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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
91

Portrait sets in Tudor and Jacobean England

Daunt, Catherine 2015 (has links)
This thesis examines the taste for sets of easel portraits in England during the reigns of Elizabeth I and James VI and I. Looking primarily at sets of historical figures, particularly English kings and queens, the thesis aims to assess the extent of the fashion and identify the audience for such sets. The material qualities of the paintings are discussed and the methods of production, as well as the function and meaning of specific sets. The first chapter examines the evidence for the earliest portrait sets of this type in England and suggests that innovations in art and architecture at Court had a significant influence on the development of the genre. The earliest evidence for portrait sets in aristocratic collections is examined and specific examples of early known sets are discussed. The second and third chapters look at the intellectual context in which the fashion for portrait sets emerged. It is suggested that humanist ideas about the display of portraiture and related artistic trends on the continent contributed to the emerging demand for this type of painting in England. It is argued that the widespread interest in history, genealogy and antiquarianism at this time led to a demand for images of historical figures. In addition, it is suggested that portrait sets were often used to communicate messages of legitimacy and authority by implying that a family or institution had an illustrious and lengthy lineage. The final two chapters discuss known portrait sets in detail and include case studies of specific sets. The fourth chapter focuses on sets of English kings and queens and the fifth chapter on sets of illustrious figures drawn from various categories of famous men and women. The latter includes case studies of a set formerly at Weston, Warwickshire and a set at Knole, Kent.
92

[Of degrees and villas : writing and reading 'testimonios' of high school graduates from a shanty town in Buenos Aires in their attempts to access and succeed in post-compulsory education studies.] This is not a thesis

Del Monte, Pablo 2015 (has links)
This work is a collection of chapters that revolve around the issues of representing and interpreting the educational experiences of students who live in a disadvantaged neighbourhood in Buenos Aires, in their attempts to succeed in post-compulsory education (higher and further Education). The work presents the story of a student from this population in the form of a testimonio, a methodological discussion on the nature and uses of testimonio in the light of Foucauldian genealogy principles, a proposal for the ethical exercise of reading and writing the testimonios produced, and three exercises of interpretation which address and problematize assumptions that operate in the understanding of villas and their inhabitants. The methodological discussion draws on principles of ethnography and Foucauldian genealogy to consider the use and nature of stories for the purposes of doing research. It presents and discusses the Latin American testimonio as a form of account that intends to represent the voice of subaltern groups with the aim of contributing to social change. The ethical discussion will look closely at the ways in which the researcher becomes a subject while doing research, both in his/her relationship with the object of study and in the relationship with his/herself. In this sense, it will look at the violence involved in the production of knowledge that is exerted in relation to an ‘object’ of study. Finally, this work includes three exercises of interpretation aimed at re-thinking villas through ‘using and troubling’ conceptual tools in the reading of the testimonios co-constructed in this research. The idea of villas as neighbourhoods abandoned by the State, separated from the city and outside the norm is re-thought. The interpretations produced in this set of chapters will look at the complexity of the position of the students producing testimonios in their condition as inhabitants of villas.
93

"What's the problem of 'health inequality' represented to be?" : a post-structuralist analysis of English public health policy 1980-2011

Kriznik, Natasha Marie 2015 (has links)
The analysis of policies designed to address health inequalities, or more broadly speaking “differences in health”, tends to focus on evaluating policies in order to determine their effectiveness and to improve the design of future interventions. Such approaches are concerned with problem-solving as opposed to problem-questioning. Consequently there is little exploration of how the problem of “differences in health” is problematised in these policies, how policy problematisations change over time, and how governable subjects are produced as a result of problematisations of problems. Bacchi’s (1999, 2009) “What’s the problem represented to be?” framework, informed by Foucault’s theory of governmentality and methods of problematisation, archaeology and genealogy, was used to analyse 32 English public health policy documents in order to address these questions. Following the analysis, three problematisations of “differences in health” and their corresponding governable subjects were identified: the Informational problematisation and the “responsible chooser”; the Constraints problematisation and the “constrained chooser”; and the Paternalistic Libertarian problematisation and the “flawed chooser”. The archaeological analysis made it possible to identify underlying frameworks of thought which shaped policy problematisations of “differences in health” at specific points in time. The genealogical analysis suggested that while new problematisations emerged over time as the result of contingent conditions allowing for the development of new ideas, ultimately there was a consistent concern across all the period with understanding how individuals make choices about their health and how best to ensure people made healthy choices in order to reduce “differences in health”. This is clearly demonstrated through the identification of subjects as “choosers” and helps to explain the continuing emphasis within public health on creating the “right conditions” to allow individuals to make healthy choices, and to encourage individuals to govern themselves when making choices about their health.
94

