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  • About
  • The Global ETD Search service is a free service for researchers to find electronic theses and dissertations. This service is provided by the Networked Digital Library of Theses and Dissertations.
    Our metadata is collected from universities around the world. If you manage a university/consortium/country archive and want to be added, details can be found on the NDLTD website.
41

Contratos coligados e a exceção do contrato não cumprido

Guimarães, Luciano Cezar Vernalha 23 August 2018 (has links)
Submitted by Filipe dos Santos (fsantos@pucsp.br) on 2018-09-26T10:02:46Z No. of bitstreams: 1 Luciano Cezar Vernalha Guimarães.pdf: 1343214 bytes, checksum: 6b166669b02d99c7945ee3e55a39626b (MD5) / Made available in DSpace on 2018-09-26T10:02:46Z (GMT). No. of bitstreams: 1 Luciano Cezar Vernalha Guimarães.pdf: 1343214 bytes, checksum: 6b166669b02d99c7945ee3e55a39626b (MD5) Previous issue date: 2018-08-23 / The related contracts may be considered a new modality of contractual arrangement, with own particularities and peculiarities. The traditional studies of contract, despite providing the theoretical framework for the legal treatment of related contracts, does not account for disciplining all the potentialities associated with this type of contracting. The doctrine, therefore, has looked over the subject, in order to produce material capable of conceptualizing, systematizing and classifying the related contracts. In this context, it becomes relevant the verification of legal consequences of related contracts. Among the consequences, it is important here to deal with exception non adimpleti contractus. The purpose is to establish criteria and parameters for the application of the exceptio non adimpleti contractus in the related contracts / Os contratos coligados encerram nova modalidade de arranjo contratual, com particularidades e peculiaridades próprias. A dogmática tradicional dos contratos, a despeito de fornecer o arcabouço teórica para o tratamento jurídico dos contratos coligados, não dá conta de disciplinar todas as potencialidades ligadas a este tipo de contratação. A doutrina, assim, tem se debruçado sobre o tema, de modo a produzir material capaz de conceituar, sistematizar e classificar os contratos coligados. Neste contexto, torna-se relevante a verificação das consequências jurídicas da coligação contratual. Dentre as consequências, importa aqui tratar da exceção do contrato não cumprido. O propósito é estabelecer critérios e parâmetros para a aplicação da exceptio non adimpleti contractus no âmbito dos contratos coligados
42

Efficient breach theory – a análise do rompimento eficiente dos contratos empresariais à luz da legislação brasileira e da law and economics

