealogical work displays an excessive and indiscriminate view of power, alongside an inadequate conception of subjectivity, whilst his later work on ethics/aesthetics idealises the self as a work of art and lacks a substantive account of culture, democracy, and responsibility. I argue that Theodor Adorno’s account of non-reified culture and ethics – as a response to the suffering produced by commodification, identity thinking and technological rationality – overcomes the shortcomings of the work of Habermas, Honneth and Foucault, whilst providing us with a more complete account of recognition and solidarity.
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