'Knowledge as development' : a critique of the knowledge economy

Salam, Umar A. 2015 (has links)
The aim of this thesis is to provide a theoretical critique of the Knowledge Economy discourse, the dominant discourse in which development is equated with the economic exploitation of knowledge. The nature of the critique is political in the sense that the problem with 'building a knowledge economy' as a model for development is that the accounts (such as they are) of how to go about doing so seem fatally undermined by their neglect of questions of power and politics - questions which this thesis will argue are essential to understanding the relationship between knowledge and development. The emergence of the discourse itself and the way in which its ideas are implemented can also be seen in political terms, in that the depoliticisation of development that it entails is itself a political position. The thesis is structured as an introduction followed by three main parts and a conclusion. In the Introduction and Part 1, I explain the nature of the research and the methods used, and provide a genealogy of the Knowledge Economy (KE) discourse, which includes the empirical element of this research, namely a series of interviews with key actors in the emergence of the discourse. In so doing, I historicise the discourse within the specific institutional history and politics of the major organisations (World Bank and the OECD) which have done the most of any to promote it. From this I identify the key theoretical ideas (Human Capital Theory, Innovation Systems, Hayekian Neoliberalism, Information Economics and Endogenous Growth Theory) which underpin the discourse and which are then the subject of critical analysis in Part 2. I make the case that the Knowledge Economy should not be understood as a robust analytical framework, empirical methodology or policy template, but instead as the reconceptualisation of 'questions of knowledge' in terms of markets. Specifically, the discourse depends upon a number of qualitatively different ways in which knowledge can be represented in, and transformed by, the operations of markets. These representations derive from three main schools off economic thought. I describe how each offers a critique of the others and yet how the Knowledge Economy is obtained as a synthesis of the three. In Part 3, I firstly illustrate a case of the Knowledge Economy discourse in action, namely Higher Education reform in India. I explain how the approaches that were studied in Part 1 and which were developed at the World Bank and the OECD in the late 1990s and early 2000s were applied in practice in India in the mid 2000s. I argue that these applications illustrate the claims of Part 2 regarding knowledge and markets. I then describe the politicised nature of Indian Higher Education and argue that no satisfactory account can be given without an engagement with these political economy factors. Following on from this, I then consider how adopting a KE approach of conceptualising knowledge in terms of markets might be subject to various forms of political analysis and develop a political economy critique that synthesises three theoretical approaches: (a) the politics of markets; (b) commodification; and (c) governmentality. From this I conclude that the KE approach is fundamentally flawed as an account of development.
95

Quel cadre théorique et pratique pour l'utilisation de la sélection génomique dans l'amélioration génétique des chevaux ? Which theoretical and practical framework for the use of genomic selection in genetic evaluation of horses?