Iolovitch, Marcos Brossard January 2016 (has links)
O presente trabalho examina a teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, oriunda do direito anglo-saxão, segundo a qual, sinteticamente, um contrato só será cumprido se os custos para adimplir a obrigação forem inferiores àqueles incorridos pelo descumprimento, admitindo-se, portanto, o inadimplemento voluntário dos contratos. O objetivo é, além de apresentar a teoria, verificar a possibilidade de aplicação da mesma no Brasil, com enfoque especial nos contratos empresariais. Para tanto, o trabalho é estruturado em introdução, quatro capítulos de desenvolvimento e encerra com a conclusão. Superada a introdução, que apresenta mais profundamente as razões que levaram à pesquisa sobre o tema, o capítulo 2 versa acerca dos paradigmas clássicos de responsabilidade contratual, com destaque às modalidades de extinção do contrato sem a consecução do seu objeto bem como às regras indenizatórias aplicáveis nestes casos, em que se busca cotejá-las com o entendimento jurisprudencial. A seguir, o capítulo 3 traz as premissas teóricas da Law and Economics focadas no Direito dos Contratos necessárias à compreensão, no capítulo seguinte, da teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, que representa o tema central do presente estudo. Neste capítulo 4 será feita uma abordagem teórica e prática da teoria sob exame, apontando sua origem histórica, desenvolvimento e aceitação do paradigma, identificando os requisitos para sua aplicação, potenciais barreiras e também as críticas doutrinárias para, em seguida, delinear o que seria o cenário ideal para sua aplicação, bem como um tópico dedicado exclusivamente à sua abordagem prática e metodologia, indicando os elementos que devem ser sopesados antes de se tomar a decisão de romper um contrato. No capítulo 5, verifica-se quais requisitos são aceitos, as efetivas barreiras e como elas podem ser superadas para autorizar a sua incidência no Brasil, tanto os de caráter jurídico como os extralegais. Para o fechamento, o último capítulo apresenta as conclusões alcançadas através da pesquisa, indicando pontos relevantes sobre a teoria da quebra eficiente e respondendo ao principal questionamento cuja resposta era almejada, se é possível aplicar a teoria no Brasil, sob quais circunstâncias e em qual extensão. / The current paper examines the efficient breach theory of contracts, from the Anglo-Saxon law origin, according to which, briefly, a contract will only be performed if the costs for performance of the obligation are lower than those incurred for non-performance, admitting, therefore, intentional breach of contract. The goal is, in addition to presenting the theory, check the possibility of applying it in Brazil, focusing mostly on business contracts. Therefore, the work is structured into introduction, four chapters of development and ends with the conclusion. Surpassed the introduction, which explains more deeply the reasons that led to research on the topic, chapter 2 examines the classical paradigms of contractual liability, especially to terminate the contract without achieving its object as well as the applicable indemnity rules in these cases, seeking to compare them with the jurisprudential understanding. Following, chapter 3 provides the theoretical premises of Law and Economics focused on the Law of Contracts necessary to understand, in the next chapter, the efficient breach theory, which is the central theme of this study. In chapter 4 a theoretical and practical approach of the theory under examination will be addressed with its historical origin, development and acceptance of the paradigm, identifying the requirements for its application, potential barriers and also the criticism it has faced to, then, outline what would be the ideal scenario for its application as well as a topic dedicated exclusively to its practical approach and methodology, pointing the elements that should be weighed before deciding to breach a contract. In chapter 5, it is shown the which requirements are accepted, the actual barriers and how they can be surpassed to permit its incidence in Brazil, both legal and non-legal. For closure, the last chapter presents the conclusions reached through the research, indicating the relevant points on the theory of efficient breach and responding to the main question of which answer was longed for, whether it is possible to apply the theory in Brazil, under what circumstances and to what extent.
43

Efficient breach theory – a análise do rompimento eficiente dos contratos empresariais à luz da legislação brasileira e da law and economics

Iolovitch, Marcos Brossard January 2016 (has links)
O presente trabalho examina a teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, oriunda do direito anglo-saxão, segundo a qual, sinteticamente, um contrato só será cumprido se os custos para adimplir a obrigação forem inferiores àqueles incorridos pelo descumprimento, admitindo-se, portanto, o inadimplemento voluntário dos contratos. O objetivo é, além de apresentar a teoria, verificar a possibilidade de aplicação da mesma no Brasil, com enfoque especial nos contratos empresariais. Para tanto, o trabalho é estruturado em introdução, quatro capítulos de desenvolvimento e encerra com a conclusão. Superada a introdução, que apresenta mais profundamente as razões que levaram à pesquisa sobre o tema, o capítulo 2 versa acerca dos paradigmas clássicos de responsabilidade contratual, com destaque às modalidades de extinção do contrato sem a consecução do seu objeto bem como às regras indenizatórias aplicáveis nestes casos, em que se busca cotejá-las com o entendimento jurisprudencial. A seguir, o capítulo 3 traz as premissas teóricas da Law and Economics focadas no Direito dos Contratos necessárias à compreensão, no capítulo seguinte, da teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, que representa o tema central do presente estudo. Neste capítulo 4 será feita uma abordagem teórica e prática da teoria sob exame, apontando sua origem histórica, desenvolvimento e aceitação do paradigma, identificando os requisitos para sua aplicação, potenciais barreiras e também as críticas doutrinárias para, em seguida, delinear o que seria o cenário ideal para sua aplicação, bem como um tópico dedicado exclusivamente à sua abordagem prática e metodologia, indicando os elementos que devem ser sopesados antes de se tomar a decisão de romper um contrato. No capítulo 5, verifica-se quais requisitos são aceitos, as efetivas barreiras e como elas podem ser superadas para autorizar a sua incidência no Brasil, tanto os de caráter jurídico como os extralegais. Para o fechamento, o último capítulo apresenta as conclusões alcançadas através da pesquisa, indicando pontos relevantes sobre a teoria da quebra eficiente e respondendo ao principal questionamento cuja resposta era almejada, se é possível aplicar a teoria no Brasil, sob quais circunstâncias e em qual extensão. / The current paper examines the efficient breach theory of contracts, from the Anglo-Saxon law origin, according to which, briefly, a contract will only be performed if the costs for performance of the obligation are lower than those incurred for non-performance, admitting, therefore, intentional breach of contract. The goal is, in addition to presenting the theory, check the possibility of applying it in Brazil, focusing mostly on business contracts. Therefore, the work is structured into introduction, four chapters of development and ends with the conclusion. Surpassed the introduction, which explains more deeply the reasons that led to research on the topic, chapter 2 examines the classical paradigms of contractual liability, especially to terminate the contract without achieving its object as well as the applicable indemnity rules in these cases, seeking to compare them with the jurisprudential understanding. Following, chapter 3 provides the theoretical premises of Law and Economics focused on the Law of Contracts necessary to understand, in the next chapter, the efficient breach theory, which is the central theme of this study. In chapter 4 a theoretical and practical approach of the theory under examination will be addressed with its historical origin, development and acceptance of the paradigm, identifying the requirements for its application, potential barriers and also the criticism it has faced to, then, outline what would be the ideal scenario for its application as well as a topic dedicated exclusively to its practical approach and methodology, pointing the elements that should be weighed before deciding to breach a contract. In chapter 5, it is shown the which requirements are accepted, the actual barriers and how they can be surpassed to permit its incidence in Brazil, both legal and non-legal. For closure, the last chapter presents the conclusions reached through the research, indicating the relevant points on the theory of efficient breach and responding to the main question of which answer was longed for, whether it is possible to apply the theory in Brazil, under what circumstances and to what extent.
44

Efficient breach theory – a análise do rompimento eficiente dos contratos empresariais à luz da legislação brasileira e da law and economics

Iolovitch, Marcos Brossard January 2016 (has links)
O presente trabalho examina a teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, oriunda do direito anglo-saxão, segundo a qual, sinteticamente, um contrato só será cumprido se os custos para adimplir a obrigação forem inferiores àqueles incorridos pelo descumprimento, admitindo-se, portanto, o inadimplemento voluntário dos contratos. O objetivo é, além de apresentar a teoria, verificar a possibilidade de aplicação da mesma no Brasil, com enfoque especial nos contratos empresariais. Para tanto, o trabalho é estruturado em introdução, quatro capítulos de desenvolvimento e encerra com a conclusão. Superada a introdução, que apresenta mais profundamente as razões que levaram à pesquisa sobre o tema, o capítulo 2 versa acerca dos paradigmas clássicos de responsabilidade contratual, com destaque às modalidades de extinção do contrato sem a consecução do seu objeto bem como às regras indenizatórias aplicáveis nestes casos, em que se busca cotejá-las com o entendimento jurisprudencial. A seguir, o capítulo 3 traz as premissas teóricas da Law and Economics focadas no Direito dos Contratos necessárias à compreensão, no capítulo seguinte, da teoria da quebra eficiente do contrato, que representa o tema central do presente estudo. Neste capítulo 4 será feita uma abordagem teórica e prática da teoria sob exame, apontando sua origem histórica, desenvolvimento e aceitação do paradigma, identificando os requisitos para sua aplicação, potenciais barreiras e também as críticas doutrinárias para, em seguida, delinear o que seria o cenário ideal para sua aplicação, bem como um tópico dedicado exclusivamente à sua abordagem prática e metodologia, indicando os elementos que devem ser sopesados antes de se tomar a decisão de romper um contrato. No capítulo 5, verifica-se quais requisitos são aceitos, as efetivas barreiras e como elas podem ser superadas para autorizar a sua incidência no Brasil, tanto os de caráter jurídico como os extralegais. Para o fechamento, o último capítulo apresenta as conclusões alcançadas através da pesquisa, indicando pontos relevantes sobre a teoria da quebra eficiente e respondendo ao principal questionamento cuja resposta era almejada, se é possível aplicar a teoria no Brasil, sob quais circunstâncias e em qual extensão. / The current paper examines the efficient breach theory of contracts, from the Anglo-Saxon law origin, according to which, briefly, a contract will only be performed if the costs for performance of the obligation are lower than those incurred for non-performance, admitting, therefore, intentional breach of contract. The goal is, in addition to presenting the theory, check the possibility of applying it in Brazil, focusing mostly on business contracts. Therefore, the work is structured into introduction, four chapters of development and ends with the conclusion. Surpassed the introduction, which explains more deeply the reasons that led to research on the topic, chapter 2 examines the classical paradigms of contractual liability, especially to terminate the contract without achieving its object as well as the applicable indemnity rules in these cases, seeking to compare them with the jurisprudential understanding. Following, chapter 3 provides the theoretical premises of Law and Economics focused on the Law of Contracts necessary to understand, in the next chapter, the efficient breach theory, which is the central theme of this study. In chapter 4 a theoretical and practical approach of the theory under examination will be addressed with its historical origin, development and acceptance of the paradigm, identifying the requirements for its application, potential barriers and also the criticism it has faced to, then, outline what would be the ideal scenario for its application as well as a topic dedicated exclusively to its practical approach and methodology, pointing the elements that should be weighed before deciding to breach a contract. In chapter 5, it is shown the which requirements are accepted, the actual barriers and how they can be surpassed to permit its incidence in Brazil, both legal and non-legal. For closure, the last chapter presents the conclusions reached through the research, indicating the relevant points on the theory of efficient breach and responding to the main question of which answer was longed for, whether it is possible to apply the theory in Brazil, under what circumstances and to what extent.
45