Brard, Sophie 8 October 2015 (has links)
La sélection génomique substitue à la connaissance de la généalogie celle des séquences d’ADN et connait un succès spectaculaire dans la sélection des bovins laitiers. En équin, le gain de précision pour les valeurs génétiques en CSO a été estimé faible entre la généalogie et la génomique, éventuellement à cause des particularités des populations d’apprentissage et de validation. L’objectif est de définir pour les races équines les conditions d’efficacité et de fonctionnement de la sélection génomique. La partie théorique de la thèse a consisté en une méta-analyse afin de comprendre le lien entre précision théorique et observée en fonction des paramètres des populations. L’étude a montré l’importance du nombre efficace de marqueurs Me. Ce paramètre spécifique de la population, de la structure génomique et de la parenté doit être évalué, au même titre que l’héritabilité en génétique classique. D’un point de vue pratique, la 1ère voie d’amélioration était de rechercher des gènes à effet majeur sur l’aptitude au concours de saut d’obstacles (CSO) ou au concours complet. Aucun gène majeur n’a été localisé malgré des détections significatives. Le 2nd levier pour améliorer l’estimation des valeurs génétiques en CSO était d’utiliser le Single-Step, méthode qui combine l’information génomique des étalons génotypés et la généalogie de l’ensemble des chevaux non génotypés utilisés pour l’indexation. L’évaluation pour le CSO a donc été revisitée. Malgré le re-calcul de l’héritabilité et l’application des points sur toute la période, le gain en précision reste faible. La sélection génomique a également été testée sur des chevaux d’endurance, mais comme pour le CSO les précisions obtenues pour le moment ne sont pas assez élevées pour justifier une utilisation de la sélection génomique. Récemment, un gène majeur agissant sur l’aptitude à trotter (DMRT3) a été identifié. Malgré l’effet très négatif d’un allèle sur la qualification et les performances précoces, le Trotteur français (TF) est polymorphe pour le gène à cause d’un effet positif de ce même allèle sur les performances tardives. La sélection classique et la sélection génomique ont été comparées en incluant ou non dans le modèle un marqueur lié à DMRT3, nous permettant d’identifier la meilleure combinaison de modèle et de méthode à utiliser pour estimer les valeurs génétiques du TF. Enfin, le paramètre Me a été estimé dans les populations de chevaux utilisées au cours de la thèse, et les résultats des évaluations génomiques ont été comparés en fonction de Me et des autres paramètres influant sur la précision de la sélection génomique. Deux nouveaux projets prévoyant de génotyper des chevaux de CSO d’une part et des TF d’autre part devraient permettre respectivement d’améliorer la précision de l’évaluation génomique en CSO et de confirmer l’intérêt de la prise en compte de DMRT3 dans l’évaluation génomique des TF. Genomic selection uses genotypes information instead of pedigree information for the estimation of breeding values. In dairy cattle, the selection schemes were greatly improved with this method. In horses, a first attempt of genomic selection showed that the evaluation accuracy was not much improved when using genotypes information compared to classic evaluation, possibly because of the structure of the reference and validation populations. The objective of the thesis was to define the theoretical and practical conditions for the use of genomic selection in horses. The theoretical work of the thesis consisted in a meta-analysis to understand the relation between observed and theoretical accuracy depending on the parameters of the population. We proved the importance of the effective number of independent segments in the genome Me. This parameter is specific of the population and of the genomic structure and relationship structure. We recommend to estimate this parameter before genomic evaluation, just like heritability that is estimated before genetic evaluation. Regarding practical tasks of the thesis, the first solution to improve the breeding values estimation for jumping performances was to look for genes having a major effect on performances in jumping competitions and three-day’s events, but no major gene was evidence in spite of significant detections. The 2nd solution was to perform a single-step evaluation. This method combines information from genotyped stallions and from the pedigree of the whole population. Even if the heritability was re-estimated and points distributed to all horses to have a homogeneous criteria, the accuracy of genomic evaluation was not much improved. Genomic selection was also tested on horses running endurance races, but as for jumping the accuracy was not high enough. Recently, a major gene having a huge effect on the ability of horses to trot was evidenced (DMRT3). Even if one allele has a negative effect on qualification and early earnings, French Trotter (FT) is still heterozygote because of a positive effect of this allele on late performances. Genetic and genomic evaluations were compared with or without using in the model a SNP linked to DMRT3 as a fixed effect. This study allowed identifying the best combination of model and method to use for estimation of FT breeding values. Finally, the parameter Me was estimated in the populations of horses used in the thesis. The results of genomic evaluations were compared according to Me and the other parameters having an influence on the accuracy of genomic evaluations. Two new projects will genotype more jumping horses and FT, they should allow to improve the accuracy of genomic evaluation for jumping horses and to acknowledge the interest of using DMRT3 in the genomic evaluation of FT.
96