Perceived breach and violation of the psychological contract in a collectivistic culture

Van der Merwe, Sophie Wilhelmine January 2015 (has links)
The significance of relationships on economic actions and employee behaviour makes it critical for employers to understand the dynamics of employment through mutual obligations (Rousseau, 1990; Guest, 2004b). The psychological contract affords a broad platform to study the employment relationship (Thomas et al., 2010), and is an important tool for organisational success (McDermott et al., 2013). The literature review contained in this study indicates the differences in contracting environments due to the prevailing cultural orientation. However, there is a dearth of research in collectivistic culture, to which this study will add. The literature also makes a distinction between perceptions of breach and violation. While perceptions of breach of the psychological contract is the perception that the employer has not met all obligations and promises, violation is the emotional and affective state following breach (Morrison & Robinson, 1997) and results in negative or deviant behaviours (Chiu & Peng, 2008). Both breach and violation perceptions negatively affect employee behaviours and attitudes in the workplace (Aggarwal & Bhargava, 2014). This research assumed a constructivist paradigm and builds understanding of the outcomes of breach and violation of the psychological contract on employees’ working life in a collectivistic environment. Primary data collection was by in-depth semi-structured, one on one interviews with five employees of a state-subsidised organisation in East London, making use of convenience sampling. Follow up interviews were conducted, resulting in 7ₑ/₄ hours of interviewing time. Cultural orientation was ascertained through the use of a questionnaire. The findings of this study confirmed that the type of psychological contract entered into influences the outcomes of perceptions of breach and violation. Both dimensions of collectivism, namely institutional and in-group, were practised in this environment, which also impacted on both the individual’s experience and outcomes for the organisation. The latter was influenced by commitment to organisational goals and supervisory or collegial relationships. Most notable of the results is the effect of expectations of transitional justice on experience of the psychological contract. Practical implications and recommendations for future research are made. This research is presented in three sections; firstly the research is presented in the format of an academic paper and includes a concise summary of literature and research method. The second section is an expanded literature review of the psychological contract and its influencing factors, as well as the outcomes of breach and violation. The last section describes and justifies in detail the design of the research and the research procedure followed. / Alternate name: Van der Merwe, Somine
46

La clause de sortie des relations contractuelles : proposition de définition unitaire / The exit clause of contractual relations : proposal of unitary definition