Global/Airport

Denicke, Lars 23 September 2015 (has links)
Ausgehend von der These, Luftverkehr finde am Boden statt, entwickelt die am Institut für Kulturwissenschaft verteidigte Dissertation eine spezifische Geopolitik des Luftverkehrs. Der Luftverkehr wird dabei über seine Operationen am Boden und an Flughäfen untersucht. Der genaue Blick auf die technischen Details bei der Implementierung dieser Anlagen in machthistorisch entscheidenden Momenten des 20. Jahrhunderts ermöglicht eine Revision geopolitischen Denkens und eröffnet einen innovativen Zugang für eine Genealogie der Globalisierung. Die Dissertation analysiert die Bewegungen in der Luft auf ihre stets lokalen und immanent territorialen Dimensionen – und widerlegt so den vermeintlichen und häufig wiederholten Anspruch an den Luftverkehr, er sei das globale, raumvernichtende Verkehrssystem par excellence (Carl Schmitt, Paul Virilio, Martin Heidegger). Die Dissertation ist auch ein Beitrag zur Genealogie von Medientheorie, insofern sie unter Rückgriff auf Harold A. Innis die Übertragung nicht von Zeichen, sondern von Personen und Gütern zum Gegenstand hat. Historisch geht sie von der Kriegslogistik der USA im Zweiten Weltkrieg aus. Sie bezieht heterogene Quellen ein: politische Programme und Debatten, internationale Beziehungen; philosophische, juridische, ökonomische und urbanistische Diskurse; ingenieurstechnische Entwicklungen und militärische Doktrinen. Sie nimmt den Leser mit auf eine Reise über alle Meere und Kontinente mit Fokus auf Saudi-Arabien, Zentral- und Südafrika, Brasilien und den Nahen Osten, untersucht Ereignisse von den 1930er bis 1970er Jahren und endet mit einem Epilog zu den Anschlägen vom 9. September 2011. This dissertation develops a specific geopolitics of aviation, taking an original perspective as it starts with the assumption that air travel happens on the ground. The focus is on a thorough examination of the technical details for implementing the facilities of airports at moments decisive for the distribution of power in the 20th century. Geopolitical discourses are revised to enable an original understanding for the genealogy of globalisation. The dissertation analyses movements in the air with view on their immanent local and territorial dimensions. It breaks with the overcome understanding of aviation as a traffic system that is global and that destroys space as no other (Carl Schmitt, Paul Virilio, Martin Heidegger). The dissertation was disputed at the Institute for Cultural Studies. It is also a contribution to the genealogy of media theory, following in the footsteps of Harold A. Innis, as it focuses on the neglected transmission of goods and people instead of signs and codes. Starting point is the US military logistics in World War II. The heterogeneous material under review includes political programmes and debates; international relations; philosophical, juridical and economic discourses; urbanism, engineering and military doctrines. It takes the reader on a journey around the world, with focus on Saudi-Arabia, Central and Southern Africa, Brazil and the Near East, taking into account events from the 1930s to 1970s, and concluding with an epilogue on the events of 9/11.
97

The development of the Welsh country house : ‘dy lŷs enaid y wlad/your court, the soul of the land’

Baker, Mark 2015 (has links)
This thesis focuses on two main themes in the architectural history of the country house in Wales, investigating firstly its development, and secondly some of the distinctively Welsh features of these houses. It argues that both themes have been marginal in recent historiography of Welsh architecture, culture and society. In this work, houses owned by families of Welsh descent are discussed to ascertain whether ethnicity and nationhood are actually identifiable in the architecture. Critical analysis of built fabric is supplemented and supported by primary sources such as the poetry of the bards, building accounts and records, architectural drawings, travel journals, photographs, works of art and a variety of secondary sources. In this thesis, it becomes apparent that one of the most distinctive features of country houses in Wales is the unit-system. This form of dual planning is a peculiarly Welsh feature, enabling two ‘households’ to co-exist simultaneously, adjacent to each other but not necessarily physically connected. Such forms of building are absent from most regions of England, and its presence here is due to differences in the development of the Welsh family. The existence of a different legal system and associated customs in Wales, such as the prominence of gavelkind and female inheritance, are thus expressed in physical form. This practice has set a precedent for design and planning which has influenced a distinctly Welsh country house plan, based not only upon the need to accommodate several family members but also on a desire to preserve the domestic property of their ancestors as a physical manifestation of precedency, pedigree and memory. This elevation of genealogy is a defining feature among Welsh gentry families, who distinguished themselves not by wealth but by blood, which in England became reversed. The development of the Welsh country house offered an alternative form of nationalism, which was multifaceted in nature, and formed an essential element of architectural history in Wales.
98

Foucault's concepts of critique

Rahmani, Behrad 2015 (has links)
What is the relation between Foucault's work and critique? Foucault made his debt to the critical tradition clear on different occasions, either by attempting to define critique in the light of his archaeo-genealogical studies (1990: 154-155) or through explicit statements like "we are all Neo-Kantians" (2001: 546). Thus, it is not surprising that a considerable number of books and articles have been dedicated to the study of the relation between Foucault's oeuvre and the notion of critique. These studies, although varying in their scope and emphases, tend to adopt two major interpretative strategies. The first attempts to give a coherent reading of Foucault's work by making it a project that was organized around the central theme of the critique from the beginning. Beatrice Han's Foucault's Critical Project: Between the Transcendental and the Historical (2002) is one of the best examples of such an attempt. The second strategy, instead of doing a chronological study of the development of the notion of critique in Foucault's oeuvre, takes its starting point to be one of his, more often than not, later notions in order to present a 'Foucauldian critique', in the light of which the rest of his work needs to be re-interpreted. Colin Koopman, for example, in Genealogy as Critique: Foucault and the Problems of Modernity (2013), argues that Foucault's approach to critique consists in "the historical problematization of the present", on the basis of which it is possible to distinguish between "critical methods" (e.g., genealogy and archaeology) and "critical concepts" (e.g., discipline and Biopower) in his oeuvre. This thesis presents a chronological study of Foucault's oeuvre in order to reveal the existence of the multiplicity of concepts of critique, in which the relation between its variables is shifting perpetually. These variables, taking inspiration from Deleuze (1991; 2006), are: Articulation, Visibility and Subject. However, instead of identifying each of them with a specific phase of Foucault's 'critical project', I will argue that all of them have always been present but the relation between them goes through significant changes and thus gives rise to those phases. This thesis is a detailed analysis of the schemata of Foucauldian critique in order to demonstrate that instead of a singular notion, his oeuvre provides us with a plural concept of critique.
99