Barthe, Benjamin 24 January 2013 (has links)
La théorie générale des obligations contractuelles ne traite de la rupture du contrat qu’au travers de la résolution. Elle n’évoque pas non plus la notion de durée du contrat. L’attention des juristes français est ainsi essentiellement portée sur la résolution pour inexécution et sur la résiliation unilatérale fautive du contrat à durée indéterminée. Une autre présentation, plus neutre, est possible : il s’agit d’étudier la sortie du contrat et, plus particulièrement, la possibilité offerte aux parties de prévoir la sortie anticipée de leurs relations contractuelles.Il est alors possible de se rendre compte que la pratique, face aux lacunes de la théorie générale, a su adapter l’existant afin de prendre en compte l’évolution du contrat depuis le début du XIXème siècle. De nombreuses clauses, qui permettent à un contractant de sortir de manière anticipée du contrat, se sont ainsi développées sous des appellations diverses et sont aujourd’hui présentes dans tous les contrats. L’analyse de la jurisprudence fait apparaître que le contentieux qui en résulte, non seulement porte sur des problèmes communs, mais tend à apporter des solutions communes ; à tout le moins perçoit-on la nécessité d’un traitement unitaire. L’étude, repoussant la distinction classique entre la résolution et la résiliation, recherche l’existence d’une unité, cherche à vérifier l’existence de la clause de sortie qui instituerait une faculté de sortir de manière anticipée d’une relation conclue pour une durée déterminée. Pour cela, la clause de sortie est appréhendée comme toute autre clause « autonome ».Dans un premier temps, il faut démontrer l’existence d’un objectif commun de validité. Il est question tout d’abord de faire ressortir la fonction commune des clauses, qui est de prémunir le titulaire de la faculté de sortie contre une atteinte à son intérêt. L’unité se poursuit dans la nature de la clause : issue d’un accord des parties, elle met en place un droit potestatif. Elle prend alors les traits d’une condition résolutoire « moderne », adaptation contemporaine de la modalité de l’obligation prévue par le Code civil.Dans un second temps, une fois qu’elles sont valablement prévues, les clauses de sortie doivent encore répondre à un objectif commun d’efficacité : la sortie s’exerce par acte unilatéral et obéit alors aux règles applicables à ce dernier. Au-delà de ce régime, on peut se rendre compte qu’il existe des modalités communes à toutes les clauses de sortie. Les effets des clauses de sortie, enfin, présentent ou doivent présenter une certaine unité, que la sortie mise en œuvre soit réussie ou qu’elle soit « manquée ». / The general theory of the contractual obligations treats breach of contract only through the “résolution”. It does not mention either the concept of duration of the contract. The attention of the French jurists is mainly focused on the cancellation for non-fulfilment and the offending termination of the agreement without any term. Another presentation, more neutral, is however possible, studying the exit of the contract and, more particularly, the opportunity given to the contracting parties to envisage the exit of their contractual relations.Then it is possible to realize that the practice, against the gaps of the general theory, knew to adapt existing concepts in order to take into consideration the evolution of the contract since the beginning of the 19th century. Thus many clauses, which make it possible to one of the contracting parties to leave the contract, developed under various names and are today present in all the contracts. The analysis of jurisprudence reveals that the litigations which result from it, not only relate to common problems, but also tend to bring common solutions ; at the very least, one perceives the need for a unit treatment. The study, pushing back the classical distinction between the “résolution” and the “résiliation”, seeks the existence of a unit, seeks to check the existence of the exit clause which would institute a faculty to leave in a way anticipated of a relation concluded for one limited duration. For that purpose, the exit clause is approached like any other “autonomous” clause.Initially, it is necessary to show the existence of a common objective of validity. It is question first of all of emphasizing the common function of the clauses, which is to secure the holder of the faculty of exit against a loss of interest. The unit continues in the nature of the clause: resulting from an agreement of the parties, it sets up a “potestative” right. It then takes the features of a “modern” “resolutive condition”, contemporary adaptation of the condition of the obligation envisaged by the Civil code.In the second time, once they are validly provided, the clauses of exit must meet a common aim of effectiveness : the exit is exerted by unilateral act and then obeys the rules applicable in this case. Beyond this mode, one can realize that there exist common conditions to all the clauses of exit. The effects of these clauses, finally, present or must present a certain unit, whether the exit put in work is successful or that it failed.
47

Contrato de aliança: inadimplemento / Project alliancing: breach of contract

Diniz, Ana Paula Savoia Bergamasco 18 May 2015 (has links)
A terminologia contrato aliança encerra os contratos que, por meio de um detalhado esquema de alianças estratégicas, realizam um complexo de atividades econômicas, com regramentos próprios de gestão e divisão de lucros. Por sua singularidade, especialidade ou mesmo complexidade, não é regulado completamente pelas normas vigentes. As atividades empresariais de grande porte, numa sociedade plúrima como o século XXI, tendem a se regular cada vez mais por esta forma contratual, formando alianças estratégicas para desenvolver suas atividades em que os parâmetros pré-definidos pelo legislador não são suficientes para abarcar toda a evolução negocial e a estrutura jurídica é informada pelas demais áreas do conhecimento, como engenharia, economia e administração. Por estes motivos, o inadimplemento do contrato de aliança deve ser analisado com cuidado, uma vez que o resultado final de sua base negocial não pode ser entendido como a unidade de cumprimento de apenas algumas das obrigações envolvidas, mas como um todo sistematizado. / The terminology Project Alliancing comprehends the agreements that, through a detailed scheme of strategic alliances, carry out several economic activities, with regulations of management and profit sharing. Due to its uniqueness, expertise or even complexity, it is not entirely regulated by the current regulations. The major business activities, in a versatile society as the XXI century, tend to be increasingly regulated by this contractual form, creating strategical alliances to develop its activities in which the parameters previously defined by the legislator are not sufficient to cover the whole negotiation progress, and the legal structure is informed by the other knowledge areas, such as engineering, economics and administration. On these grounds, the default of the alliance contract must be carefully analyzed, since the final result of its negotiating basis cannot be understood as the compliance unit for just a few obligations, but as a systematized whole.
48

O \"dever de mitigar danos\" na responsabilidade contratual: a perspectiva do direito brasileiro / The duty to mitigate the loss in contract damages: the perspective of the Brazilian law

Carvalho, Beatriz Veiga 09 April 2014 (has links)
O objetivo deste trabalho foi o estudo da teoria da avoidability ou duty to mitigate the loss à luz do Direito Brasileiro. Sua escolha decorreu do fato de o ordenamento pátrio, diferente de outros tantos, não prever a existência expressa de um dever ou mais propriamente de um ônus de o contratante inadimplido adotar as medidas razoáveis ao seu alcance para reduzir as perdas e danos causados pelo inadimplemento do outro contratante. Do estudo do direito estrangeiro, procurou-se compreender as principais características do instituto, bem como as críticas feitas a ele, para que sua estrutura e suas possíveis objeções pudessem também ser examinadas sob a perspectiva do direito nacional. Demonstrado que o problema da redução dos prejuízos pelo próprio credor da indenização não poderia ser satisfatoriamente resolvido ao menos não integralmente sob a perspectiva da causalidade concorrente, e que não haveria nenhum óbice intransponível à adoção da regra, passou-se a avaliar se ela já seria uma leitura possível do princípio da boa-fé objetiva. A conclusão alcançada com base na doutrina, e posteriormente confirmada com o posicionamento jurisprudencial, mostrou-se positiva. Demonstrou-se, portanto, que a mitigação de danos pelo credor é um ônus decorrente da cláusula geral que impõe aos contratantes o dever de agir com probidade e boa-fé, dever esse que não é afetado sequer pelo inadimplemento da prestação principal pela contraparte, sob pena de o exercício do direito de indenização tornar-se abusivo. A ausência de uma regra expressa que imponha ao contratante inadimplido o ônus de mitigar seu próprio prejuízo não impede, pois, o reconhecimento da regra no Direito Brasileiro, de modo que sua positivação expressa, embora disponível, traria como única vantagem a maior clareza sobre as regras de responsabilidade contratual, com a facilitação apenas relativa do processo decisório nesses casos. / The purpose of this work was to study the theory of avoidability or the duty to mitigate the loss in light of the Brazilian law. Its choice arose from the fact that the domestic legal system, different from many others, does not set forth the express existence of a duty or more properly of a burden of the breached against party to adopt the reasonable measures available to him/her in order to reduce the losses and damages caused by the breach by the other contracting party. The study of the foreign law was sought to allow the understanding of the main characteristics of the rule, as well as the criticisms raised against it, so that its structure and its main objections could similarly be assessed under the perspective of the national law. Once demonstrated that the problem of the reduction of losses by the creditor himself/herself could not be satisfactorily resolved at least not totally based on the joint causation and that there was no unbridgeable obstacle to the adoption of the rule, it was then evaluated whether it was already a possible construction of the principle of good faith. The conclusion reached based on the literature and afterwards confirmed by the case law was positive. It was evidenced, therefore, that the mitigation of damages by the creditor is a burden arising from the general clause that poses on the contracting parties the duty to act with correctness and good faith, duty which not affected even by the breach of the main obligation by the counterpart, under the consequence of the right to damages being exercised abusively. The lack of a express rule that poses a burden on the breached against party to mitigate his/her own losses does not prevent, thus, the recognition of such a rule in the Brazilian legal system, meaning that its formal adoption, although unessential, would only bring the advantage of more clarity on the rules of damages arising from the breach of contract, with a mere relative facilitation of the decision process on these cases.
49