Evolutionary Dynamics of a Multiple-Ploidy System in Arabidopsis Arenosa

Arnold, Brian 2015 (has links)
Whole-genome duplication (WGD), which leads to polyploidy, has been implicated in speciation and biological novelty. In plants, many species have experienced historical bouts of WGD or exhibit extant ploidy variation, which is likely representative of an early stage in the evolution of new polyploid lineages. To elucidate the evolutionary dynamics of autopolyploids and species with multiple ploidy levels, I develop population genetic theory in Chapter 2 that I use in Chapter 4 to extract information about the evolutionary history of Arabidopsis arenosa, a European wildflower that has diploid and autotetraploid populations. Chapter 3 involves a separate project exploring the ascertainment bias in restriction site associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). In Chapter 2, I develop coalescent models for autotetraploid species with tetrasomic inheritance and show that the ancestral genetic process in a large population without recombination may be approximated using Kingman’s standard coalescent, with a coalescent effective population size 4N. Using this result, I was able to use existing coalescent simulation programs to show in Chapter 4 that, in A. arenosa, a widespread autotetraploid race arose from a single ancestral population. This autopolyploidization event was not accompanied by immediate reproductive isolation between diploids and tetraploids in this species, as I find evidence of extensive interploidy admixture between diploid and tetraploid populations that are geographically close. To draw these conclusions about population history in Chapter 4, I used a reduced representation genome-sequencing approach based on restriction digestion. However, I was bothered by the possibility that sampling chromosomes based on restriction digestion may introduce a bias in allele frequency estimation due to polymorphisms in restriction sites. To explore the effects of this nonrandom sampling and its sensitivity to different evolutionary parameters, we developed a coalescent-simulation framework in Chapter 3 to mimic the biased recovery of chromosomes in RAdseq experiments. We show that loci with missing haplotypes have estimated diversity statistic values that can deviate dramatically from true values and are also enriched for particular genealogical histories. These results urge caution when applying this technique to make population genetic inferences and helped me tailor analyses in Chapter 4 to accommodate for this particular method of DNA sequencing. Biology, Organismic and Evolutionary
100

Family, ‘Foreigners’, and Fictive Kinship: a Bioarchaeological Approach to Social Organization at Late Classic Copan

2015 (has links)
abstract: In anthropological models of social organization, kinship is perceived to be fundamental to social structure. This project aimed to understand how individuals buried in neighborhoods or patio groups were affiliated, by considering multiple possibilities of fictive and biological kinship, short or long-term co-residence, and long-distance kin affiliation. The social organization of the ancient Maya urban center of Copan, Honduras during the Late Classic (AD 600-822) period was evaluated through analysis of the human skeletal remains drawn from the largest collection yet recovered in Mesoamerica (n=1200). The research question was: What are the roles that kinship (biological or fictive) and co-residence play in the internal social organization of a lineage-based and/or house society? Biodistance and radiogenic strontium isotope analysis were combined to identify the degree to which individuals buried within 22 patio groups and eight neighborhoods, were (1) related to one another and (2) of local or non-local origin. Copan was an ideal place to evaluate the nuances of migration and kinship as the site is situated at the frontier of the Maya region and the edge of culturally diverse Honduras. The results highlight the complexity of Copan’s social structure within the lineage and house models proposed for ancient Maya social organization. The radiogenic strontium data are diverse; the percentage of potential non-local individuals varied by neighborhood, some with only 10% in-migration while others approached 40%. The biodistance results are statistically significant with differences between neighborhoods, patios, and even patios within one neighborhood. The high level of in-migration and biological heterogeneity are unique to Copan. Overall, these results highlight that the Copan community was created within a complex system that was influenced by multiple factors where neither a lineage nor house model is appropriate. It was a dynamic urban environment where genealogy, affiliation, and migration all affected the social structure. Dissertation/Thesis Doctoral Dissertation Anthropology 2015

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