Interesse positivo e Interesse negativo: a reparação de danos no direito privado brasileiro / Expectation interest and reliance interest: damages compensation in the Brazilian Private Law

Steiner, Renata Carlos 11 April 2016 (has links)
Ainda que inexistente um mandamento legal expresso no Direito brasileiro, é intuitivo pensar a responsabilidade civil a partir da recondução da parte levada a um estado hipotético na qual estaria não fosse o evento que obriga à reparação. Esse pensamento, reiterado na afirmação de que a indenização deve reconstituir (mesmo que de maneira aproximativa) o status quo ante, corresponde à função compensatória da responsabilidade civil. Ocorre, porém, que no que toca ao dano patrimonial ocorrido no iter negocial (ou seja, na responsabilidade pré-negocial ou na negocial) haveria de se anotar que a situação hipotética sem o dano nem sempre é anterior ao evento lesivo, podendo ser posterior a ele. É o que se passa, com evidência, na indenização pelo equivalente ao descumprimento contratual, em que se confere ao credor lesado algo que ele não possuía antes, em lugar do cumprimento da obrigação. É essa dualidade de direcionamentos, vinculada a uma fórmula comparativa de obtenção do dano indenizável, que compõe o significado das expressões interesse (contratual) positivo e interesse (contratual) negativo. No primeiro caso, reconduz-se o lesado a uma situação positiva em relação ao contrato, que se poderia chamar de ad quem. Ela corresponde à situação em que o lesado estaria se o contrato houvesse sido adequadamente cumprido. No segundo caso, reconduz-se a parte a uma situação negativa em relação ao contrato, que se poderia chamar de a quo. Corresponde, por sua vez, à situação em que estaria não houvesse iniciado as negociações voltadas ao contrato. A dualidade representada por esse par de conceitos, proposto originalmente por Rudolf von Jhering em meados do século XIX, é ainda pouco explorada no Direito brasileiro, embora não se possa qualificá-la como desconhecida. Os conceitos mostram-se não apenas plenamente compatíveis com a regras de responsabilidade civil nacionais, como extremamente úteis à solução de problemas centrais localizados no diálogo entre esse ramo do Direito Civil e o Direito dos Contratos. É nesse locus que a tese se desenvolve, para sustentar a aplicabilidade dessa distinção ao Direito Privado brasileiro como, essencialmente, uma nova forma de pensar o dano in contrahendo e o dano contratual. A lógica da aplicação dos conceitos permite revisitar a forma pela qual usualmente se enxerga a relação jurídica de reparação e, não apenas, também reaviva a compreensão de aspectos essenciais da transformação do Direito das Obrigações, os quais compõem, em grande medida, o substrato da aplicação da distinção. Para tanto, buscou-se inicialmente fomentar a apresentação teórica do interesse positivo e do interesse negativo estudando seu significado, seus desenvolvimentos teóricos e sua adequação ao Direito brasileiro ao que se segue a proposição de sua aplicação. Dada as limitações do texto, essa depuração é realizada estritamente no âmbito da responsabilidade pela não formação do contrato (responsabilidade pré-negocial) e da responsabilidade negocial propriamente dita, compondo a segunda parte do trabalho. / Despite the absence of any express rule to this effect in Brazilian Law, it is nevertheless intuitive to think of civil liability as a commandment to restore the parties to the position each would have enjoyed if the event giving rise to liability had never occurred. This understanding of civil liability is frequently expressed as the idea that damages should bring the aggrieved party to the status quo ante, by way of compensating him for the damages suffered. In regards to material damages suffered during the contractual iter (i.e. in precontractual liability or in liability for breach of contract), one should notice that the hypothetical situation on which the party would be without the occurrence of damages is not always a situation that existed previous to its occurrence. That is exactly what occurs in damages in lieu of performance, by which the aggrieved party receives compensation for something he in fact never had before. This duality of directions can be understood by the expressions expectation interest and reliance interest. According to the former, the plaintiff must be placed in a positive situation vis-à-vis the contract, a status that can be called ad quem. In other words, the plaintiff will get his benefit of the bargain, and will obtain what he would have received if the contract had been correctly performed. According to the latter, the aggrieved party must be placed in a negative situation vis-à-vis the contract, which can be called an status a quo. This seeks to recreate the situation in which the plaintiff would have been if the contract had never even been formed or its negotiations had never been initiated. This way of thinking about damages or this pair of concepts was originally proposed by Rudolf von Jhering in the mid-nineteenth century. While its application is still little explored in Brazilian Law, it is not completely unknown to the Brazilian jurisprudence. Both of these theories as to the proper function of civil liability are compatible with Brazilian liability rules, and may indeed represent extremely useful solutions to some fundamental problems in modern discourse on civil liability rules and the law of contracts. It is precisely at here that this thesis is developed, advocating for the full applicability of the foregoing concepts in the Brazilian Private Law, thereby leading to a new way of thinking about damages, both in contrahendo and in contractu. The inherent logic of both concepts allows not only to revisit the usual framework by which the law of damages is considered and applied, but also underlines some major transformations in the Law of Obligations. In order to prove its suitability, this thesis initially presents the theoretical foundations of expectation interest and reliance interest, and reviews the meaning and development of these concepts in the context of examining their compatibility with Brazilian law. This is followed by an argument proposing the application of these theories in situations involving both precontractual liability and breach of contract.
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La rupture unilatérale du contrat pour inexécution en droit colombien / The unilateral breach of the contract for non-performance in the colombian law

Morales Huertas, Sandra Margarita 14 December 2018 (has links)
En droit colombien, face à une inexécution contractuelle, règne la règle, issue du droit français, de la résolution judiciaire. Ses conditions d’exercice ont été précisées par la doctrine et la jurisprudence, non sans de nombreuses ambiguïtés qui résultent de la difficulté de comprendre et de mettre en pratique ce procédé. Face à cette vision traditionnelle, l’unilatéralisme a fait irruption dans le monde contractuel contemporain et, plus concrètement, la possibilité de mettre fin à un contrat de manière unilatérale en cas d’inexécution. Cette tendance, qui trouve ses origines dans le droit anglo-saxon avant d’avoir pénétré le droit des pays de tradition romano-germanique, prétend revitaliser cette phase critique du contrat en évitant le recours au juge, au moins dans un premier moment, permettant que le créancier remédie à l’inexécution en mettant rapidement fin au contrat afin de rechercher sur le marché des solutions efficaces. Cette règle pourrait-elle être retenue en droit colombien ? En dépit de l’apparent monopole qu’y détient la résolution judiciaire, tant le Code civil que le Code de commerce colombiens, prévoient des hypothèses qui reconnaissent cette possibilité. Par ailleurs, plus récemment, a été acceptée la possibilité de convenir de clauses résolutoires. Ainsi, nous considérons qu’il est possible d’accepter la généralisation d’une règle de rupture unilatérale pour inexécution. À cet égard, l’étude du droit comparé s’agissant de l’inexécution ouvrant la voie à une rupture du contrat, d’une part, et de la manière dont elle s’exerce une rupture en cas d’inexécution, d’autre part, est d’un grand intérêt. Une telle analyse nourrit une proposition qui non seulement fournit des éléments en vue de l’admission de la rupture unilatérale du contrat pour inexécution en droit colombien, mais aussi cherche à éclairer la lecture qui a, jusqu’à présent, prévalu en matière d’inexécution résolutoire. / Under the Colombian law, the general rule in case of breach of contract is that of termination as a consequence of a court order. Its conditions of exercise have been the object of development by the doctrine and case law, not without several issues that make difficult to understand and put into practice such category. In contrast with this traditional vision, unilateralism breaks in the contemporary contractual world and more specifically, the possibility of termination of contract in such a unilateral way in case of a breach. This trend has its roots in Common law and has been permeating the countries of Roman-Germanic law tradition; and it aims to grant vitality to that critical contractual phase, thus avoiding the intervention of the judge, at least as a first measure, allowing the creditor to remedy the consequences of the breach of contract by an early termination in order to seek effective solutions in the marketplace. Could this rule have a place in Colombian law? Despite the seemingly apparent monopoly of judicial termination of contract, both the civil code and the code of commerce acknowledge this as a possibility. Similarly, more recently the possibility of including termination clauses has been accepted. However, we hold that it is possible to accept a generalization of the rule of unilateral termination of contract in case of breach. A study of comparative law regarding the breach that results in contract termination and the analysis on the way this prerogative should be exercised are of great importance; it does not only enriches a proposal providing the parameters for the unilateral termination of a contract when a breach arises in Colombian Law, but also clarifies the understanding that until now exists in the matter of termination for non-performance.

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